Publications by authors named "Mohd Amierul Fikri Mahmud"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among older adults in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:49-56

Center for Epidemiology and Evidence Based Practice, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Aim: Physical inactivity in older adults is linked to increased risk of chronic diseases, disability and various poor health outcomes. As the aging population rises, the prevalence of diseases associated with aging also increases. Regular physical activity in older adults is important to improve overall health and promote healthy aging. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among older adults in Malaysia.

Methods: This study was based on 3969 Malaysian older adults aged ≥60 years who completed the physical activity module in the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2018, a population-based cross-sectional survey. Physical activity was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire through a face-to-face interview. Participants were classified as physically active or inactive. Associations between physical inactivity, sociodemographic characteristics and a range of selected independent variables were examined using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Overall, three out of 10 (29.8%) Malaysian older adults were physically inactive. Results of multivariable analysis showed that older age group (≥80 years), of Bumiputera Sarawak ethnicity, unemployed/retirees/homemakers, functional limitation, diabetes mellitus and dementia were significantly associated with a higher risk of physical inactivity. Women, with secondary education level and good social support were less likely to be physically inactive.

Conclusions: The present study reported the status of physical inactivity among older adults in Malaysia. There is the need to design effective public health programs and interventions to promote active living and healthy aging among Malaysian older adults, particularly in those at-risk older population subgroups. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 49-56.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13977DOI Listing
December 2020

The burden of typhoid fever in Klang Valley, Malaysia, 2011-2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Nov 16;20(1):843. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Center of Communicable Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Typhoid fever causes global morbidity and mortality and is a significant health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The direct fecal-oral route is the main transmission mode, but indirect environmental transmission could occur, particularly in urban settings. This study aimed to investigate the burden and trend of typhoid fever, reporting the coverage system between government and private practice and pattern of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid cases in the urban Klang Valley area from 2011 to 2015.

Methods: The data from a cross-sectional study retrieved from the e-Notifikasi System, a national reporting system for communicable diseases provided by the Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia and secondary data of all the typhoid cases were obtained from the public and private hospitals and laboratories in Klang Valley. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the sociodemographic characteristics, spatial mapping was conducted to examine trends, and the crude incidence rates of confirmed typhoid cases and percentage of reporting coverage were calculated. Significant differences between MDR and non-MDR Salmonella typhi were determined in the patient's sociodemographic characteristics, which were analyzed using χ test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: In total, 507 typhoid fever cases were reported in Klang Valley; however, only 265 cases were confirmed by culture tests. The crude incidence rates of confirmed cases were between 0.5 to 0.7 but peaked at 1.42 per 100,000 population in 2015. Most typhoid fever cases were observed among men (55.6%), individuals aged 21 to 30 years (27.6%), Malaysians (86.3%) and individuals of Malay ethnicity (52.1%). The reporting coverage of confirmed cases was 78.9% and non-reporting coverage of unconfirmed typhoid cases was 79.5%. The predictive value positive (PVP) was 89.3, and 7.5% were detected as MDR Salmonella typhi. Statistical significance was found in gender, citizenship and ethnicity regarding MDR Salmonella typhi (p = 0.004, p = 0.008 and p = 0.034, respectively).

Conclusions: The local transmission of typhoid is still prevalent in the Klang Valley despite rapid urbanization and development in recent years. These findings are essential for policy makers to plan and implement focused and effective preventative activities to curb typhoid infection in urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05500-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667819PMC
November 2020

Environmental management for dengue control: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2019 05 15;9(5):e026101. Epub 2019 May 15.

Institute for Public Health, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia.

Introduction: Dengue is among the most important mosquito-borne diseases, with more than half of the world's population at risk of infection in dengue endemic countries. Environmental management, which includes any activities that involve environmental modification, environmental manipulation and changes to human behaviour have been used to mitigate the risk of dengue transmission. In this protocol, we will integrate the data from various sources to assess the overall effect of environmental management on the incidence of dengue and other entomological indices.

Methods And Analyses: We will conduct a systematic review of intervention that assess the effect of environmental management on the incidence of dengue and/or entomological indices. We will include any studies that include intervention through environmental management for dengue control, involving environmental modification, environmental manipulation and changes to human behaviour. A comprehensive search will be performed in electronic databases PUBMED, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Web of Science and relevant research websites such as PROPSERO, WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify studies that meet our inclusion criteria. A systematic approach to searching, screening, reviewing and data extraction will be applied based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis. Titles, abstract, keywords for eligibility will be examined independently by researchers. The quality of the included studies will be assessed using quality assessment tool for studies with diverse design and Cochrane risk of bias tool. The characteristics of the selected articles will be described based on the study design, types of intervention and outcomes of the study in various countries. These include the types of environmental management intervention methods and the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing dengue cases or incidence and impact on entomological indices.

Ethics And Dissemination: We will register this systematic review with the National Medical Research Register, Ministry of Health Malaysia. This protocol also had been registered with the PROSPERO. No ethical approval is necessary, as there will be no collection of primary data. The results will be disseminated though a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.

Trial Registration Number: CRD42018092189.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6530300PMC
May 2019

Environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in urban settings: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2019 01 21;9(1):e023359. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Center for Communicable Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Introduction: Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease can cause sporadic epidemics and recent epidemics have become more apparent in urban localities. There is lack of documented evidence on the specific risk factors of leptospirosis infection among the urbanites, thereby impeding initiatives for prevention in urban settings. We aim to systematically search published articles and synthesise evidence on the risk factors associated with leptospirosis infection among the susceptible populations in urban localities, particularly to identify the risk factors of non-recreational leptospirosis infection.

Methods And Analysis: We will conduct a systematic review of observational studies that investigated environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in urban localities. The search will be performed for any eligible articles from selected electronic databases from 1970 until May 2018. The study will include any studies that investigated risk factors of confirmed leptospirosis cases who acquired the infection in urban locality, particularly exposures from the non-recreational and non-water-related activities. Study selection and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. All data will be extracted using a standardised data extraction form and quality of the studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale guideline. Descriptive and meta-analysis will be performed by calculating the standardised median ORs and risk ratios for types of the non-recreational risk factors stratified by social, living conditions and environmental exposures, types of reservoirs and transmissions and types of activities and employments associated with leptospirosis infection in urban locality.

Ethics And Dissemination: No primary data will be collected thus no formal ethical approval is required. The results will be disseminated though a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42018090820.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347878PMC
January 2019