Publications by authors named "Mohan Kulkarni"

34 Publications

Repurposing of genistein as anti-sickling agent: elucidation by multi spectroscopic, thermophoresis, and molecular modeling techniques.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Dec 11:1-13. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University (Formerly University of Pune), Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major medical problem in which mono-therapeutic interventions have so far shown only limited effectiveness. We studied the repurpose of genistein, which could prevent sickle hemoglobin from polymerizing under hypoxic conditions in this disease. Genistein an important nutraceutical molecule found in soybean. The present study examines the repurposing genistein as an anti- sickling agent. Genistein shows inhibition of Hb S polymerization as well as a sickle reversal. Also, we have explored the interaction of the genistein with sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), using fluorescence, far-UV-CD spectroscopy, MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST), FTIR, combined with molecular modeling computations. The quenching constant decreases with increasing temperature, a characteristic that coincides with the static type of quenching mechanism. Temperature-dependent fluorescence measurements and molecular modeling studies reveal that apart from the hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions also play a crucial role in genistein and Hb S complex formation. , distribution prediction of adsorption, digestion, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox) based on physical and chemical properties show that genistein is nontoxic and has ideal drug properties. The helicity and thermophoretic mobility of Hb S was a change in the presence of genistein, which leads to the destabilizing the Hb S polymer was examined using CD and MST, respectively. Our results open up the possibility for a promising therapeutic approach for the SCD by repurposed genistein as an anti-sickling agent. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1852967DOI Listing
December 2020

Uptake and detoxification of diesel oil by a tropical soil Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11: Cellular responses and degradation perspectives.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 7;263(Pt B):114538. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007, India; Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007, India. Electronic address:

A tropical soil Actinomycete, Gordonia amicalis HS-11, has been previously demonstrated to degrade unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons (squalene and n-hexadecane, respectively) in an effective manner. In present study, G. amicalis HS-11 degraded 92.85 ± 3.42% of the provided diesel oil [1% (v/v)] after 16 days of aerobic incubation. The effect of different culture conditions such as carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, and aeration on degradation was studied. During degradation, this Actinomycete synthesized surface active compounds (SACs) in an extracellular manner that brought about a reduction in surface tension from 69 ± 2.1 to 30 ± 1.1 mN m after 16 days. The morphology of cells grown on diesel was monitored by using a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. Diesel-grown cells were longer and clumped with smooth surfaces, possibly due to the secretion of SACs. The interaction between the cells and diesel oil was studied by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Some cells were adherent on small diesel droplets and others were present in the non-attached form thus confirming the emulsification ability of this organism. The fatty acid profiles of the organism grown on diesel oil for 48 h were different from those on Luria Bertani Broth. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of diesel oil before and after degradation were determined. Cytogenetic parameters such as mitotic index (MI); mitosis distribution and chromosomal aberration (type and frequency) were assessed. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase and concentration of malondialdehyde. On the basis of these studies it was deduced that the degradation metabolites were relatively non-toxic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114538DOI Listing
August 2020

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles colloids in imidazolium halide ionic liquids and their antibacterial activities for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Chemosphere 2020 Mar 6;243:125302. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Four 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium halide ionic liquids were synthesized via metathesis and anion exchange reactions. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) colloids were synthesized in four ionic liquids in the pressurized reactor by reduction of silver nitrate with hydrogen gas, without adding solvents or stabilizing agents. Antibacterial activities of base ionic liquids and AgNPs colloids in ionic liquids were reviewed by well-diffusion method for gram-positive Bacillus cereus (NCIM-2155) and gram-negative Escherichia coli (NCIM-2931) bacteria. Antibacterial activities of ionic liquids and AgNPs colloids in ionic liquids were observed to be controlled by ionic liquids anions and AgNPs particle size. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid exhibited higher antibacterial activities among the studied ionic liquids. Further, the presence of AgNPs in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide, ionic liquid enhanced its antibacterial activity for Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli bacteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125302DOI Listing
March 2020

Secondary patents: innovator and generic strategies.

Pharm Pat Anal 2019 Sep;8(5):175-191

CSIR URDIP, Tapovan, NCL Campus, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

The global pharmaceutical industry consists of innovators and generics. Innovators focus on drug discovery, and bring new drugs into the marketplace after filing the new drug applications. In contrast, the generics enter the market by making a bioequivalent product by filing abbreviated new drug applications. In order to maximize their returns on R&D and maintain market share, the innovators introduce a wide range of drug products based on the same 'new molecular entity' and protect them against competition by filing what the industry term as secondary patents. The patents of four innovator viz., AstraZeneca, Takeda, Eisai and Wyeth related to the gastroesophageal reflux disease drugs and how their new molecular entity patents overcame the nonobviousness criteria is analyzed and studied in detail.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/ppa-2019-0016DOI Listing
September 2019

Nonobviousness of pharmaceutical inventions: implications for patent prosecution and litigation.

Pharm Pat Anal 2019 Jul 15;8(4):91-107. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201002, India.

