Publications by authors named "Mohammed Selloum"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mouse mutant phenotyping at scale reveals novel genes controlling bone mineral density.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 28;16(12):e1009190. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany.

The genetic landscape of diseases associated with changes in bone mineral density (BMD), such as osteoporosis, is only partially understood. Here, we explored data from 3,823 mutant mouse strains for BMD, a measure that is frequently altered in a range of bone pathologies, including osteoporosis. A total of 200 genes were found to significantly affect BMD. This pool of BMD genes comprised 141 genes with previously unknown functions in bone biology and was complementary to pools derived from recent human studies. Nineteen of the 141 genes also caused skeletal abnormalities. Examination of the BMD genes in osteoclasts and osteoblasts underscored BMD pathways, including vesicle transport, in these cells and together with in silico bone turnover studies resulted in the prioritization of candidate genes for further investigation. Overall, the results add novel pathophysiological and molecular insight into bone health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822523PMC
December 2020

BAHD1 haploinsufficiency results in anxiety-like phenotypes in male mice.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(5):e0232789. Epub 2020 May 14.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

BAHD1 is a heterochomatinization factor recently described as a component of a multiprotein complex associated with histone deacetylases HDAC1/2. The physiological and patho-physiological functions of BAHD1 are not yet well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of BAHD1 deficiency in the brains of male mice. While Bahd1 knockout mice had no detectable defects in brain anatomy, RNA sequencing profiling revealed about 2500 deregulated genes in Bahd1-/- brains compared to Bahd1+/+ brains. A majority of these genes were involved in nervous system development and function, behavior, metabolism and immunity. Exploration of the Allen Brain Atlas and Dropviz databases, assessing gene expression in the brain, revealed that expression of the Bahd1 gene was limited to a few territories and cell subtypes, particularly in the hippocampal formation, the isocortex and the olfactory regions. The effect of partial BAHD1 deficiency on behavior was then evaluated on Bahd1 heterozygous male mice, which have no lethal or metabolic phenotypes. Bahd1+/- mice showed anxiety-like behavior and reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Altogether, these results suggest that BAHD1 plays a role in chromatin-dependent gene regulation in a subset of brain cells and support recent evidence linking genetic alteration of BAHD1 to psychiatric disorders in a human patient.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232789PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224496PMC
July 2020

Soft windowing application to improve analysis of high-throughput phenotyping data.

Bioinformatics 2020 03;36(5):1492-1500

European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

Motivation: High-throughput phenomic projects generate complex data from small treatment and large control groups that increase the power of the analyses but introduce variation over time. A method is needed to utlize a set of temporally local controls that maximizes analytic power while minimizing noise from unspecified environmental factors.

Results: Here we introduce 'soft windowing', a methodological approach that selects a window of time that includes the most appropriate controls for analysis. Using phenotype data from the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), adaptive windows were applied such that control data collected proximally to mutants were assigned the maximal weight, while data collected earlier or later had less weight. We applied this method to IMPC data and compared the results with those obtained from a standard non-windowed approach. Validation was performed using a resampling approach in which we demonstrate a 10% reduction of false positives from 2.5 million analyses. We applied the method to our production analysis pipeline that establishes genotype-phenotype associations by comparing mutant versus control data. We report an increase of 30% in significant P-values, as well as linkage to 106 versus 99 disease models via phenotype overlap with the soft-windowed and non-windowed approaches, respectively, from a set of 2082 mutant mouse lines. Our method is generalizable and can benefit large-scale human phenomic projects such as the UK Biobank and the All of Us resources.

Availability And Implementation: The method is freely available in the R package SmoothWin, available on CRAN http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=SmoothWin.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115897PMC
March 2020

The neuroanatomy of Eml1 knockout mice, a model of subcortical heterotopia.

J Anat 2019 09 7;235(3):637-650. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

INSERM UMR S-1270, Paris, France.

