Publications by authors named "Mohammed Sithiq Uduman"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of clinical and biometric characteristics between nanophthalmic children and age-matched controls.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Jul;70(7):2440-2445

Department of Biostatistics, Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: To compare the clinical and biometric characteristics of children presenting with nanophthalmos (NO group) with that of age-matched controls (CO group).

Methods: Electronic medical records of 40 children (<18 years of age) with diagnosis of nanophthalmos (NO), presented to a tertiary center in Tamil Nadu between January 2010 and December 2019, were reviewed and compared with 30 age-matched controls (CO) presenting for routine eye examination between October 2019 and December 2019. Clinical parameters compared were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), axial length (AxL), keratometry (K), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), retinochoroidal scleral thickness (RCS), corneal diameter, central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), lens axial length factor (LAF), and lens thickness/anterior chamber depth ratio (LT/ACD).

Results: Mean age of the NO group was 8.95 ± 4.0 years. Mean spherical equivalent (SE) in NO group was 10.87 ± 3.1 D and was inversely correlated to AxL (r = -0.46, P value = 0.003). All biometric parameters (AxL, ACD, LT, RCS, LAF, and LT/ACD), except CCT were significantly different between NO and CO groups. NO group children had 52.5% visual impairment with BCVA ≤ 6/24 and 17.5% had esotropia. Common ocular associations in NO group were amblyopia (64.3%), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) (17.8%), pigmentary retinopathy (14.3%), and retinal detachment (3.6%). Angle-closure disease was seen in 50% of NO group and 30% underwent laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). There was a significant difference in SE, ACD, and LAF among NO children with AxL <17 mm or >17 mm. Multivariable regression analysis revealed a significant correlation of SE and ACD with AxL.

Conclusion: Nanophthalmos in children often present as amblyopia with visual impairment and strabismus. NO group with AxL <17 mm, had angle-closure disease as a common association with significantly lower ACD, higher SE, and LAF. All morphometric characteristics, except CCT, were significantly different between NO and CO groups. Close monitoring with serial biometry in NO group is needed for the timely diagnosis and prompt intervention to avoid visual impairment, due to glaucoma.
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July 2022

Intermediate-term outcomes of combined phacoemulsification and Aurolab aqueous drainage implant in eyes with refractory glaucoma and coexistent cataract.

Int Ophthalmol 2022 Aug 20;42(8):2609-2618. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Aravind Eye Hospital and Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, 625020, India.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of non-valved Aurolab aqueous drainage implant (AADI) surgery combined with phacoemulsification in eyes with refractory glaucoma and coexistent cataract.

Methods: Included patients of 18 years or older who underwent combined AADI-Phacoemulsification from June 2015 to January 2017 with at least 12 months of consecutive follow-up. The best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and the number of IOP-lowering medications were recorded at baseline, 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Cumulative probability of success was defined as IOP < 18 mmHg or 30% reduction from the baseline at two consecutive postoperative visits after 3-months. Loss of light perception or reoperation for uncontrolled glaucoma or a complication was considered failure apart from IOP criteria.

Results: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with a mean follow-up of 22.6 ± 4.0 months were included. Baseline IOP and ocular hypotensive drugs reduced significantly from 27.9 ± 7.6 mmHg to 14.0 ± 3.0 mmHg (p < 0.001) and 3.24 ± 0.7 to 1.33 ± 1.1 (p = 0.001), respectively, at 24 months. Cumulative probability of qualified success was 71.4% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 40.6-88.2%) at 3 months and was maintained from 6 months onwards at 64.3% (95% CI 34.3-83.3%), up to 2 years. Intravitreal steroid was injected in one eye (5.9%) of chronic cystoid macular edema, and tube repositioning was done in another for focal corneal decompensation.

Conclusions: Combined AADI-Phacoemulsification surgery is a safe and effective option in providing favorable visual and IOP outcomes at an affordable cost in eyes with refractory glaucoma and coexistent cataract.
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August 2022

Outcomes and favourable prognostic factors in patients of phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma managed by manual small-incision cataract surgery: A retrospective study.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Apr;70(4):1216-1221

Glaucoma Services, Aravind Eye Hospital and PG Institute of Ophthalmology, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes and identify favorable prognostic factors in patients of phacomorphic (PMG) and phacolytic glaucoma (PLG) managed by manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS).