Nonobviousness is the most critical patentability criterion. Patents covering new molecular entities and second-generation molecules in the pharmaceutical industry are often challenged for obviousness during prosecution and/or litigation. In such situations, the patentee has to either reject or rebut the same by clear and convincing evidence or demonstrate unexpected results, to establish nonobviousness. This paper tries to show how the lead compound requirement is consistent with 35 U.S.C. § 103; the obviousness challenge can be overcome; the two-prong approach is consistent with the Supreme Court's KSR v. Teleflex, 2007 (KSR) decision. The showing is illustrated with the analysis of new molecular entities in the proton-pump inhibitor family.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/ppa-2019-0014DOI Listing
July 2019

Potential of isoquercitrin as antisickling agent: a multi-spectroscopic, thermophoresis and molecular modeling approach.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Jun 1;38(9):2717-2736. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University (Formerly University of Pune), Pune, India.

Sickle cell disease is an inherited disease caused by point mutation in hemoglobin (β-globin gene). Under oxygen saturation, sickle hemoglobin form polymers, leading to rigid erythrocytes. The transition of the blood vessels is altered and initiated by the adhesion of erythrocytes, neutrophils and endothelial cells. Sickle Hemoglobin (HbS) polymerization is a major cause in red blood cells (RBC), promoting sickling and destruction of RBCs. Isoquercitrin, a medicinal bioactive compound found in various medicinal plants, has multiple health benefits. The present study examines the potential of isoquercitrin as an anti-sickle agent, showing a significant decrease in the rate of polymerization as well as sickling of RBCs. Isoquercitrin-induced graded alteration in absorbance and fluorescence of HbS, confirmed their interaction. A negative value of Δ° strongly suggests that it is a spontaneous exothermic reaction induced by entropy. Negative Δ° and positive Δ° predicted that hydrogen and hydrophobic binding forces interfered with a hydrophobic microenvironment of β6Val leading to polymerization inhibition of HbS. HbS-Isoquercitrin complex exhibits helical structural changes leading to destabilization of the HbS polymer as confirmed by CD spectroscopy. MST and DSC results indicate greater changes in thermophoretic mobility and thermal stability of sickle hemoglobin in the presence of isoquercitrin, respectively. These findings were also supported by molecular simulation studies using DOCK6 and GROMACS. Hence, we can conclude that isoquercitrin interacts with HbS through hydrogen bonding, which leads to polymerization inhibition. Consequently, isoquercitrin could potentially be used as a medication for the treatment of sickle cell disease.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2019.1645735DOI Listing
June 2020

Harnessing the catabolic versatility of Gordonia species for detoxifying pollutants.

Biotechnol Adv 2019 May - Jun;37(3):382-402. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, India; Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, India. Electronic address:

The genus Gordonia includes variedly pigmented aerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating Gram positive (sometimes variable) coccoid forms and rods. Different isolates display distinguishing physiological traits and biochemical properties that are significant in remediation applications. Strains inherently prevalent in soils, seawater, sediments and wastewaters can degrade hydrocarbons. Immobilized cells and microbial consortia containing Gordonia species have been used for in situ applications. Hydrocarbon uptake in this Actinomycete is mediated by attachment to large droplets or by pseudosolubilization of substrates. Hydrocarbons so internalized are degraded by relevant enzymes that are innately present in this microorganism. Wild-type and recombinant strains also mediate desulfurization of polyaromatic sulfur heterocyclic compounds. This organism is metabolically capable of bringing about detoxification of phthalate esters. Two species namely, Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Gordonia westfalica mediate degradation of rubber and the metabolic pathways involved in the process have been well-understood. Some members are able to transform nitriles into commercially valuable products and others degrade the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. Cholesterol, pyridine derivatives, fuel oxygenates, thiodiglycol, bis-(3-pentafluorophenylpropyl)-sulfide and 6:2 fluorotelomersulfonate are also biotransformed or degraded by Gordonia species. Some members of this genus are significant in the treatment of wastewaters including those that are rich in steroids and lignin. There are also several patents highlighting the commercial relevance of this genus. On account of its diverse catabolic properties, this Actinomycete has become important in bioremediation of polluted environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2019.02.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Alizarin interaction with sickle hemoglobin: elucidation of their anti-sickling properties by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2019 10 24;37(17):4614-4631. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Institute of Bioinformatics & Biotechnology (IBB), Savitribai Phule Pune University , Pune , India.

Polymerization of hemoglobin S is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease, which leads to sickling and destruction of red blood cell. Alizarin, a bioactive compound from , is reported to be blood purifier. This study investigates the potential of alizarin as an anti-sickling agent, showing a significant decrease in the rate of polymerization, therefore inhibiting the rate of sickling with increasing concentration. Interaction studies indicated that the fluorescence intensity of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) decreases gradually with increasing alizarin concentration. This suggests the static quenching, where binding constant and the number of binding sites were deduced at different temperatures. The negative values of Gibbs energy change (Δ) strongly suggest that it is entropy-driven spontaneous and exothermic reaction. Negative enthalpy (Δ) and positive entropy (Δ) stipulated that hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding forces were interfering in a hydrophobic micro-environment of β6Val leading to Hb S polymerization inhibition. In circular dichroism (CD) spectra, Hb S in the presence of alizarin shows helical structural changes leading to destabilization of Hb S polymer. These findings were also supported by molecular docking simulation studies using DOCK6 and GROMACS. So, from these findings, we may conclude that alizarin interacts with Hb S through hydrogen bonding and leading to inhibition of Hb S polymerization. Consequently, alizarin may have potential use as an anti-sickle cell medication for sickle cell disorder. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2018.1557557DOI Listing
October 2019

Secondary patents in the pharmaceutical industry: missing the wood for the trees?

