Publications by authors named "Mohammed Jafer"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Metformin pre-conditioning enhances the angiogenic ability of the secretome of dental pulp stem cells.

Saudi Pharm J 2021 Aug 16;29(8):908-913. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of metformin on the angiogenic ability of secretomes from dental pulp stem cells. The stem cells were obtained from the dental pulp (DPSCs) (n = 3) using the explant culture method. We treated the DPSCs with different concentrations of metformin and assessed the expression of the angiogenesis-related genes. We also tested the angiogenic effect of the secretomes on the yolk sac membrane of the chick embryos by counting the quaternary blood vessel formations on the yolk sac membrane. We found that metformin treatment enhanced the angiogenic potential of the stem cell secretome in a dose-dependent manner. This was evidenced by the increase in the quaternary blood vessel formations in the yolk sac membrane with lower to higher concentrations of metformin. Pre-treatment with metformin modulates the angiogenic potential of the stem cell-conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. The augmentation of the angiogenic potential of the DPSCs can aid regeneration, especially in scenarios requiring the regeneration of vacuoles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2021.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363104PMC
August 2021

Differences in COVID-19 Preventive Behavior and Food Insecurity by HIV Status in Nigeria.

AIDS Behav 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Mental Health and Wellness Study Group, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

The aim of the study was to assess if there were significant differences in the adoption of COVID-19 risk preventive behaviors and experience of food insecurity by people living with and without HIV in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited a convenience sample of 4471 (20.5% HIV positive) adults in Nigeria. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the associations between the explanatory variable (HIV positive and non-positive status) and the outcome variables-COVID-19 related behavior changes (physical distancing, isolation/quarantine, working remotely) and food insecurity (hungry but did not eat, cut the size of meals/skip meals) controlling for age, sex at birth, COVID-19 status, and medical status of respondents. Significantly fewer people living with HIV (PLWH) reported a positive COVID-19 test result; and had lower odds of practicing COVID-19 risk preventive behaviors. In comparison with those living without HIV, PLWH had higher odds of cutting meal sizes as a food security measure (AOR: 3.18; 95% CI 2.60-3.88) and lower odds of being hungry and not eating (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI 0.20-0.30). In conclusion, associations between HIV status, COVID-19 preventive behaviors and food security are highly complex and warrant further in-depth to unravel the incongruities identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03433-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360820PMC
August 2021

Factors Associated with Financial Security, Food Security and Quality of Daily Lives of Residents in Nigeria during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 27;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Mental Health and Wellness Study Group, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220282, Nigeria.

An online survey was conducted to identify factors associated with financial insecurity, food insecurity and poor quality of daily lives of adults in Nigeria during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations between the outcome (experience of financial loss, changes in food intake and impact of the pandemic on daily lives) and the explanatory (age, sex, education level, anxiety, depression, HIV status) variables were determined using logistic regression analysis. Of the 4439 respondents, 2487 (56.0%) were financially insecure, 907 (20.4%) decreased food intake and 4029 (90.8%) had their daily life negatively impacted. Males (AOR:0.84), people who felt depressed (AOR:0.62) and people living with HIV -PLHIV- (AOR:0.70) had significantly lower odds of financial insecurity. Older respondents (AOR:1.01) had significantly higher odds of financial insecurity. Those depressed (AOR:0.62) and PLHIV (AOR:0.55) had significantly lower odds of reporting decreased food intake. Respondents who felt anxious (AOR:0.07), depressed (AOR: 0.48) and who were PLHIV (AOR:0.68) had significantly lower odds of reporting a negative impact of the pandemic on their daily lives. We concluded the study findings may reflect a complex relationship between financial insecurity, food insecurity, poor quality of life, mental health, and socioeconomic status of adults living in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345729PMC
July 2021

Effectiveness of Various Remineralizing Agents on White Spot Lesions after Orthodontic Treatment: A Comparative Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 May 1;22(5):545-548. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Periodontics, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Nellikuzhi, Kerala, India.

Aim And Objective: To evaluate and compare the ability of three commercially available remineralizing agents on the surface microhardness (SMH) of enamel after induction of white spot lesions (WSLs) by demineralization.

