Publications by authors named "Mohan Mohind"

7 Publications

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Heavy metal impression in surface sediments and factors governing the fate of macrobenthic communties in tropical estuarine ecosystem, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 26;29(25):38567-38590. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Biogeochemistry Group, National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram, India.

The present study aims to investigate the contamination of heavy metals in the sediments of a tropical ecosystem, India, and to evaluate the factors responsible for the dominance of specific macrobenthic communities, particularly in estuarine sediments. For the analysis of Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in sediments, acid digestion and subsequent quantification by microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was performed, whereas for Hg determination, cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used. The general trend of the heavy metal concentration was observed as Cr > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > Hg, regardless of any seasonal alteration. The estuarine region was considerably contaminated by Cu and Cr (C.F. > 2) irrespective of any seasonal difference, and by Cd in 2017 non-monsoon (CF > 3). Heavy metal contamination was most pronounced during the monsoon (2018). Estuarine and marine zone together considered as deteriorated zone especially during monsoon seasons (PLI > 1, 2018 monsoon) while riverine zone remained poorly contaminated (PLI < 1). Clay Loam/Clay/Heavy Clay textures preferred polychaetes and bivalves in the estuarine and marine zone as compared to other macrobenthic communities (OMC). Among the hydrochemical parameters, total dissolved solids in general and euryhaline and slightly alkaline pH preferred domination of bivalves followed by polychaetes in non-monsoon seasons. The trace metal contamination in estuarine sediments increases the concern of bioaccumulation tendency of dominant bivalves of the estuarine and coastal sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-18394-2DOI Listing
May 2022

Protective effect of (+)-catechin against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells through downregulation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Aug 11;29(4):1139-1155. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam, Kerala, 686560, India.

Catechin, a flavonol belonging to the flavonoid group of polyphenols is present in many plant foods. The present study was done to evaluate the effect of catechin on various inflammatory mediators using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The effect of catechin on total cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), myeloperoxidase, nitrite and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level, secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The expression of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes were also investigated. The effect was further analyzed using human PBMCs by assessing the level of TNF-α and IL-10. The study demonstrated that the inflammatory mediators such as COX, 5-LOX, nitrite, iNOS, and TNF-α were significantly inhibited by catechin in a concentration-dependent manner whereas IL-10 production was up-regulated in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, catechin down-regulated the mRNA level expression of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, NF-κB and p38 MAPK. The current study ratifies the beneficial effect of catechin as a dietary component in plant foods to provide protection against inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00827-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Attenuation of obesity related inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and 3T3-L1 adipocytes by varanadi kashayam and identification of potential bioactive molecules by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 4:1-15. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Inflammation Research Lab, School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India.

Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, characterised by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue. In this study, 3T3-L1 CM enhanced TNF-α and IL-1β in RAW 264.7 cells compared with LPS treated cells. However, treatment with Varanadi kashayam suppressed the inflammatory changes associated with RAW 264.7 cells. Subsequently, RAW CM used to stimulate adipocytes, resulting in decreased intracellular lipid content and reduced adipogenic markers after Varanadi kashayam treatment. The chemical profiling of Varanadi kashayam using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS identified 194 compounds by comparing their retention time, the experimentally measured exact mass of precursor, and fragmented ions, and fragmentation pattern with spectral library and reported literature. Collectively, Varanadi kashayam act as a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic agent that could disrupt the crosstalk between adipocytes and macrophages. Hence it could be a better candidate for reducing inflammation associated with obese adipose tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1877309DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of (decoction) in THP-1-derived macrophages.

Ayu 2018 Oct-Dec;39(4):243-249

Department of School of Biosciences, Inflammation Research Lab, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

Background: is an Ayurvedic polyherbal decoction containing 16 ingredients, for which the mechanisms of action involved in controlling chronic inflammatory conditions have not been evaluated. The inhibition of release of proinflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes/macrophages is an ideal model for identifying anti-inflammatory molecules.

Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of in THP-1-derived macrophages.

Materials And Methods: The efficacy of on monocyte cell differentiation was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression of differentiation markers MMP-9, CD36, CD11b and CD14. Further treated THP-1 macrophages were induced with LPS and the production of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were measured and corresponding genes expressions were quantified.