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2018 03 7;28(3):241-250. Epub 2018 Jan 7.

a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Unit for Research and Development of Information Products (CSIR-URDIP) , India.

Introduction: The critics of the Innovator pharmaceutical industry allege that secondary patents are trivial modifications over the primary patent, which extend its term and delay the entry of the generics in the market place. The protagonists regard secondary patents a result of continuous research and development (R&D), which help them introduce and protect new, differentiated products.

Areas Covered: The areas covered are Product life cycle management (PLCM), Drug approval process, Orange book (OB) listed patents, US patent data.

Expert Opinion: Our analysis of the patents and products of four innovators viz., AstraZeneca, Takeda, Eisai and Wyeth in the field of proton pump inhibitors (PPI's) and Merck and Pfizer in the field of Statins shows that secondary patents help innovators sustain competition against other innovators in the specific product segment. The number of secondary patents listed in OB per NCE depends on the innovators interest in exploiting the NCE, the success of R & D effort and product lifecycle management strategy in the wake of market competition. Market entry decisions of innovators are strategic rather than a mere fallout of the secondary patents granted. Entry of another innovator is more unpredictable and hurts the first entrant more vis a vis the entry of generics who can enter the market when the patents protecting a product are no more enforceable, and hence more predictable. Generic entry in the field of PPI's shows that the term of the primary patent is not extended by the secondary patents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543776.2018.1424134DOI Listing
March 2018

An insight into the ecology, diversity and adaptations of Gordonia species.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2018 Aug 25;44(4):393-413. Epub 2017 Dec 25.

b Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology , Savitribai Phule Pune University , Pune , India.

The bacterial genus Gordonia encompasses a variety of versatile species that have been isolated from a multitude of environments. Gordonia was described as a genus about 20 years ago, and to date, 39 different species have been identified. Gordonia is recognized for symbiotic associations with multiple hosts, including aquatic (marine and fresh water) biological forms and terrestrial invertebrates. Some Gordonia species isolated from clinical specimens are known to be opportunistic human pathogens causing secondary infections in immunocompromised and immunosuppressive individuals. They are also predominant in mangrove ecosystems and terrestrial sites. Members of the genus Gordonia are ecologically adaptable and show marked variations in their properties and products. They generate diverse bioactive compounds and produce a variety of extracellular enzymes. In addition, production of surface active compounds and carotenoid pigments allows this group of microorganisms to grow under different conditions. Several isolates from water and soil have been implicated in bioremediation of different environments and plant associated species have been explored for agricultural applications. This review highlights the prevalence of the members of this versatile genus in diverse environments, details its associations with living forms, summarizes the biotechnologically relevant products that can be obtained and discusses the salient genomic features that allow this Actinomycete to survive in different ecological niches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1040841X.2017.1418286DOI Listing
August 2018

A novel inhibition based biosensor using urease nanoconjugate entrapped biocomposite membrane for potentiometric glyphosate detection.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Mar 22;108:32-40. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhid Road, Pune, 411007, India. Electronic address:

A potentiometric biosensor based on agarose-guar gum (A-G) entrapped bio-nanoconjugate of urease with gold nanoparticles (AUNps), has been reported for the first time for glyphosate detection. The biosensor is based on inhibition of urease activity by glyphosate, which was measured by direct potentiometry using ammonium ion selective electrode covered with A-G-urease nanoconjugate membrane. TEM and FTIR analysis revealed nanoconjugate formation and its immobilization in A-G matrix respectively. The composite biopolymer employed for immobilization yields thin, transparent, flexible membrane having superior mechanical strength and stability. It retains the maximum activity (92%) of urease with negligible leaching. The conjugation of urease with AUNps allows improvement in response characteristics for potentiometric measurement. The biosensor shows a linear response in the glyphosate concentration range from 0.5ppm-50ppm, with limit of detection at 0.5ppm, which covers maximum residual limit set by WHO for drinking water. The inhibition of catalytic activity of urease nanoconjugate by gyphosate was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The response of fabricated biosensor is selective towards glyphosate as against various other pesticides. The biosensor exhibits good performance in terms of reproducibility and prolonged storage stability of 180days. Thus, the present biosensor provides an alternative method for simple, selective and cost effective detection of glyphosate based on urease inhibition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.136DOI Listing
March 2018

HPLC, NMR based chemical profiling and biological characterisation of Indian propolis.