The cerebral cortex is a highly organized structure responsible for advanced cognitive functions. Its development relies on a series of steps including neural progenitor cell proliferation, neuronal migration, axonal outgrowth and brain wiring. Disruption of these steps leads to cortical malformations, often associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy. We have generated a new resource to shed further light on subcortical heterotopia, a malformation characterized by abnormal neuronal position. We describe here the generation and characterization of a knockout (KO) mouse model for Eml1, a microtubule-associated protein showing mutations in human ribbon-like subcortical heterotopia. As previously reported for a spontaneous mouse mutant showing a mutation in Eml1, we observe severe cortical heterotopia in the KO. We also observe abnormal progenitor cells in early corticogenesis, likely to be the origin of the defects. EML1 KO mice on the C57BL/6N genetic background also appear to present a wider phenotype than the original mouse mutant, showing additional brain anomalies, such as corpus callosum abnormalities. We compare the anatomy of male and female mice and also study heterozygote animals. This new resource will help unravel roles for Eml1 in brain development and tissue architecture, as well as the mechanisms leading to severe subcortical heterotopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704242PMC
September 2019

A new mouse model of ARX dup24 recapitulates the patients' behavioral and fine motor alterations.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 06;27(12):2138-2153

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch, France.

The aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24 bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c.428_451dup24 duplication (Arxdup24/0) that we characterized at the behavior, neurological and molecular level. Arxdup24/0 males presented with hyperactivity, enhanced stereotypies and altered contextual fear memory. In addition, Arxdup24/0 males had fine motor defects with alteration of reaching and grasping abilities. Transcriptome analysis of Arxdup24/0 forebrains at E15.5 showed a down-regulation of genes specific to interneurons and an up-regulation of genes normally not expressed in this cell type, suggesting abnormal interneuron development. Accordingly, interneuron migration was altered in the cortex and striatum between E15.5 and P0 with consequences in adults, illustrated by the defect in the inhibitory/excitatory balance in Arxdup24/0 basolateral amygdala. Altogether, we showed that the c.428_451dup24 mutation disrupts Arx function with a direct consequence on interneuron development, leading to hyperactivity and defects in precise motor movement control and associative memory. Interestingly, we highlighted striking similarities between the mouse phenotype and a cohort of 33 male patients with ARX c.428_451dup24, suggesting that this new mutant mouse line is a good model for understanding the pathophysiology and evaluation of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985730PMC
June 2018

Increased H3K9 methylation and impaired expression of Protocadherins are associated with the cognitive dysfunctions of the Kleefstra syndrome.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 06;46(10):4950-4965

Radboud University, Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Kleefstra syndrome, a disease with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and other developmental defects is caused in humans by haploinsufficiency of EHMT1. Although EHMT1 and its paralog EHMT2 were shown to be histone methyltransferases responsible for deposition of the di-methylated H3K9 (H3K9me2), the exact nature of epigenetic dysfunctions in Kleefstra syndrome remains unknown. Here, we found that the epigenome of Ehmt1+/- adult mouse brain displays a marked increase of H3K9me2/3 which correlates with impaired expression of protocadherins, master regulators of neuronal diversity. Increased H3K9me3 was present already at birth, indicating that aberrant methylation patterns are established during embryogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Ehmt2+/- mice do not present neither the marked increase of H3K9me2/3 nor the cognitive deficits found in Ehmt1+/- mice, indicating an evolutionary diversification of functions. Our finding of increased H3K9me3 in Ehmt1+/- mice is the first one supporting the notion that EHMT1 can quench the deposition of tri-methylation by other Histone methyltransferases, ultimately leading to impaired neurocognitive functioning. Our insights into the epigenetic pathophysiology of Kleefstra syndrome may offer guidance for future developments of therapeutic strategies for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6007260PMC
June 2018

Corrigendum: High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes.

Nature 2017 11 8;551(7680):398. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature19356.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature24643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5849394PMC
November 2017

Mouse models of 17q21.31 microdeletion and microduplication syndromes highlight the importance of Kansl1 for cognition.

PLoS Genet 2017 Jul 13;13(7):e1006886. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is a multi-system disorder characterized by intellectual disability, friendly behavior, and congenital malformations. The syndrome is caused either by microdeletions in the 17q21.31 chromosomal region or by variants in the KANSL1 gene. The reciprocal 17q21.31 microduplication syndrome is associated with psychomotor delay, and reduced social interaction. To investigate the pathophysiology of 17q21.31 microdeletion and microduplication syndromes, we generated three mouse models: 1) the deletion (Del/+); or 2) the reciprocal duplication (Dup/+) of the 17q21.31 syntenic region; and 3) a heterozygous Kansl1 (Kans1+/-) model. We found altered weight, general activity, social behaviors, object recognition, and fear conditioning memory associated with craniofacial and brain structural changes observed in both Del/+ and Dup/+ animals. By investigating hippocampus function, we showed synaptic transmission defects in Del/+ and Dup/+ mice. Mutant mice with a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in Kansl1 displayed similar behavioral and anatomical phenotypes compared to Del/+ mice with the exception of sociability phenotypes. Genes controlling chromatin organization, synaptic transmission and neurogenesis were upregulated in the hippocampus of Del/+ and Kansl1+/- animals. Our results demonstrate the implication of KANSL1 in the manifestation of KdVS phenotypes and extend substantially our knowledge about biological processes affected by these mutations. Clear differences in social behavior and gene expression profiles between Del/+ and Kansl1+/- mice suggested potential roles of other genes affected by the 17q21.31 deletion. Together, these novel mouse models provide new genetic tools valuable for the development of therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5531616PMC
July 2017

