Publications by authors named "Mohammed S Alamri"

13 Publications

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Acetylated corn starch as a fat replacer: Effect on physiochemical, textural, and sensory attributes of beef patties during frozen storage.

Food Chem 2022 Sep 15;388:132988. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

Acetylated corn starch was used as a fat replacer in beef patties and its effect on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory attributes of the patties was assessed during frozen storage (-20 °C) for 60 days. The results showed that acetylated corn starch enhanced the redness, moisture retention, thickness, and sensory attributes of the patties (P ≤ 0.05). It also reduced the firmness, cooking loss, diameter reduction rate, and dimensional shrinkage of the patties (P ≤ 0.05). The patties contain 15% acetylated corn starch showed a microstructure similar to that contain 15% animal fat as examined by scanning electron microscopy. Patties containing acetylated corn starch showed high scores of physicochemical properties and sensory attributes, which revealed the beneficial use of this modified starch in meat industry. In conclusion, acetylated corn starch improved the physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of beef patties and can thus be used as fat replacer in meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132988DOI Listing
September 2022

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Yield and Related Traits Under Drought Stressed and Non-stressed Environments in Wheat.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:649988. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, United States.

Understanding the genetics of drought tolerance in hard red spring wheat (HRSW) in northern USA is a prerequisite for developing drought-tolerant cultivars for this region. An association mapping (AM) study for drought tolerance in spring wheat in northern USA was undertaken using 361 wheat genotypes and Infinium 90K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. The genotypes were evaluated in nine different locations of North Dakota (ND) for plant height (PH), days to heading (DH), yield (YLD), test weight (TW), and thousand kernel weight (TKW) under rain-fed conditions. Rainfall data and soil type of the locations were used to assess drought conditions. A mixed linear model (MLM), which accounts for population structure and kinship (PC+K), was used for marker-trait association. A total of 69 consistent QTL involved with drought tolerance-related traits were identified, with ≤ 0.001. Chromosomes 1A, 3A, 3B, 4B, 4D, 5B, 6A, and 6B were identified to harbor major QTL for drought tolerance. Six potential novel QTL were identified on chromosomes 3D, 4A, 5B, 7A, and 7B. The novel QTL were identified for DH, PH, and TKW. The findings of this study can be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for drought-tolerance breeding in spring wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.649988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258415PMC
June 2021

Identification of Main-Effect and Environmental Interaction QTL and Their Candidate Genes for Drought Tolerance in a Wheat RIL Population Between Two Elite Spring Cultivars.

Front Genet 2021 17;12:656037. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, United States.

Understanding the genetics of drought tolerance can expedite the development of drought-tolerant cultivars in wheat. In this study, we dissected the genetics of drought tolerance in spring wheat using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a drought-tolerant cultivar, 'Reeder' (PI613586), and a high-yielding but drought-susceptible cultivar, 'Albany.' The RIL population was evaluated for grain yield (YLD), grain volume weight (GVW), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), and days to heading (DH) at nine different environments. The Infinium 90 k-based high-density genetic map was generated using 10,657 polymorphic SNP markers representing 2,057 unique loci. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis detected a total of 11 consistent QTL for drought tolerance-related traits. Of these, six QTL were exclusively identified in drought-prone environments, and five were constitutive QTL (identified under both drought and normal conditions). One major QTL on chromosome 7B was identified exclusively under drought environments and explained 13.6% of the phenotypic variation (PV) for YLD. Two other major QTL were detected, one each on chromosomes 7B and 2B under drought-prone environments, and explained 14.86 and 13.94% of phenotypic variation for GVW and YLD, respectively. One novel QTL for drought tolerance was identified on chromosome 2D. expression analysis of candidate genes underlaying the exclusive QTLs associated with drought stress identified the enrichment of ribosomal and chloroplast photosynthesis-associated proteins showing the most expression variability, thus possibly contributing to stress response by modulating the glycosyltransferase () and hexosyltransferase () unique genes present in QTL 21 and 24, respectively. While both parents contributed favorable alleles to these QTL, unexpectedly, the high-yielding and less drought-tolerant parent contributed desirable alleles for drought tolerance at four out of six loci. Regardless of the origin, all QTL with significant drought tolerance could assist significantly in the development of drought-tolerant wheat cultivars, using genomics-assisted breeding approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.656037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249774PMC
June 2021

Quality Characteristics of Beef Patties Prepared with Octenyl-Succinylated (Osan) Starch.