Methods: The medical records of patients with PMG/PLG who had undergone MSICS in a tertiary eye hospital between September 2014 and August 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Regression analyses were conducted to identify the predictors associated with intraoperative or postoperative complications and a favorable final outcome at 1 month, namely, a best-corrected visual acuity (BCV) of 6/18 or better and an intraocular pressure (IOP) of <21 mm Hg. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The records of 209 patients with PMG and 279 patients with PLG were eligible for the review. The mean preoperative IOP for PMG and PLG were 43.15 ± 12.9 and 40.05 ± 12.0 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.006). A younger age (<60 years) was associated with a lower risk of severe postoperative inflammation in both PMG and PLG [OR = 0.45 (0.21-0.99); P = 0.047 and OR = 0.44 (0.23-0.83); P = 0.011, respectively]. There was no significant difference in the final mean logMAR BCV (P = 0.21) and IOP (P = 0.36) in the two groups. The likelihood of a final IOP of <21 mm Hg was significant for symptoms less than a week [OR = 3.52 (1.2-10.2); P = 0.02] in PMG and for absence of vitreous disturbance [OR = 35.0 (3.8-325.7); P = 0.002] in PLG. A BCV of 6/18 or better was strongly associated with symptoms for less than a week [OR = 1.58 (1.0-2.4); P = 0.043] and absence of vitreous disturbance [OR = 23.53 (5.1-108.0); P < 0.001].

Conclusion: Early diagnosis and management can translate to good outcomes in PMG and PLG.
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April 2022

"Outcomes of optical penetrating keratoplasty with the large sized donor for failed therapeutic grafts for infectious keratitis from the tertiary eye care center, South India".

Eur J Ophthalmol 2022 Mar 11:11206721221086143. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Cornea and Refractive services, 29954Aravind Eye Hospital, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the preoperative risk factors, complications, and postoperative outcomes following regraft with the large-sized donor for failed therapeutic grafts

Methods: In this retrospective interventional case series, patients who underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty for failed therapeutic keratoplasty (TPK) from 2010 till 2019 were studied at the Cornea clinic, Tertiary eye care center, with a maximum follow-up period of 3 years within the study period. Demographic patterns, preoperative risk factors, graft survival, visual outcomes, and complications were reviewed from the electronic medical records.

Results: A total of 77 eyes of 77 patients underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty, with the mean age of 46.18 ± 12.56 years. The median interval between the two procedures was 10.29 months (IQR: 9.0-15.5) and a mean follow-up of 31.27 months. Non-healing fungal keratitis (n = 48) was the most common indication for TPK. The mean size of the donor used was 10 mm (IOR: 9.5-11 mm). The presence of Peripheral anterior synechiae (p < 0.001) and deep limbal vessels (p = 0.011) showed a significant association with the graft outcomes. Four eyes (5%) developed graft reinfection, one patient (1.2%) underwent evisceration, 28 eyes (39%) had graft rejection; among them, 11 eyes (14.28%) resolved with treatment, and in 17 eyes (22.07%), graft failed. Forty-seven eyes (61%) had secondary glaucoma, of which in 32 eyes (68.08%), intraocular pressure was controlled with anti-glaucoma medications; fifteen eyes (31.19%) needed surgery. The graft's cumulative success rate was 83.1% at six months, 58.4% at one year, and 35.1% at three years.

Conclusion: We conclude that despite the high complication rate following optical penetrating keratoplasty for failed therapeutic grafts, the visual and clinical outcomes are satisfactory for such high-risk grafts. Hence, it is imperative to venture surgical intervention to salvage these eyes.
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March 2022

Comparing the effectiveness of different postoperative counseling methods for post-keratoplasty patients.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;70(2):517-522

BioStatistician, Aravind Eye Hospital, Post Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: To compare various counseling methods for improving patient education, compliance, and administration of eye drops prescribed for post-optical keratoplasty patients and assess the most efficient counseling method.

Methods: A prospective, questionnaire-based pilot study was conducted among 60 post-optical keratoplasty patients who were randomly assigned into three groups for postoperative eye drop counseling, namely group 1 (video counseling), group 2 (chart counseling), and group 3 (verbal counseling at Cornea department). The questionnaire was answered by the patients/attendants applying the eye drops on the first 3 consecutive visits. McNemar-Bowker test was used to compare responses in each group and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare responses among the three groups. The Institutional Ethics Committee of Aravind Eye Hospital, Tirunelveli (Registration number ECR 816/Inst/Tn/2016) approved this study.

Results: Results demonstrated improvement in various categories assessed regarding drop administration in all three groups, which assessed patients' knowledge, attitude, and hygiene. Although all three groups showed improvements during subsequent follow-up visits, the video-counseling method was found to be an effective means of communication.