Fasudil treatment in adult reverses behavioural changes and brain ventricular enlargement in Oligophrenin-1 mouse model of intellectual disability.

Hum Mol Genet 2016 06 4;25(11):2314-2323. Epub 2016 May 4.

Institut Cochin, INSERM U1016, CNRS UMR8104, Paris Descartes University, Paris, 75014, France

Loss of function mutations in human Oligophrenin1 (OPHN1) gene are responsible for syndromic intellectual disability (ID) associated with cerebellar hypoplasia and cerebral ventricles enlargement. Functional studies in rodent models suggest that OPHN1 linked ID is a consequence of abnormal synaptic transmission and shares common pathophysiological mechanisms with other cognitive disorders. Variants of this gene have been also identified in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The advanced understanding of the mechanisms underlying OPHN1-related ID, allowed us to develop a therapeutic approach targeting the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RHOA) signalling pathway and repurpose Fasudil- a well-tolerated Rho Kinase (ROCK) and Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor- as a treatment of ID. We have previously shown ex-vivo its beneficial effect on synaptic transmission and plasticity in a mouse model of the OPHN1 loss of function. Here, we report that chronic treatment in adult mouse with Fasudil, is able to counteract vertical and horizontal hyperactivities, restores recognition memory and limits the brain ventricular dilatation observed in Ophn1 However, deficits in working and spatial memories are partially or not rescued by the treatment. These results highlight the potential of Fasudil treatment in synaptopathies and also the need for multiple therapeutic approaches especially in adult where brain plasticity is reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddw102DOI Listing
June 2016

High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes.

Nature 2016 09 14;537(7621):508-514. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

Approximately one-third of all mammalian genes are essential for life. Phenotypes resulting from knockouts of these genes in mice have provided tremendous insight into gene function and congenital disorders. As part of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium effort to generate and phenotypically characterize 5,000 knockout mouse lines, here we identify 410 lethal genes during the production of the first 1,751 unique gene knockouts. Using a standardized phenotyping platform that incorporates high-resolution 3D imaging, we identify phenotypes at multiple time points for previously uncharacterized genes and additional phenotypes for genes with previously reported mutant phenotypes. Unexpectedly, our analysis reveals that incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are common even on a defined genetic background. In addition, we show that human disease genes are enriched for essential genes, thus providing a dataset that facilitates the prioritization and validation of mutations identified in clinical sequencing efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295821PMC
September 2016

Conditional depletion of intellectual disability and Parkinsonism candidate gene ATP6AP2 in fly and mouse induces cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration.

Hum Mol Genet 2015 Dec 16;24(23):6736-55. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Institut Clinique de la Souris, PHENOMIN, GIE CERBM, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7104, Illkirch, France, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U964, Illkirch, France and Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France

ATP6AP2, an essential accessory component of the vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), has been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and Parkinsonism. ATP6AP2 has been implicated in several signalling pathways; however, little is known regarding its role in the nervous system. To decipher its function in behaviour and cognition, we generated and characterized conditional knockdowns of ATP6AP2 in the nervous system of Drosophila and mouse models. In Drosophila, ATP6AP2 knockdown induced defective phototaxis and vacuolated photoreceptor neurons and pigment cells when depleted in eyes and altered short- and long-term memory when depleted in the mushroom body. In mouse, conditional Atp6ap2 deletion in glutamatergic neurons (Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice) caused increased spontaneous locomotor activity and altered fear memory. Both Drosophila ATP6AP2 knockdown and Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice presented with presynaptic transmission defects, and with an abnormal number and morphology of synapses. In addition, Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mice showed autophagy defects that led to axonal and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, axon myelination was affected in our mutant mice, and axonal transport alterations were observed in Drosophila. In accordance with the identified phenotypes across species, genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Atp6ap2(Camk2aCre/0) mouse hippocampi revealed dysregulation of genes involved in myelination, action potential, membrane-bound vesicles and motor behaviour. In summary, ATP6AP2 disruption in mouse and fly leads to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, mimicking aspects of the neuropathology associated with ATP6AP2 mutations in humans. Our results identify ATP6AP2 as an essential gene for the nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4634377PMC
December 2015

Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad-based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics.