Fitoterapia 2017 Oct 23;122:52-60. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Chemistry, Division of Biochemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University (Formerly University of Pune), Pune, Maharashtra, India.

The present study aimed to investigate chemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Indian Melifera propolis (IMP) samples collected from 13 different states. Chemical characterisation of ethanolic extracts of IMP (EEMP) samples was carried out by using HPLC and HNMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of EEMP samples was measured by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of each EEMP sample tested against bacteria and yeast using a 96 well plate microdilution method. All EEMP samples had remarkable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant potential of EEMP samples found to have a moderate positive correlation with their total phenolics and flavonoids content. Majority of EEMP samples had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤1mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. Chemometric analysis of HNMR data indicated that brown, green, green-brown, red and red-brown coloured IMP samples were chemically distinct from each other, and showed two separate clusters for northern and southern states propolis samples. HPLC analysis confirmed phenethyl caffeate was most common and abundant compound in IMP samples among studied compounds. In conclusion, this study may be helpful for defining the quality of IMP as a raw material, and also in finished food and health care products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2017.08.011DOI Listing
October 2017

Robot Assisted Repair of Acquired Abdominal Intercostal Hernias (AIH).

Spartan Med Res J 2017 Aug 24;2(1):5964. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Henry Ford Allegiance General Surgeon, General Surgeon Teaching Facility, Jackson, M.

Abdominal intercostal hernia (AIH) is a rare clinical entity in which intra-abdominal visceral contents protrude through a defect between adjacent ribs. Most AIH are repaired via (an open or a laparoscopic) transabdominal approach or a thoracotomy. In this paper, the authors present two cases of AIH. Both cases of AIH developed in male patients after severe coughing episodes and demonstrated on computed tomography (CT) to include multiple abdominal viscera. In both cases, a robot-assisted laparoscopic hernia repair was performed utilizing Sepramesh and V-Lock suturing. To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of a robotic approach to repair of AIH. Both cases demonstrate the safety of this approach and expand on novel robotic approaches to ventral hernia repairs. Studies of longer term outcomes from this surgical approach are limited in the literature due to small number of cases and even fewer associated case reports.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746031PMC
August 2017

Carotenoid stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles derived from the Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11 as effective free radical scavengers.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2016 Dec 28;95:164-173. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 India, India; Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 India. Electronic address:

The Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11 produced orange pigments when cultivated on n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source. When cells of this pigmented bacterium were incubated with 1mM chloroauric acid (HAuCl) or silver nitrate (AgNO), pH 9.0, at 25°C, gold and silver nanoparticles, respectively, were obtained in a cell associated manner. It was hypothesized that the pigments present in the cells may be mediating metal reduction reactions. After solvent extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography, two major pigments displaying UV-vis spectra characteristic of carotenoids were isolated. These were identified on the basis of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (APCI-MS) in the positive mode as 1'-OH-4-keto-γ-carotene (Carotenoid K) and 1'-OH-γ-carotene (Carotenoid B). The hydroxyl groups present in the carotenoids were eliminated under alkaline conditions and provided the reducing equivalents necessary for synthesizing nanoparticles. Cell associated and carotenoid stabilized nanoparticles were characterized by different analytical techniques. In vitro free radical scavenging activities of cells (control, gold and silver nanoparticle loaded), purified carotenoids and carotenoid stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles were evaluated. Silver nanoparticle loaded cells and carotenoid stabilized silver nanoparticles exhibited improved nitric oxide (NO) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities compared to their control and gold counterparts. This paper thus reports cell associated nanoparticle synthesis by G. amicalis, describes for the first time the role of carotenoid pigments in metal reduction processes and demonstrates enhanced free radical scavenging activities of the carotenoid stabilized nanoparticles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2016.09.016DOI Listing
December 2016

Correlation of first-trimester serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A with small-for-gestational-age neonates and preterm births.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2016 May 23;133(2):159-63. Epub 2016 Jan 23.

Birthright Genetic Clinic, Pune, India. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the relationship between first-trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates and preterm births, and to assess predictive utility for these events.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted among women undergoing first-trimester screening between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, at two centers in Pune, India. Serum PAPP-A levels, pregnancy course, and outcome were assessed.

Results: Overall, 1474 women were included. An association was found between the lowest quintile of PAPP-A levels (<0.4 multiples of median) for both SGA (<10th centile; 20.9% of cases in this PAPP-A quintile) and preterm birth (<37weeks; 15.8%). Women in the lowest quintile of PAPP-A concentration had a significantly increased risk of SGA (<10th centile) than did those with higher concentrations (adjusted odds ratio 2.92, 95% confidence interval 2.00-4.27). Their risk of preterm birth (<37weeks) was also increased (adjusted odds ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 1.25-2.72). The predictive sensitivities of the lowest quintile of PAPP-A were 35.85% for SGA (<10th centile) and 27.92% for preterm birth (<37weeks).