Materials And Methods: About 80 sound mandibular human premolars that were later removed as a part of orthodontic treatment were employed in this research under the inclusion criteria. After cleaning and disinfecting the teeth, their crowns were mounted in acrylic resin and painted with nail varnish, not including a 3 mm × 3 mm window in the middle of the buccal surface. Each tooth was soaked in 15 mL of a demineralizing solution at a pH of 4.5 that was prepared for this study and left in a place for 10 subsequent days to permit the formation of WSLs after which the SMH was again assessed. The premolar teeth were then randomly allocated and equally divided into one of the four groups of 20 each depending on the treatment they received as Group 1: control group, Group 2: Colgate sensitive Pro-Relief toothpaste group, Group 3: Amflor group, and Group 4: Enafix group. After 15 days, the microhardness of all samples was estimated and alterations in the same were noted. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface morphology.

Results: Enhanced and highest mean SMH was present in the Colgate sensitive Pro-Relief group (53.26 ± 0.10) followed by Enafix group (47.72 ± 0.21), Amflor group (44.84 ± 0.66), and control group (39.52 ± 0.32), respectively after application of remineralizing agents. Except for Group 3 vs Group 4, statistically significant differences ( < 0.05) were noted in all the groups.

Conclusion: All the three agents employed in this study, that is, Colgate sensitive Pro-Relief toothpaste, Amflor, and Enafix improved the SMH of teeth after the therapy given over 15 days compared to the microhardness following demineralization.

Clinical Significance: White spot lesions often occur on labial surfaces of teeth after orthodontic treatment. Hence, these lesions pose esthetic challenges thereby affecting treatment satisfaction perceived by the patient. As esthetics and appearance are of foremost significance after orthodontic treatment, elimination protocols for remineralization of WSLs are of utmost importance employing economic means. How to cite this article: Nalawade VA, Jeri SY, Dash BP, Effectiveness of Various Remineralizing Agents on White Spot Lesions after Orthodontic Treatment: A Comparative Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021;22(5):545-548.
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May 2021

Using the Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design to Investigate Dental Patients' Perceptions and Needs Concerning Oral Cancer Information, Examination, Prevention and Behavior.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 16;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate dental patients' behavior, thoughts, opinions and needs for oral cancer information, and dentists' behavior regarding prevention and examination of oral cancer.

Materials And Methods: This study utilized an exploratory sequential mixed methods design. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted for forty dental patients of both sexes. Based on the qualitative analysis, a structured questionnaire was developed and distributed among the participants. Data were analyzed for 315 participants to quantify their thoughts, needs, behavior and behavior expected from dentists regarding oral cancer. Frequency, percentages and cumulative percentages were calculated.

Results: This study reveals that patients' oral cancer knowledge levels were adequate, but most reported that their dentist had never examined them for oral cancer. Additionally, the participants had never performed self-examinations for oral cancer, nor were they aware of the possibility of doing so. Participants showed a preference for being examined and educated by their dentist about oral cancer and believed it would help early detection.

Conclusions: The study participants are aware of oral cancer and its risk factors. The practice of oral cancer examinations and patient education of its risk factors by dental practitioners is limited. Patients feel a need for more attention to be paid to oral cancer examinations, preventive measures and targeted information on oral cancer risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307210PMC
July 2021

Identifying Behavior Change Techniques Used in Tobacco Cessation Interventions by Oral Health Professionals and Their Relation to Intervention Effects-A Review of the Scientific Literature.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 13;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

This review aimed to identify the behavioral change techniques (BCTs) used in behavioral interventions for tobacco cessation at dental practices in relation to their effect on tobacco use. Six scientific databases were searched for behavior change interventions for tobacco cessation and were coded using the BCT taxonomy of behavioral support for smoking cessation (BCTTsm). Fifteen interventions were identified, and data related to intervention characteristics were abstracted. Sixteen BCTs were identified, mainly related to increased motivation and teaching regulatory skills. Goal setting was the most commonly used BCT. Ten out of fifteen interventions effectively impacted tobacco cessation outcomes (OR = 2 to 5.25). Effective interventions more frequently included goal setting, written materials, readiness to quit and ability assessment, tobacco-use assessment, self-efficacy boost, listing reasons for quitting, action planning and environment restructuring. Other BCTs were not clearly associated with an increased effect. Among the behavioral interventions, certain techniques were associated with successful tobacco quitting. Tobacco cessation interventions in a dental setting appear to benefit from using BCTs that increase motivation and teach regulatory skills. The identified BCTs in this review could provide a source to better inform researchers and dentists about the active ingredients in behavior change interventions for tobacco cessation in a dental setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305605PMC
July 2021

Pharmacological Means of Pain Control during Separator Placement: A Systematic Review.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Mar 1;22(3):316-323. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. e-mail:

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of adjuvant analgesics/anesthetics in pain control after separator placement compared with no medication.