Authors:
Martin Hrabě de Angelis George Nicholson Mohammed Selloum Jacqui White Hugh Morgan Ramiro Ramirez-Solis Tania Sorg Sara Wells Helmut Fuchs Martin Fray David J Adams Niels C Adams Thure Adler Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel Dalila Ali-Hadji Gregory Amann Philippe André Sarah Atkins Aurelie Auburtin Abdel Ayadi Julien Becker Lore Becker Elodie Bedu Raffi Bekeredjian Marie-Christine Birling Andrew Blake Joanna Bottomley Mike Bowl Véronique Brault Dirk H Busch James N Bussell Julia Calzada-Wack Heather Cater Marie-France Champy Philippe Charles Claire Chevalier Francesco Chiani Gemma F Codner Roy Combe Roger Cox Emilie Dalloneau André Dierich Armida Di Fenza Brendan Doe Arnaud Duchon Oliver Eickelberg Chris T Esapa Lahcen El Fertak Tanja Feigel Irina Emelyanova Jeanne Estabel Jack Favor Ann Flenniken Alessia Gambadoro Lilian Garrett Hilary Gates Anna-Karin Gerdin George Gkoutos Simon Greenaway Lisa Glasl Patrice Goetz Isabelle Goncalves Da Cruz Alexander Götz Jochen Graw Alain Guimond Wolfgang Hans Geoff Hicks Sabine M Hölter Heinz Höfler John M Hancock Robert Hoehndorf Tertius Hough Richard Houghton Anja Hurt Boris Ivandic Hughes Jacobs Sylvie Jacquot Nora Jones Natasha A Karp Hugo A Katus Sharon Kitchen Tanja Klein-Rodewald Martin Klingenspor Thomas Klopstock Valerie Lalanne Sophie Leblanc Christoph Lengger Elise le Marchand Tonia Ludwig Aline Lux Colin McKerlie Holger Maier Jean-Louis Mandel Susan Marschall Manuel Mark David G Melvin Hamid Meziane Kateryna Micklich Christophe Mittelhauser Laurent Monassier David Moulaert Stéphanie Muller Beatrix Naton Frauke Neff Patrick M Nolan Lauryl Mj Nutter Markus Ollert Guillaume Pavlovic Natalia S Pellegata Emilie Peter Benoit Petit-Demoulière Amanda Pickard Christine Podrini Paul Potter Laurent Pouilly Oliver Puk David Richardson Stephane Rousseau Leticia Quintanilla-Fend Mohamed M Quwailid Ildiko Racz Birgit Rathkolb Fabrice Riet Janet Rossant Michel Roux Jan Rozman Ed Ryder Jennifer Salisbury Luis Santos Karl-Heinz Schäble Evelyn Schiller Anja Schrewe Holger Schulz Ralf Steinkamp Michelle Simon Michelle Stewart Claudia Stöger Tobias Stöger Minxuan Sun David Sunter Lydia Teboul Isabelle Tilly Glauco P Tocchini-Valentini Monica Tost Irina Treise Laurent Vasseur Emilie Velot Daniela Vogt-Weisenhorn Christelle Wagner Alison Walling Bruno Weber Olivia Wendling Henrik Westerberg Monja Willershäuser Eckhard Wolf Anne Wolter Joe Wood Wolfgang Wurst Ali Önder Yildirim Ramona Zeh Andreas Zimmer Annemarie Zimprich Chris Holmes Karen P Steel Yann Herault Valérie Gailus-Durner Ann-Marie Mallon Steve Dm Brown

Nat Genet 2015 Sep 27;47(9):969-978. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

MRC Harwell, Medical Research Council, Harwell, UK.

The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-oriented platforms. We developed new statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no previous functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice, finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. New phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with previously unknown function, providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4564951PMC
September 2015

The homeodomain factor Gbx1 is required for locomotion and cell specification in the dorsal spinal cord.