Conclusion: Low levels of PAPP-A were associated with SGA and preterm births; however, poor predictive sensitivity could restrict clinical utility of this marker when used alone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.09.022DOI Listing
May 2016

Association of metabolic syndrome with severity of coronary artery disease.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014 Sep;18(5):708-14

Department of Chemistry, Division of Biochemistry, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: South Asians are more prone to develop metabolic syndrome (MetS). The additive predictive value of components of MetS for cardiovascular diseases is still debated. We undertook this study to evaluate the association of MetS and its components with severity of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Materials And Methods: Three hundred patients with known coronary disease above the age of 25 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected for biochemical markers. Patients were stratified into subjects with and without MetS (International Diabetes Federation, IDF, criteria) and severity of CAD (number of vessel involved).

Results: Mean age of the patient in the study was 60.9 ± 12.4 years (male, M: 72%; female, F: 28%). MetS was present in 64% patients. Patients with MetS had more severe CAD compared to those without MetS. Triple vessel disease (TVD) was present in 62.5% of patients with MetS compared to 34.3% among without MetS (P < 0.0001). The percent number of patients with TVD showed increasing trend with increasing number of components of MetS (0-0%; 1-20%; 2-27.5%; 3-47.8%; 4-72.6%; 5-78.3%; Chi square for trend < 0.0001). Inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL) 6: 77.67 ± 79.48 vs. 41.21 ± 60.72 pg/ml, P < 0.0001; tumor nuclear factor (TNF)-α: 28.0 ± 47.49 vs 20.43 ± 24.5 pg/ml, P < 0.0001; high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP): 14.30 ± 9.91 vs. 7.02 ± 7.18 mg/L, P < 0.0001], insulin resistance [homeostatic model analysis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR): 22.33 ± 23.37 vs. 10.86 ± 13.90, P < 0.0001] were higher and insulin sensitivity [quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI): 0.26 ± 0.03 vs. 0.30 ± 0.04, P < 0.0001] was significantly lower in subjects with MetS compared to subjects without MetS. Among lipids, total cholesterol were comparable but triglyceride (175 ± 42 vs. 179 ± 48 vs. 180 ± 47 mg/dl, P < 0.0001) was high and high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 44.72 ± 7.63 vs. 39.96 ± 8.70 vs. 36.05 ± 8.84, P < 0.0001) was low in subjects with TVD compared to others. Similarly, percentage of patients with diabetes (7.5% vs. 26.3% vs. 63.7%, P < 0.0001) and hypertension (34.3% vs. 56.6% vs. 77.7%, P < 0.0001) were higher in subjects with TVD compared to others.

Conclusions: There is a strong correlation of MetS and its components with severity of CAD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.139238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4171897PMC
September 2014

Study of pattern of dyslipidemia and its correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with proven coronary artery disease.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014 Jan;18(1):48-55

Department of Chemistry, Division of Biochemistry, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Dyslipidemia is a primary, widely established as an independent major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Asians differs in prevalence of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians. Hence, this study was conducted with objective to evaluate the lipid abnormalities and there correlation with traditional and non-traditional risk factors in known subjects with CAD.

Materials And Methods: We studied the pattern and association of dyslipidemia with cardiovascular risk factors in 300 (Male: 216; Female: 84, age: 60.9 ± 12.4 years, range: 25-92 years) angiographically proved CAD patients. All patients were evaluated for anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors and blood samples were collected for biochemical and inflammatory markers.

Results: Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) was present in 23.3%, 63.0% and 54.6% in the total study population respectively. A total of 41.3% had atherogenic dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides [TG] and low HDL). Percentage of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension were higher in subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Insulin sensitivity was low; insulin and insulin resistance (IR) along with inflammatory markers were high in subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 levels and higher homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Hypertriglyceridemia was positively correlated with insulin, homeostasis model assessment of IR, Hcy, interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, highly sensitive C-reactive protein and negatively with vitamin B12 and quantitative insulin check index and an opposite correlation of all quoted parameters was observed with low HDL. The correlation of traditional and non-traditional risk factors was stronger with low HDL and high TG compared with hypercholesterolemia.

Conclusions: Hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol is common in patients with CAD compared with hypercholesterolemia. This suggests that different preventive strategy is required in Indian patients with CAD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.126532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3968733PMC
January 2014

Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial.

Nutr J 2013 Oct 9;12:136. Epub 2013 Oct 9.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry & Orthopedics, Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital & Research Centre, Erandvane, Pune, India.

Background: Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status.

Methods: Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n = 22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n = 29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured.

Results: Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) 24 hrs after milk load in the whole group. Plasma vitamin B-12 increased from 92.5 to 122 pmol/L and tHcy concentrations decreased from 31.9 to 24.9 μ mol/L (p < 0.0001 for both) 14 days after regular milk intake in vitamin B-12 deficient subjects.