Conclusion: Our study emphasizes that the nonverbal and noncontact means of communication by video demonstration would be an effective way of counseling. It can be considered in the present scenario of the pandemic as well.
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February 2022

Incidence and risk factors for postoperative intraocular pressure response to topical prednisolone eye drops in patients undergoing phacoemulsification.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Dec 26;41(12):3999-4007. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Glaucoma Services, Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamilnadu, 625020, India.

Aim/purpose: To report the incidence, risk factors, and magnitude of steroid response in individuals receiving topical 1% prednisolone acetate eye drops following phacoemulsification surgery MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postoperative IOP of 1118 consecutive patients who had uneventful cataract surgery and used 1% topical prednisolone acetate were studied. Baseline ocular parameters like best-corrected visual acuity, IOP, and slit-lamp examination findings were noted preoperatively and at postoperative day 30. Incidence of postoperative intraocular pressure response to steroid was analyzed and graded as mild, moderate, or severe and risk factors studied.

Results: The mean age of our study cohort was 59.49 ± 7.25 years. The overall incidence of steroid response was 3.2%, (2.8% being moderate responders, and 0.4% high responders). Mean preoperative IOP was 14.67 ± 2.2 mm Hg in the study cohort (n = 1118). Mean postoperative IOP was 21.33 ± 7.97 mm Hg in the steroid responder (SR) and 14.66 ± 2.8 mm Hg in the non-responder (NR), with a statistically significant difference from the baseline IOP in the SR group (p < 0.001) and no difference in the NR. Univariate analysis revealed younger age and high axial length as risk factors but on multiple regression analysis, only younger age < 50 years was found to be a significant risk factor for steroid response.

Conclusion: The overall steroid response in this population post-cataract surgery was low with most being moderate responders. Younger age and higher axial length were identified as risk factors for steroid response, and hence this warrants the judicious use of steroids in such individuals.
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December 2021

Visual field-based grading of disease severity in newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma patients presenting to a tertiary eye care centre in India.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 9;41(9):3135-3143. Epub 2021 May 9.

Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the severity of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) at presentation using visual field analysis and its relationship to demographic and ocular factors in patients presenting to a tertiary eye care centre.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Newly diagnosed POAG patients were classified as early, moderate, or severe stage in the worse eye based on the Humphrey visual field testing using Hodapp-Parrish-Andersons criteria. The groups were compared for differences in demographics and ocular characteristics. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 14.1 (Texas, USA).

Results: The average age of 71 eligible patients was 60.04 ± 9.53 years, and the cohort had 29.5% females. Among the subjects, 19 (26.7%) had early, 24 (33.3%) had moderate and 28 (38.89%) had severe POAG at presentation. There was no statistically significant difference among different stages of glaucoma with respect to age and sex groups. No statistical association was found with education, occupation status, presenting complaints, family history of glaucoma, or systemic diseases between the different stages of severity. 5.6% with severe disease presented with a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD). The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) in the severe stage was 22.54 ± 5.27 mmHg, which was not statistically higher than the other groups (P = 0.726).

Conclusions: Newly diagnosed POAG patients predominantly present at moderate or severe stage of disease, reflecting either the asymptomatic nature of the disease or a lack of access to vision care services. Existing screening programmes need to be improved, with special attention to women and individuals less than 50 years of age.
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September 2021

Outcomes of Glaucoma Drainage Device Implantation and Trabeculectomy With Mitomycin C in Glaucoma Secondary to Aniridia.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 07 15;227:173-181. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of Aurolab aqueous drainage implant (AADI; Aurolab) placement and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) in patients with glaucoma secondary to aniridia.

Design: Retrospective comparative interventional case series.

Methods: This study included patients with congenital aniridia who underwent AADI implantation or trabeculectomy with MMC. Surgical failure was defined as IOP > 21 mm Hg or reduced <20% from baseline, IOP ≤ 5 mm Hg, reoperation for glaucoma or a complication, or loss of light perception vision.

Results: A total of 30 eyes of 30 patients underwent surgical treatment, including 18 eyes that received an AADI and 12 eyes that had a trabeculectomy with MMC. The cumulative probability of failure at 2 years was 11.1% (95% CI = 2.9%-37.6%) in the AADI group and 58.3% (95% CI = 33.5%-84.8%) in the trabeculectomy group (P = .05, log-rank). At 2 years, IOP (mean ± SD) was 14.1 ± 2.8 mm Hg in the AADI group and 19.6 ± 6.6 mm Hg in the trabeculectomy group (P = .02), and the number of glaucoma medications was 1.7 ± 0.9 in the AADI group and 2.2 ± 0.8 in the trabeculectomy group (P = .25). Surgical complications developed in 1 patient in each treatment group (P = .65). Cataract surgery was performed in 5 (42%) patients in the trabeculectomy group and no patients in the AADI group (P = .01).