Results: The results indicate that reduced the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes to macrophages and downregulated the expression of cell surface markers. Furthermore, it could decrease the release of proinflammatory cytokines from LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages and downregulated the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β genes.

Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest a possible mechanism of action of the herbal decoction in inflammatory processes and opens up the possibilities of identifying bioactive lead molecules with anti-inflammatory potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ayu.AYU_53_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6639814PMC
August 2019

Modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes by polyherbal formulation Guggulutiktaka ghritam.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):13-19. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India. Electronic address:

Background: Guggulutiktaka ghritam is an ayurvedic medicine which has been traditionally used to treat various chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanism of action of the Ayurvedic medication in control of inflammatory conditions has not been clearly evaluated.

Objective: In the current study, the effect of the Guggulutiktaka ghritam extract (GTG) on the lipoxygenase pathway and in the production of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation was studied.

Materials And Methods: The effect of GTG in the production of leukotriene was determined by enzyme inhibition studies on 12- lipoxygenase. The assay was carried out by ferrous oxidation of xylenol orange (FOX assay) and was compared to a positive control nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The effect of GTG on the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in monocytes were studied. For this, the monocytes were pretreated with various concentrations of GTG and subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β produced were quantified by ELISA and the results were compared to positive controls Rolipram and Dexamethasone respectively. The gene expression studies were carried out using qRT-PCR. The IC values were calculated and evaluated statistically.

Results: The result indicates that GTG in comparison to the positive control Nordihydroguaiaretic acid significantly reduced the activity of 12- lipoxygenase. Also, there was significant inhibition in the production of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS stimulated monocytes pretreated with GTG as compared to positive control Rolipram and Dexamethasone. There was significant downregulation of IL-1β gene in LPS stimulated monocytes pretreated with GTG as compared to control. These changes are further supported by Raman spectra obtained for GTG treated and untreated cells.

Conclusion: The study revealed that GTG is a leukotriene and cytokine inhibitor. The inhibition in the production of cytokines may be due to the down-regulation of genes for TNF-α and IL-1β. The study provides a scientific validation on the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of this traditionally used medicine. Identification of bioactive molecules would aid in developing newer therapeutics for control of chronic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2018.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039337PMC
January 2019

Inhibition of proinflammatory pathways by bioactive fraction of Tinospora cordifolia.

Inflammopharmacology 2018 Apr 15;26(2):531-538. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

School of Bioscience, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarsini Hills, Kottayam, Kerala, 686560, India.

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomson, a known immunomodulatory agent extensively used in ayurveda, has not been effectively validated for the mechanisms involved in immunomodulation and the identification of the active principles. The bioactive fraction of T. cordifolia (TBF) in methanol was used for nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) dual inhibition and cytotoxicity studies. Production of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in dendritic cell (DC) suspensions treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was also studied. The bioactive principles involved were identified with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-Q-ToF MS/MS) system. The results indicate significantly higher potency of TBF as compared to positive standards for LOX/COX inhibition with moderate NO radical scavenging activity and the fraction was also found to be non-cytotoxic to monocyte cells. A significant inhibition was also observed in TNF-α and IL-1β production in LPS-treated DC suspensions as compared to standards, rolipram and dexamethasone, respectively. 11 compounds were identified from TBF by MS/MS system. The potent inhibition of LOX and COX enzymes with moderate NO scavenging was indicative of a free radical scavenging-independent mechanism of immunomodulation. Further investigations into the active principles identified would result in the development of lead candidates with potent therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-017-0319-2DOI Listing
April 2018

Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-1β Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Monocytes by Methanolic Extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn and Identification of Bioactive Components.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2016 Jun 13;179(3):427-43. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Inflammation Research Lab, School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam, Kerala, India, 686560.

The methanolic extract of E. scaber Linn was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by determining its effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated monocytes. The cytotoxicity of the extract was analyzed prior to the cytokine quantification assays. The extract was further subjected to UPLC MS Q-TOF, for the identification of bioactive components present in the crude extract. The extract was found not to be cytotoxic against monocytes, and exhibited significant inhibition in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The presence of 34 components in the methanolic extract was detected through mass spectrum analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-016-2004-0DOI Listing
June 2016
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