Foods 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

Octenyl-succinylated corn starch (Osan) was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ground beef patties. The study involved incorporation of 5 and 15% Osan and storage for 30 or 60 days at -20 °C. The tested parameters included cooking loss, microstructure image, firmness, color, and sensory evaluation of the prepared patties. Along with Osan, native corn starch was used as control and considered the patties with added animal fat. The data showed that Osan reduced the cooking loss and dimensional shrinkage significantly ( < 0.05), whereas the moisture retention, firmness and color of beef patties were improved. The sensory evaluation indicated enhanced tenderness and juiciness without significant alteration of flavor, color, and overall acceptability of the cooked patties. Microstructure images of cooked patties indicated uniform/cohesive structures with small pore size of patties shaped with Osan. Obviously, good storability of the uncooked patties was reflected on the physiochemical, textural, color, and sensory evaluation of the cooked patties, which points to the benefit of using Osan in frozen patties and signifies possible use in the meat industry. The overall sensory acceptability scores were given to cooked patties containing Osan starch as well as the native starch, whereas 15% animal fat was favored too.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223992PMC
May 2021

Effect of Different Starches on the Rheological, Sensory and Storage Attributes of Non-fat Set Yogurt.

Foods 2020 Jan 7;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 11456, Saudi Arabia.

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of various native starches on the rheological and textural properties of non-fat set yogurt. The yogurt samples were prepared while using five types of starches (potato, sweet potato, corn, chickpea, and Turkish beans). The physical properties of the prepared yogurt were analyzed while using shear viscosity, viscoelasticity, and texture analysis. The tests were performed after 0, 7, and 15 days storage. The effect of these starches on the yogurt viscoelastic properties, texture, syneresis, and sensory evaluation were determined under optimum conditions. The results showed that adding 1% starch could significantly ( < 0.05) reduce syneresis and improve yogurt firmness. Starches exhibited different effect on the overall quality of the yogurt due to their origin and amylose content. Regardless of the number of storage period duration, all of the samples, including the control behaved as pseudoplastic materials ( < 1) with various levels of pseudoplasticity. Yogurts with corn and tuber starches had the highest consistency coefficient (k), which indicated higher viscosity. The yogurt sample with chickpea starch exhibited the highest G´, making the gel more solid like. Therefore, the influence of tuber starches (potato and sweet potato) on G´ was different when compared to corn or legume starches. The behavior of the starches changed with storage time, where some starches performed better only at the beginning of the storage period duration. Wheying-off was significantly reduced, regardless of starch type. The pH of the yogurt remained unchanged through storage. Sensory evaluation showed a preference for starch-containing samples as compared to the control, regardless of the starch type. The variation in yogurt quality as a function of starch type could be attributed to the starch granule structure, gelatinization mechanism, or amylose content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9010061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023355PMC
January 2020

Deciphering the Genetics of Major End-Use Quality Traits in Wheat.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 05 7;9(5):1405-1427. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797

Improving the end-use quality traits is one of the primary objectives in wheat breeding programs. In the current study, a population of 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Glenn (PI-639273) and Traverse (PI-642780) was developed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 16 end-use quality traits in wheat. The phenotyping of these 16 traits was performed in nine environments in North Dakota, USA. The genotyping for the RIL population was conducted using the wheat Illumina iSelect 90K SNP assay. A high-density genetic linkage map consisting of 7,963 SNP markers identified a total of 76 additive QTL (A-QTL) and 73 digenic epistatic QTL (DE-QTL) associated with these traits. Overall, 12 stable major A-QTL and three stable DE-QTL were identified for these traits, suggesting that both A-QTL and DE-QTL played an important role in controlling end-use quality traits in wheat. The most significant A-QTL () was detected on chromosome 1B for mixograph middle line peak time. The A-QTL was located very close to the position of the Glu-B1 gene encoding for a subunit of high molecular weight glutenin and explained up to 24.43% of phenotypic variation for mixograph MID line peak time. A total of 23 co-localized QTL loci were detected, suggesting the possibility of the simultaneous improvement of the end-use quality traits through selection procedures in wheat breeding programs. Overall, the information provided in this study could be used in marker-assisted selection to increase selection efficiency and to improve the end-use quality in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505165PMC
May 2019

Genome-Wide Mapping of Spike-Related and Agronomic Traits in a Common Wheat Population Derived from a Supernumerary Spikelet Parent and an Elite Parent.