Conclusions: Placement of an AADI resulted in lower IOP and a higher rate of surgical success compared to trabeculectomy with MMC in eyes with glaucoma associated with aniridia. Cataract extraction was more frequently required after trabeculectomy with MMC than AADI implantation.
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July 2021

A comparative study on endothelial cell loss in nanophthalmic eyes undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 02;69(2):279-285

Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the endothelial cell loss (ECL) in nanophthalmic eyes and age-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification and also to identify the risk factors influencing the endothelial cell density (ECD). This was a prospective comparative interventional case series.

Methods: We enrolled 19 nanophthalmic eyes (study group) and 42 age-matched cataract controls (control group) undergoing phacoemulsification after meeting the inclusion criteria. Ocular parameters like best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, pachymetry, specular microscopy, and slit lamp findings were noted preoperatively and at month 1 and 3 postsurgery. All nanophthalmic eyes underwent cataract surgery with concomitant prophylactic posterior sclerostomy.

Results: The median percentage endothelial loss in nanophthalmic eyes was 4.0 (IQR 0-23.5), 7.4 (IQR 1.0--22.4) at 1 and 3 months postoperatively compared to 6.3 (IQR 1.7-14.1) and 6.4 (IQR 2.6--12.1) in age controlled normal eyes (P = 0.94, P = 0.46, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed increasing age as the only variable influencing the percentage decrease in corneal ECD in the study group (P = 0.001). Nanophthalmic eyes with ACD <2.5 mm had a significantly greater reduction in ECD at 3 months postcataract surgery compared to baseline (P = 0.039). Visual outcomes and IOP reduction in the study group with ACD >2.5 mm were significantly better postcataract surgery (P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusion: The percentage of ECL in nanophthalmic eyes undergoing phacoemulsification is equivalent to normal eyes. However, in the nanophthamic eyes with AC depth <2.5 mm, the percentage cell loss was significantly higher warranting the need for extensive intraoperative care. Increasing age was found to be the only significant risk factor influencing the ECD in short eyes.
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February 2021

Long-Term Surgical Outcomes of Primary Congenital Glaucoma in a South Indian Population.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021 Sep-Oct;4(5):522-530. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term surgical outcomes of children with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in a South Indian population.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Participants: Children with PCG who underwent primary surgery from 1997 through 2000 at a tertiary eye center in India with minimum of 5 years of follow-up.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included children with PCG who underwent trabeculotomy, trabeculectomy, or combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy (CTT) as primary surgery from 1997 through 2000 at a tertiary eye center in India with minimum of 5 years of follow-up. Survival analyses were performed to determine cumulative probability of complete and qualified success.

Main Outcome Measures: Intraocular pressure (IOP) control, glaucoma medication use, surgical success rates, and complications.

Results: The study included 50 eyes of 31 patients. Mean age at initial surgery was 5 months (range, 5 days-48 months) and 19 patients (61.3%) showed bilateral disease. Mean duration of follow-up was 10.9 ± 3.10 years (range, 6-18 years). Mean IOP was reduced from 28.58 ± 9.78 mmHg (range, 10-59 mmHg) before surgery to 17.13 ± 7.62 mmHg after surgery (range, 5-42 mmHg; P < 0.001) at final follow-up. Survival analysis showed that the probability of surgical success with CTT was 77.8% at 1 year, 66.2% at 2 years, 53.0% at 5 years, and 16.6% at 15 years. Visual acuity at last available follow-up correlated with surgical success (P = 0.042).

Conclusions: Surgical success after long-term follow-up of children with PCG is low. The probability of surgical success declines over time. Children with PCG require life-long follow-up and management, even after initial surgical success, to prevent visual impairment and blindness.
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October 2021

Incidence and Outcomes of Hypertensive Phase Following Aurolab Aqueous Drainage Implant Surgery in Adults with Refractory Glaucoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 01 21;221:75-82. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Purpose: To report the incidence and outcomes of hypertensive phase (HP) following Aurolab Aqueous Drainage Implant (AADI) (Aurolab) surgery in adults with refractory glaucoma.

Design: Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series.