Conclusions: Regular intake of milk improved vitamin B-12 status of vitamin B-12 deficient vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3851996PMC
October 2013

Comparison of free hand versus ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid with histopathological correlation.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2013 ;32(2):149-55

Department of Pathology, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the thyroid is usually performed on an outpatient basis. The results of FNA are operator dependent and may be affected by the lesion characteristics and the aspiration technique. In current practice ultrasound (US) is widely used to guide the needle for aspiration of nondominant nodules. Our study aimed to compare the free-hand FNA with US-guided FNA in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. A total of 91 cases of thyroid lesions were studied at the Department of Pathology, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, India. All the cases underwent free-hand and US-guided FNA. The cytological samples from both procedures were analyzed for adequacy, cytological features, and possible diagnosis. The results were correlated with histopathological diagnosis whenever possible. Of 91 aspirates, 89 were satisfactory and 2 were unsatisfactory on US-guided FNA, whereas 85 were satisfactory and 6 were unsatisfactory in free-hand FNA. Of 91 cases 68 (74.7%) were nonneoplastic lesions and 21 (23.1%) were neoplastic lesions in US-guided FNA, whereas 67 cases (73.6%) were nonneoplastic and 18 cases (19.8%) were neoplastic in free-hand FNA. Histopathological study was possible in 25 patients, among whom 15 lesions were nonneoplastic and 10 were neoplastic. Sensitivity and specificity of US-guided FNA to detect neoplastic lesions were 81.81% and 92.85%, respectively, compared with free-hand FNA, for which the sensitivity and specificity were 54.54% and 92.85%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of guided FNA was 88% against the 76% accuracy rate of free-hand FNA. US-guided FNA provides a better representative sample and has a higher diagnostic rate in the evaluation of thyroid lesions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/jenvironpatholtoxicoloncol.2013006980DOI Listing
December 2013

Differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors with special reference to nutritional factors in patients with coronary artery disease with or without diabetes mellitus.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Sep;17(5):844-50

Biochemistry Section, Department of Pathology, Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital and Research Center, Biochemistry Section, Erandawane, Pune, India.

Introduction: There is an increase in awareness about the role of nutritional factors in chronic non-communicable diseases. We therefore conducted this study with an aim to assess the relationship between nutritional factor (vitamin B12 and homocysteine [Hcy]) and its association with insulin resistance and inflammatory markers, and differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors among diabetics and non-diabetics in known cases of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Materials And Methods: Three hundred consecutive patients with known coronary disease on coronary angiography, who were >25 years old were included in this study. All cases were interviewed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for insulin, vitamin B12, Hcy and inflammatory markers (highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], Tumor necrosis factor-alfa [TNF-α]). Insulin resistance was calculated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

Results: Mean age of the patients was 60.95 ± 12.3 years. Body mass index and waist hip ratio were comparable in both groups. Triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein and HbA1C were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had significantly high levels of IL-6, hsCRP and TNF-α compared with non-diabetic patients. Insulin resistance was twofold higher in diabetic patients. Serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower and Hcy was significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the non-diabetic patients. HbA1C, HOMA-IR and Hcy levels were positively correlated with inflammatory markers in the total study population and in the non-diabetic patients; but, in diabetic patients, HbA1C and Hcy showed this relation.

Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the diabetic population. Hcy levels were higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and were related to glycemic level and insulin resistance in diabetic patients. Patients with diabetes had higher traditional risk factors than patients without diabetes in known patients with CAD. Glycemic status was associated with insulin resistance and inflammatory markers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.117235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784867PMC
September 2013

Vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia as correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in Indian subjects with coronary artery disease.

J Cardiol 2013 Apr 6;61(4):289-94. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital and Research Center, Biochemistry Section, Department of Pathology, Erandawane, Pune, India.

Background And Purpose: Folate and vitamin B12 are essential components in the metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy). Hyperhomocysteinemia has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. However, the association of Hcy, vitamin B12, and folic acid with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been studied in Indian patients. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the relationship of vitamin B12, folic acid, and Hcy levels with cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with known CAD.

Methods And Subjects: Three hundred patients (216 men; 84 women; aged 25-92 years) who had CAD on angiography were included in this study consecutively. All patients were evaluated for anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors, and blood samples were collected for biochemical, nutritional, and inflammatory markers.

Results: Percentage of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency was 86.7% and 2.7%, respectively. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 95.3% patients. Vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower and Hcy levels were significantly higher in subjects with dyslipidemia, DM, and/or hypertension. Serum vitamin B12 was inversely associated with triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hcy was positively associated with triglyceride and VLDL and negatively with HDL. Vitamin B12 was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) directly related to insulin resistance whereas Hcy showed the opposite pattern.

Conclusions: Serum vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are related with cardiovascular risk factors in Indian patients with CAD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2012.11.009DOI Listing
April 2013

Is hypomagnesaemia a coronary risk factor among Indians with coronary artery disease?

J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2012 Oct;3(4):280-6

Department of Pathology, Biochemistry Section, Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital and Research Center, Erandawane, Pune, India.

Introduction: Magnesium is an essential element that has numerous biological functions in the cardiovascular system. Hence, three hundred patients with known cardiovascular disease above the age of 25 years were studied to evaluate association between dietary and serum magnesium with cardiovascular risk factors.