Background: Separator placement to create space for cementing bands is the first clinical procedure done in orthodontics. Pain in this stage can negatively affect patient compliance and trust in the clinician. To date, there is no universally accepted regimen for pain control.

Materials And Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. One hundred and thirty-two potentially relevant studies were found. A total of eight randomized clinical trials including 642 subjects were selected. Data were extracted into customized forms, and selected studies were assessed for risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Results: Results showed the use of analgesics led to lower reported pain scores at almost all time intervals. NSAIDs resulted in a statistically significant reduction in pain compared to a control group.

Conclusion: According to the available literature, the use of analgesics is effective in controlling orthodontic pain due to separators. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen show a stable analgesic effect.

Clinical Implication: Acetaminophen 650 mg or ibuprofen 400 mg taken 1 hour prior to separator placement can reduce pain associated with the procedure.
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March 2021

Does Dental Fear in Children Predict Untreated Dental Caries? An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 12;8(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Dental Public Health, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Despite free health care services in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of caries in children is substantially greater in comparison to other high-income countries. Dental fear in children may be an important issue that needs attention. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the role of dental fear in predicting untreated dental caries in schoolchildren. This analytical cross-sectional study included children aged 8-10 years residing in Saudi Arabia. Dental status via oral examinations was surveyed with the WHO standardized chart and the Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale was used to score dental fear. Descriptive, binary, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to report the findings at 5% statistical significance. Overall, there were 798 schoolchildren with an average fear score of 36. Nearly 70.4% reported fear of someone examining their mouth. About 76.9% had at least one carious tooth in their oral cavity. Children with dental fear were 1.8 times (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.56) more likely to have at least one untreated carious tooth in their oral cavity than those who did not express fear during oral examinations and dental procedures. Thus, the current study concludes that fear of dentists and dental treatment procedures successfully predicts untreated carious teeth in schoolchildren.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8050382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151813PMC
May 2021

Third molar impaction in the Jazan Region: Evaluation of the prevalence and clinical presentation.

Saudi Dent J 2021 May 4;33(4):194-200. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To provide information on the prevalence and clinical features of impacted third molar teeth in the South-Western region of Saudi Arabia.

Material And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1200 panoramic radiographs (50% males and 50% females) were retrieved from the electronic clinical records of patients at the College of Dentistry, Jazan University from December 2014 to December 2016, and impacted third molars were evaluated. Data on clinical and radiographic presentation were analyzed.

Results: Overall, there were 291 (24.3%) patients with impacted third molars among 1200 radiographs. The distribution of impacted third molars according to the number of impacted teeth was as follows: one impaction in 121 (41.6%); two impactions in 90 (30.9%); three impactions in 42 (14.4%); and four impactions in 38 (13.1%) patients. There was a high prevalence of all impaction types among females (54.5%). Maxillary vertical angulation was most common (50%) followed by mandibular mesioangular angulation (48.3%). The depth of impaction in maxillary teeth was higher than in mandibular teeth. Pain was uncommon (4.5% of patients).

Discussion: Clinically, vertical impaction in the maxilla was present in 50% of patients because of limited posterior space, and mesioangular angulation in the mandible was present in 48% of patients because of inadequate space between the ramus and the second molar. These findings are similar to other reports. Vertical impaction of the maxillary wisdom tooth is mostly related to the discrepancy between the mesiodistal size of the tooth crown and the limited retromolar space.