PeerJ 2013 29;1:e142. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch Cedex, France.

Dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord integrate and relay sensory information to higher brain centers. These neurons are organized in specific laminae and different transcription factors are involved in their specification. The murine homeodomain Gbx1 protein is expressed in the mantle zone of the spinal cord at E12.5-13.5, correlating with the appearance of a discernable dorsal horn around E14 and eventually defining a narrow layer in the dorsal horn around perinatal stages. At postnatal stages, Gbx1 identifies a specific subpopulation of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal spinal cord. We have generated a loss of function mutation for Gbx1 and analyzed its consequences during spinal cord development. Gbx1 (-/-) mice are viable and can reproduce as homozygous null mutants. However, the adult mutant mice display an altered gait during forward movement that specifically affects the hindlimbs. This abnormal gait was evaluated by a series of behavioral tests, indicating that locomotion is impaired, but not muscle strength or motor coordination. Molecular analysis showed that the development of the dorsal horn is not profoundly affected in Gbx1 (-/-) mutant mice. However, analysis of terminal neuronal differentiation revealed that the proportion of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn is diminished. Our study unveiled a role for Gbx1 in specifying a subset of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord involved in the control of posterior limb movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3757465PMC
September 2013

A comparative phenotypic and genomic analysis of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains.

Genome Biol 2013 Jul 31;14(7):R82. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Background: The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms.

Results: We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems.

Conclusions: Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2013-14-7-r82DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4053787PMC
July 2013

The mammalian gene function resource: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium.

Mamm Genome 2012 Oct 12;23(9-10):580-6. Epub 2012 Sep 12.

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1HH, UK.

In 2007, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) made the ambitious promise to generate mutations in virtually every protein-coding gene of the mouse genome in a concerted worldwide action. Now, 5 years later, the IKMC members have developed high-throughput gene trapping and, in particular, gene-targeting pipelines and generated more than 17,400 mutant murine embryonic stem (ES) cell clones and more than 1,700 mutant mouse strains, most of them conditional. A common IKMC web portal (www.knockoutmouse.org) has been established, allowing easy access to this unparalleled biological resource. The IKMC materials considerably enhance functional gene annotation of the mammalian genome and will have a major impact on future biomedical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-012-9422-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3463800PMC
October 2012

Mouse large-scale phenotyping initiatives: overview of the European Mouse Disease Clinic (EUMODIC) and of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project.

Mamm Genome 2012 Oct 9;23(9-10):600-10. Epub 2012 Sep 9.

Institut Clinique de la Souris, PHENOMIN, IGBMC/ICS-MCI, CNRS, INSERM, Université de Strasbourg, UMR7104, UMR964, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France.

Two large-scale phenotyping efforts, the European Mouse Disease Clinic (EUMODIC) and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project (SANGER-MGP), started during the late 2000s with the aim to deliver a comprehensive assessment of phenotypes or to screen for robust indicators of diseases in mouse mutants. They both took advantage of available mouse mutant lines but predominantly of the embryonic stem (ES) cells resources derived from the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis programme (EUCOMM) and the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) to produce and study 799 mouse models that were systematically analysed with a comprehensive set of physiological and behavioural paradigms. They captured more than 400 variables and an additional panel of metadata describing the conditions of the tests. All the data are now available through EuroPhenome database (www.europhenome.org) and the WTSI mouse portal (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/mouseportal/), and the corresponding mouse lines are available through the European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA), the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC), or the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) Repository. Overall conclusions from both studies converged, with at least one phenotype scored in at least 80% of the mutant lines. In addition, 57% of the lines were viable, 13% subviable, 30% embryonic lethal, and 7% displayed fertility impairments. These efforts provide an important underpinning for a future global programme that will undertake the complete functional annotation of the mammalian genome in the mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-012-9418-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3463797PMC
October 2012

Identification of genes and networks driving cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse F2 intercross.

PLoS One 2010 Dec 14;5(12):e14319. Epub 2010 Dec 14.

Rosetta Inpharmatics LLC, A wholly owned subsidiary of Merck & Co, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6JxA/J F2 (B6AF2) cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0014319PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001864PMC
December 2010

Altered lipoprotein metabolism in P2Y(13) knockout mice.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2010 Dec 15;1801(12):1349-60. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Merck & Co, Inc., Rahway, NJ 07065, USA.