Materials And Methods: Patients were divided into three groups according to serum magnesium levels; ≤1.6 (Group 1), >1.6-2.6 (Group 2) and: >2.6 mg/dl (Group 3), and into two groups according to dietary magnesium intake; ≤350 mg/day (Group 1) and >350 mg/day (Group 2), respectively.

Results: Mean age of patients was 60.97 ± 12.5 years. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, and LDL were significantly higher and HDL cholesterol significantly lower in group 1 when compared with group 2 and group 3. Diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were negatively correlated with serum magnesium levels; which were maintained even after adjustment with age, sex, and anthropometric parameters in multiple regression analysis. Similar observations were observed in dietary magnesium intake except LDL and total cholesterol. Dietary magnesium was positively correlated with serum magnesium.

Conclusions: Hypomagnesaemia and low dietary intake of magnesium are strongly related to cardiovascular risk factors among known subjects with coronary artery disease. Hence, magnesium supplementation may help in reducing cardiovascular disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-3583.102698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516007PMC
October 2012

Association of constitutional type of Ayurveda with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2012 Jul;3(3):150-7

Department of Pathology, Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital, Pune, Maharashatra, India.

Context: Ayurveda propounds that diseases manifest from imbalance of doshas. There, have been attempts to indicate biochemical basis of constitutional types described in Ayurveda.

Aims: The study was intended to assess the association of constitutional types (Prakriti) with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD).

Settings And Design: Hospital based cross sectional study.

Materials And Methods: Three hundred patients with CAD >25 years were studied. Assessment of Prakriti was done by using Ayusoft software. Biochemical parameters, inflammatory markers (hsCRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured.

Statistical Analysis: Was done using EPI INFO, version 3.5.3.

Results: Mean age of patients was 60.97±12.5 years. Triglyceride, VLDL and LDL was significantly higher (P<0.0001, P<0.0001 and 0.0355, respectively) and HDL cholesterol (P<0.0001) significantly lower in vatta kapha (VK) Prakriti when compared with other constitution type. VK Prakriti was correlated with diabetes mellitus (r=0.169, P=0.003), hypertension (r=0.211, P≤0.0001) and dyslipidemia (r=0.541, P≤0.0001). Inflammatory markers; IL6, TNF alpha, hsCRP and HOMA IR was highest in VK Prakriti. Inflammatory markers were correlated positively with both VK and Kapha group.

Conclusions: There is strong relation of risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia), insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers with Vata Kapha and Kapha Prakriti.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.100186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487241PMC
July 2012

pH Sensitive graft copolymers for zero order drug release: a mechanistic analysis.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2012 Jan;38(1):73-83

Polymer Science and Engineering Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India.

Aliphatic polyesters containing pendent unsaturation were synthesized by the polycondensation of a diol, dicarboxylic acid and glycidyl methacrylate. Grafting methacrylic acid (MAA) resulted in graft copolymers containing polyester backbone and MAA grafts. Depending on composition, the polymers swelled extensively and eroded or dissolved at near neutral pH but remained in collapsed state at acidic pH. Three representative drugs differing in solubility, viz., Diltiazem hydrochloride (DH), Indomethacin (IM) and Verapamil hydrochloride (VH) were released at constant rate from tablets made by compressing spray-dried microparticles. The release of DH at constant rate has been attributed to increase in diffusion coefficient of the drug from the swollen layer of matrix. The release of IM and VH at constant rate was governed by erosion and was enhanced in matrices which undergo dissolution. The release rate was enhanced with increasing MAA content and the frequency of grafts along the polyester backbone. Once a day dosage forms for drugs differing in solubility have been developed using a single polymer matrix which is easy to manufacture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2011.590991DOI Listing
January 2012

Abdominal tuberculosis may masquerade many diseases.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2011 Mar-Apr;17(2):110-3

Department of Pathology, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences, Hassan, Karnataka, India.

Background/aim: Intestinal tuberculosis needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis when patients with intestinal pathology are encountered. Tuberculosis can mimic other disease entities like, ischemic enteritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, malignancies, intussusception etc., clinically as well as morphologically in resected intestinal specimens. We aimed to study the various clinical presentations leading to intestinal resection, with identification of different etiological factors by histopathological examination; and to illustrate, discuss and describe the various histopathological features of the lesions in these resected intestinal specimens with clinicopathological correlation.

Materials And Methods: We studied 100 cases of resected intestinal specimens received during September 2002 to December 2003. We totally encountered 22 request forms with clinical suspicion of ileoceocal tuberculosis.

Results: Abdominal tenderness and mass in ileoceocal region were noted in all cases. In many instances, the cases were operated for acute/subacute intestinal obstruction. Clinical and intra-operative diagnoses of tubercular enteritis, in many instances, were finally diagnosed histopathologically as ischemic enteritis (nine cases), chronic nonspecific enteritis (four cases), adenocarcinoma of the caecum, Crohn's disease, intussusception (each one case), and correctly as intestinal tuberculosis in only six cases.