Methods: All eyes that received the AADI and had a minimum of 2-year follow-up were identified, and data of patients who had intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤21 mm Hg at 6 weeks (ie, the time at which the tube-ligature suture dissolves) were used for statistical analysis. HP was defined as IOP >21 mm Hg during the first 3 months after the release of the tube ligating suture (with or without medications) in the absence of tube obstruction.

Results: A total of 200 eyes were included in the study, and HP was seen in 64 eyes (32%) with a peak IOP (mean ± SD) of 29.6 ± 7.8 mm Hg and peak incidence at 2-3 months after surgery. HP resolved within 3 months of its onset in 60 of the 64 eyes (94%) with additional IOP-lowering medications. The cumulative success rates were 71.8% (95% CI = 59.3%-81.2%) in HP eyes and 76.4% (95% CI = 68.7%-82.7%) in non-HP eyes (P = .23). Unadjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that eyes experiencing HP had a marginally higher risk of failure (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.6-2.1), but this relationship was not statistically significant (P = .61).

Conclusions: A third of eyes that underwent AADI placement experienced HP. HP was successfully managed with additional IOP-lowering medications in a majority of cases and did not have a significant influence on long-term success rate.
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January 2021

Clinical spectrum and treatment outcomes of patients with nanophthalmos.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Mar 28;35(3):825-830. Epub 2020 May 28.

Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: To study the varied demographic, visual and clinical presentation of patients with nanophthalmos.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of 144 consecutive subjects with nanophthalmos from January 2010 to January 2018 was done. Demographic details, visual acuity, refractive status, clinical parameters and surgical data were collected.

Results: Mean age at presentation was 48.76 ± 15.99 years (5-74 years) and 55.6% were females. Median BCVA was 0.78 (6/36 Snellen equivalent) and median spherical equivalent was +10.0 (5.7-12.5) . Amblyopia was seen in 30.0% patients. Legal blindness was present in 16.7% of the study population. The mean IOP was 18.38 ± 9.38 mmHg. Angle closure disease was present in 67.7% and 35.7% had angle closure glaucoma. Presence of peripheral anterior synechia had higher odds (OR = 3.66; 95% CI, 1.71-7.84) of associated glaucoma. The mean axial length, 17.64 ± 1.74 mm was inversely correlated to the mean Retinochoroidal Sclera(RCS) thickness of 1.99 ± 0.25 mm (r = -0.28, p value < 0.001).All patients who had undergone surgery for glaucoma (n = 11) had associated intra or postoperative complication. Cataract surgery by manual small incision had more complications than Phacoemulsification (p value = 0.001). Occurrence of uveal effusion was significantly lower in eyes which underwent sclerostomy (p = 0.04) CONCLUSION: Nanophthalmos is a rare disorder with varying degree of visual impairment & amblyopia. High incidence of angle closure glaucoma was observed. Surgical management for glaucoma is often challenging with frequent complications. Cataract surgery by phacoemulsification had significantly lower complications than SICS and performing a concomitant sclerostomy reduced the occurrence of uveal effusions.
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March 2021

Surgical outcomes of repeat trabeculectomy augmented with high dose mitomycin C.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2019 Jan;67(1):95-100

Department of Glaucoma, Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcomes of repeat trabeculectomy augmented with risk factor adjusted mitomycin C (MMC) exposure in eyes with previous failed trabeculectomy.

Methods: Case records of 38 eyes of 37 patients with previous failed filter who underwent repeat trabeculectomy with MMC were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, requirement of anti-glaucoma medications, postoperative complications, and surgical success (defined as IOP of ≤21 mmHg and >5 mmHg along with 20% reduction from preoperative IOP with or without adjuvant medications) at 1-year postoperatively. Statistical analysis was done using the STATA 14.1 (Texas, USA).

Results: Patient's mean age was 46.41 (±20.43) years and the mean preoperative IOP was 32.73 (±9.26) mmHg which reduced to 16.22 (±7.08) mmHg postoperatively at 12 months (P < 0.001). Mean number of anti-glaucoma medications reduced from 2.76 (±0.83) preoperatively to 1.89 (±0.95) postoperatively (P < 0.001). Surgical success was observed in 81.1% at 1 year (n = 30). Eyes that received MMC >3 min had a postoperative mean IOP of 12.50 (±3.23) mmHg compared to 23.08 (±7.19) mmHg with MMC <3 min (P < 0.001). Seven eyes (18.4%) developed postoperative complications, and all were seen in eyes that received MMC >3 min (P = 0.033).

Conclusion: Repeat trabeculectomy with MMC, used in higher concentration and exposure time altered according to individual risk factor plays a crucial role in the success and hence it could be considered as a viable option before planning a tube surgery.
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January 2019