Plant Genome 2015 Jul;8(2):eplantgenome2014.12.0089

Dep. of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State Univ., P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND, 58108-6050.

In wheat, exotic genotypes harbor a broad range of spike-related traits, and can be used as a source of new genes for germplasm enhancement in wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines was derived from a cross between an elite line (WCB414) and an exotic line (WCB617) with branched spike (supernumerary spikelet; SS) head morphology. The population was evaluated over four to six environments to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nine spike-related traits and 10 agronomic traits. A genetic map consisting of 939 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers was constructed. Composite interval mapping identified a total of 143 QTL located on 17 different wheat chromosomes and included 33 consistent and definitive QTL. The amount of phenotype variation explained (PVE) by individual QTL ranged from 0.61 to 91.8%. One major QTL for glume pubescence was located in a QTL-rich region on the short arm of chromosome 1A, where loci for other traits such as for kernels per spike (KS) and spike length (SL) were also identified. Similarly, a cluster of QTL associated with yield-related, agronomic and spike-related traits contributing up to 40.3% of PVE was found on the short arm of chromosome 2D, in the vicinity of a major QTL for SS-related traits. Consistent and major QTL identified in the present study may be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs to facilitate transfer of desirable alleles into other germplasm. Desirable QTL alleles were also contributed by the exotic line, suggesting the possibility of enriching the breeding germplasm with alleles from SS genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2014.12.0089DOI Listing
July 2015

New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary × non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes.

Theor Appl Genet 2015 May 5;128(5):893-912. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND, USA.

Key Message: A population developed from an exotic line with supernumerary spikelets was genetically dissected for eight quality traits, discovering new genes/alleles with potential use in wheat breeding programs. Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, an RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and new alleles for eight quality traits. Composite interval mapping for 1,000 kernels weight (TKW), kernel volume weight (KVW), grain protein content (GPC), percent of flour extraction (FE) and four mixograph-related traits identified a total of 69 QTLs including 19 stable QTLs. These QTLs were located on 18 different chromosomes (except 4D, 5D, and 6D). Thirteen of these QTLs explained more than 15% of phenotypic variation (PV) and were considered as major QTLs. In this study, we identified 11 QTLs for TKW (R (2) = 7.2-17.1 %), 10 for KVW (R (2) = 6.7-22.5%), 11 for GPC (R (2) = 4.7-16.9%), 6 for FE (R (2) = 4.8-19%) and 31 for mixograph-related traits (R (2) = 3.2-41.2%). In this population, several previously identified QTLs for SS, nine spike-related and ten agronomic traits were co-located with the quality QTLs, suggesting pleiotropic effects or close linkage among loci. The traits GPC and mixogram-related traits were positively correlated with SS. Indeed, several loci for quality traits were co-located with QTL for SS. The exotic parent contributed positive alleles that increased PV of the traits at 56% of loci demonstrating the suitability of germplasm with SS to improve quality traits in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-015-2478-0DOI Listing
May 2015

Okra-gum fortified bread: formulation and quality.

J Food Sci Technol 2014 Oct 28;51(10):2370-81. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia P.O. Box 2460, 11451.