Conclusion: Tuberculosis can mimic various disease entities, clinically and sometimes morphologically. Vice versa is also true. An increased awareness of intestinal tuberculosis coupled with varied clinical presentations, nonspecific signs and symptoms, difficulties in diagnostic methods and need of early and specific treatment should improve the outcome for patients with this disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.77239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099055PMC
July 2011

Template assisted highly ordered novel self assembly of micro-reservoirs and its replication.

Lab Chip 2010 Aug 9;10(15):1902-6. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

Polymer Science and Engineering Division, National Chemical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune, 411008, India.

A novel method is developed for template assisted fabrication of a regular assembly of microcavity arrays. Simple micropatterns on PDMS mold are used to create complex geometries via solvent vapor back pressure in a biodegradable polymer. Cavities are in turn replicated in complimentary PDMS mushroom like microstructures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c004576dDOI Listing
August 2010

Comparison of the modified fluorescent method and conventional Ziehl-Neelsen method in the detection of acidfast bacilli in lymphnode aspirates.

Cytojournal 2009 Jul 18;6:13. Epub 2009 Jul 18.

Department of Pathology, Sree Siddhartha Medical College & Research Center, Tumkur, India.

Objectives: The objectives were to correlate the modified fluorescent method with the conventional Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) method for the detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and, also to study the efficacy and advantages of using the auramine-rhodamine stain on lymph node aspirates under fluorescent microscopy.

Methods: In 108 consecutive patients with a clinical suspicion of tuberculosis (TB) presenting with lymphadenopathy, fine needle aspirations were performed. Smears from the aspirates were processed for routine cytology, the conventional ZN method, and the modified fluorescent method. The significance of the modified fluorescent method over the conventional ZN method was analyzed using the chi-square test.

Results: Out of 108 aspirates, 102 were studied and remaining 6 were excluded from the study due to diagnosis of malignancy in 4.04% (4/6) and inadequate aspiration in 2.02% (2/6). Among the 102 aspirates, 44.11% (45/102) were positive for AFB on the conventional ZN method, 58.9% (60/102) were indicative of TB on cytology, while the smear positive increased to 81.37% (83/102) on the modified fluorescent method.

Conclusions: Fluorescent microscopy has the advantage of speed and ease of screening, and reduces observer fatigue. The modified fluorescent method was found to be more advantageous than routine cytology and conventional ZN method, particularly in paucibacillary cases. The bacillary positivity rates were higher in the modified fluorescent method than in the ZN method. Hence, the modified fluorescent method can be an adjuvant when used with routine cytology for the identification of AFB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1742-6413.53887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2716690PMC
July 2009

Clinicopathologic profile of significant cervical lymphadenopathy in children aged 1-12 years.

Acta Cytol 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):174-8

Department of Pathology, Sree Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur, India.

Objective: To emphasize the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in etiologic workup in significant cervical lymphadenopathy in children.

Study Design: A total of 336 consecutive children, aged 1 month to 12 years, with significant cervical lymphadenopathy were subjected to FNAC. Children on empirical/specific therapy for lymphadenopathy for >2 months and children with lymphadenopathy other than cervical region were excluded from this study.

Results: Of 324 cases, the cytomorphologic features observed were reactive lymphadenitis in 58.02% of cases, granulomatous lymphadenitis in 30.55%, suppurative lymphadenitis in 7.10% and malignancies in 5.62%. The remaining 3. 57% of cases were excluded because of inadequate aspiration. The most common cause diagnosed was tuberculosis in 29.01% of cases followed by chronic tonsillopharyngitis in 28.39%, suppurative lymphadenitis in 7.10%, human immune deficiency infection in 5.55% and malignancies in

Conclusion: FNAC is an important diagnostic modality for the etiologic workup in significant cervical lymphadenopathy in children. It is almost as sensitive and specific as excision lymph node biopsy when an adequate aspirate is examined by expert eyes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000325120DOI Listing
May 2009

Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of dextrin matrix tablet of Ibuprofen for colon specific drug delivery.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2008 Jan;21(1):17-20

Department of Biotechnology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, 425001 (M.S.).

The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery system by using dextrin (polysaccharide) as a carrier for ibuprofen. Matrix tablets containing various excipients and dextrin were prepared by wet granulation technique using different binder systems. The matrix tablets were evaluated by different IPQC tests, content uniformity and in vitro drug release study. Drug release profile was evaluated in simulated gastric, intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid. Best formulation was decided on the basis drug release profile in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. The matrix tablet containing dextrin as a carrier and ethyl cellulose as binder was found to be suitable for targeting ibuprofen for local action in the colon as compare to other matrix tablets containing different binders because of fewer amounts (8-11%) of drug release in the simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Matrix tablets containing dextrin released 95-98% of ibuprofen in simulated colonic fluid with 4% human fecal matter solution. Tablets containing dextrin showed no change in physical appearance and dissolution profile upon storage at 40 degrees C/75% relative humidity for three months. The results of in-vitro study indicate that matrix tablets containing dextrin as carrier and ethyl cellulose as binder are most suitable to deliver the drug specifically in colonic region as compare to matrix tablets of dextrin with other binder systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2008