The purinergic receptor P2Y(13) has been shown to play a role in the uptake of holo-HDL particles in in vitro hepatocyte experiments. In order to determine the role of P2Y(13) in lipoprotein metabolism in vivo, we ablated the expression of this gene in mice. Here we show that P2Y(13) knockout mice have lower fecal concentrations of neutral sterols (-27%±2.1% in males) as well as small decreases in plasma HDL (-13.1%±3.2% in males; -17.5%±4.0% in females) levels. In addition, significant decreases were detected in serum levels of fatty acids and glycerol in female P2Y(13) knockout mice. Hepatic mRNA profiling analyses showed increased expression of SREBP-regulated cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis genes, while fatty acid β-oxidation genes were significantly decreased. Liver gene signatures also identified changes in PPARα-regulated transcript levels. With the exception of a small increase in bone area, P2Y(13) knockout mice do not show any additional major abnormalities, and display normal body weight, fat mass and lean body mass. No changes in insulin sensitivity and oral glucose tolerance could be detected. Taken together, our experiments assess a role for the purinergic receptor P2Y(13) in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and demonstrate that modulating its activity could be of benefit to the treatment of dyslipidemia in people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2010.08.013DOI Listing
December 2010

Genetic background determines metabolic phenotypes in the mouse.

Mamm Genome 2008 May 5;19(5):318-31. Epub 2008 Apr 5.

Institut Clinique de la Souris, BP 10142, 67404, Illkirch Cedex, France.

To evaluate the contribution of genetic background to phenotypic variation, we compared a large range of biochemical and metabolic parameters at different ages of four inbred mice strains, C57BL/6J, 129SvPas, C3HeB/FeJ, and Balb/cByJ. Our results demonstrate that important metabolic, hematologic, and biochemical differences exist between these different inbred strains. Most of these differences are gender independent and are maintained or accentuated throughout life. It is therefore imperative that the genetic background is carefully defined in phenotypic studies. Our results also argue that certain backgrounds are more suited to study a given physiologic phenomenon, as distinct mouse strains have a different propensity to develop particular biochemical, hematologic, and metabolic abnormalities. These genetic differences can furthermore be exploited to identify new genes/proteins that contribute to phenotypic abnormalities. The choice of the genetic background in which to generate and analyze genetically engineered mutant mice is important as it is, together with environmental factors, one of the most important contributors to the variability of phenotypic results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-008-9107-zDOI Listing
May 2008

Mature-onset obesity and insulin resistance in mice deficient in the signaling adapter p62.

Cell Metab 2006 Mar;3(3):211-22

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Signaling cascades that control adipogenesis are essential in the regulation of body weight and obesity. The adaptor p62 controls pathways that modulate cell differentiation. We report here that p62(-/-) mice develop mature-onset obesity, leptin resistance, as well as impaired glucose and insulin intolerance. The metabolic rate was significantly reduced in p62(-/-) nonobese mice, which displayed increased mRNA levels of PPAR-gamma and reduced levels of UCP-1 in adipose tissue. Basal activity of ERK was enhanced in fat from nonobese mutant mice. Embryo fibroblasts from p62(-/-) mice differentiated better than the wild-type controls into adipocytes, which was abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway. p62 is induced during adipocyte differentiation and inhibits ERK activation by direct interaction. We propose that p62 normally antagonizes basal ERK activity and adipocyte differentiation and that its loss leads to the hyperactivation of ERK that favors adipogenesis and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2006.01.011DOI Listing
March 2006

Mouse functional genomics requires standardization of mouse handling and housing conditions.

Mamm Genome 2004 Oct;15(10):768-83

Institut Clinique de la Souris, BP10142, 67404, Illkirch Cedex, France.

The study of mouse models is crucial for the functional annotation of the human genome. The recent improvements in mouse genetics now moved the bottleneck in mouse functional genomics from the generation of mutant mice lines to the phenotypic analysis of these mice lines. Simple, validated, and reproducible phenotyping tests are a prerequisite to improving this phenotyping bottleneck. We analyzed here the impact of simple variations in animal handling and housing procedures, such as cage density, diet, gender, length of fasting, as well as site (retro-orbital vs. tail), timing, and anesthesia used during venipuncture, on biochemical, hematological, and metabolic/endocrine parameters in adult C57BL/6J mice. Our results, which show that minor changes in procedures can profoundly affect biological variables, underscore the importance of establishing uniform and validated animal procedures to improve reproducibility of mouse phenotypic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-004-2393-1DOI Listing
October 2004