Freeze-dried okra extract was added to Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheat flour intended for high soluble-fiber bread. Seedless okra pods were blended in 0.05 M NaOH solution and the extract (OE) was freeze-dried at pH 7. SE-HPLC of OE showed the presence of covalently bound peptides. Okra extract powder (OE) 4, 7, 10, and 13 % was used to replace wheat flour in preparing four bread formulations. Although Farinograph water absorption was increased up to 4.4 % due to OE addition, the dough mixing Tolerance (MIT) was also increased. In the presence of OE, bread loaf volume was lower and freezable water was higher. Overall, bread firmness was lower at lower storage temperature, but higher OE increased firmness, due to water migration from crumb to crust. Color was darker for both crust and crumb. The bread melting temperature shifted to lower values at higher OE content as shown by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The test indicated that the properties of the blends were similar around the glass transition region. Dynamic rheology of the blends revealed weaker visco-elastic behavior compared to the control. The magnitude of the complex moduli for the 4 % OE was independent of frequency, while the remaining blends were frequency dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0803-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190202PMC
October 2014

Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat.

Foods 2014 Apr 8;3(2):194-207. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Department #7670, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA.

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat ( L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods3020194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302366PMC
April 2014

Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical changes of proteins in wheat.

J Sci Food Agric 2014 Jan 27;94(2):205-12. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 58108-6050, USA.

Background: High moisture before harvest can cause sprouting of the wheat kernel, which is termed pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). The aim of this study was to examine the variation in physicochemical properties of proteins in PHS-damaged (sprouted) hard red and white spring wheat genotypes. Specifically, protein content, enzyme activity and degradation of proteins were evaluated in sound and PHS-damaged wheat.

Results: Protein contents of sprouted wheat samples were lower than that of non-sprouted samples; however, their differences were not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated with sprouting score. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer extractable proteins (EXP) and unextractable proteins (UNP) were analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography. PHS damage elevated endoprotease activity and consequently increased the degradation of polymeric UNP and free asparagine concentration in wheat samples. Free asparagine is known to be a precursor for formation of carcinogenic acrylamide during high heat treatment, such as baking bread. Free asparagine content had significant correlations (P < 0.01) with sprouting score, endoprotease activity and protein degradation.

Conclusions: Genotypes with higher endoprotease activity tend to exhibit a larger degree of degradation of UNP and higher free asparagine concentration in sprouted wheat samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6229DOI Listing
January 2014

Effect of okra gum on the pasting, thermal, and viscous properties of rice and sorghum starches.

Carbohydr Polym 2012 Jun 5;89(1):199-207. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Department of Food Science & Nutrition, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The effect of okra gum (OE) on the physical properties of rice and sorghum starches was investigated using rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), Brookfield viscometer, differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and light microscopy. Starch was replaced with 5, 10, 15% OE weight basis (g/100 g). In the presence of OE, the peak and final viscosity as well as the setback of both starches were reduced. However, the difference between the theoretical and the measured setback was more than just can be attributed to the omitted starch. The DSC data of the blends showed higher peak temperature compared to the control, indicating slower starch gelatinization in the presence of OE. Brookfield profiles demonstrated increase in shear stress at higher shear rate confirming pseudoplasticity of the system (n<1). Over all, it can be assumed that OE has influenced the properties of the starches, particularly, by decreasing viscosity, setback, and pseudoplasticity of the starch gels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.02.071DOI Listing
June 2012

Validation of the Antiproliferative Effects of Organic Extracts from the Green Husk of Juglans regia L. on PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells by Assessment of Apoptosis-Related Genes.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 6;2012:103026. Epub 2012 Feb 6.

Molecular Cancer Biology Research Laboratory (MCBRL), Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

With the increased use of plant-based cancer chemotherapy, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals for anticancer drug design has gained considerable attention worldwide. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of walnut green husk extracts on cell proliferation and to determine the possible molecular mechanism of extract-induced cell death by quantifying the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspases-3, and Tp53. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In this study, we found that green husk extracts suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by modulating expression of apoptosis-related genes. This involved DNA fragmentation (determined by TUNEL assay) and significant changes in levels of mRNA and the expression of corresponding proteins. An increase in expressions of Bax, caspase-3, and tp53 genes and their corresponding proteins was detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis in PC-3 cells treated with the green husk organic extracts. In contrast, Bcl2 expression was downregulated after exposure to the extracts. Our data suggest the presence of bioactive compound(s) in walnut green husks that are capable of killing prostate carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis and that the husks are a candidate source of anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/103026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3291301PMC
August 2012
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