Conclusion: Noiseless presentation of an impacted third molar requires raising the population's awareness about the need for diagnosis and treatment of the problem to avoid any further complications. The study can be to guide surgical procedures. This study documented the prevalence, pattern, and clinical features of impacted third molars in South Western region of Saudi Arabia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2020.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117367PMC
May 2021

Determinants of Weight-Related Behaviors in Male Saudi University Students: A Qualitative Approach Using Focus Group Discussions.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 1;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Health Promotion, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Obesity is a serious public health concern in the Gulf States. Students are exposed to many unhealthy weight-related behaviors due to college life. However, research that gives insight into regional and culture-specific aspects and determinants of weight-related behaviors in students is lacking. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential determinants of weight change, eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep behaviors in Saudi university students. Five semi-structured focus group discussions guided by Social Cognitive Theory were conducted, consisting of 33 male university students 20 to 22 years old. The data were transcribed, coded, and organized according to themes. The students reported weight gain due to personal, social, and environmental factors related to university lifestyle, such as unhealthy eating behaviors, low physical activity, high sedentary behaviors, and inadequate sleep. Both eating behaviors and physical activity shared similar personal aspects found in other studies, such as knowledge, stress, lack of time, and lack of motivation. However, there were some unique social and environmental factors in the region, such as the social norms, cultural aspects, weather conditions, passive transport dependency, and khat consumption, compared with studies worldwide. Such differences are key factors to developing effective interventions in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037069PMC
April 2021

COVID-19 and Periodontitis: A Reality to Live with.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Dec 1;21(12):1398-1403. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Phone: +966507633755, e-mail:

Background: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a r ecent pandemic that is advancing at a r apid r ate. The future course of the disease includes severe r espiratory infection and also leads to death if unattended. Meticulous measures are necessary before attending any patient. The dental operatories and the clinic surroundings must be well sanitized so as to prevent the spread of pandemic.

Aim And Objective: This r eview discusses in brief about the pathophysiology and course of COVID-19. Further, we discussed in detail the management aspects of patients in periodontal perspective and the sanitization procedures required for the dental clinic.

Review Results: The SARS coronavirus enters the human circulation via the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptors which are also found on the oral mucosal surfaces. Furin and Cathepsin L are the pro-inflammatory molecules released during pathogenesis of periodontitis and mediate the molecular pathways that help the virus invade into the host. The clinic set-up should be modified to best suit the pandemic conditions. This includes the three phases, i.e., phase I: preparatory phase; phase II: implementation phase; and phase III: follow-up. The patient management is explained based on the emergency needs of the patient based on the recent AAP classification of periodontal diseases and conditions 2017 as emergency, urgent, and elective treatment needs which have been explained in detail.

Conclusion: It can be strongly concluded that there is direct relationship between oral health and systemic health. The treatment procedures and sanitization protocols must be definitely modified. Further consensus and systematic reviews help us arriving at a more standardized protocol.

Clinical Significance: This review would help clinicians modify the way they treat patients in the clinic and provide better services depending upon the emergency needs of the patient.
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December 2020

Effectiveness of mobile phone applications in improving oral hygiene care and outcomes in orthodontic patients.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):26-32. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of mobile phone applications in improving oral hygiene care and oral health outcomes in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.

Materials And Methods: PUBMED/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, COCHRANE, PROQUEST, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were systematically searched for original studies published between January 2000 and March 2020. The eligibility criteria being: (i) observational study [cross-sectional, case-control, cohort study, or RCTs] that reported mobile phone application as an intervention or exposure for oral hygiene care. Standard Protocol Items Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) statement was used for quality assessment of interventional studies. The comprehensive search strategy yielded 154 studies after the removal of duplicates. Based on eligibility criteria only 5 studies were included in the data extraction phase.

Results: This review finds that smartphone applications have a significant short term effect in the improvement of oral hygiene when measured using plaque index and gingival index scores. The mean plaque index and gingival index reduced significantly in three out of five studies. The intervention groups [62%] had a lower level of plaque at a 12-week interval as compared to the control group [72%]. Short term follow-ups showed greater improvement in oral hygiene following smartphone application administration.

Conclusion: Within the available evidence, a recommendation can be made for the use of mobile applications in the orthodontic process [oral hygiene] care.

Clinical Relevance: Further research for the development of patient-centered applications for patient safety, clinical decision making, and increasing their effectiveness in the treatment of orthodontic patients are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736984PMC
November 2020

Low-Level Laser Therapy and Topical Medications for Treating Aphthous Ulcers: A Systematic Review.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2020 18;13:1595-1605. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The study compares low-level laser therapy with topical medications for treating aphthous ulcers.

Methods: A search of articles in this systematic review was completed in six databases. Treatment and comparative groups comprised of patients subjected to laser therapy and topical medications, respectively. Two different treatment outcomes were considered; pain and size of the lesion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials.

Results: From 109 articles, five randomized control trials fulfilled the selection criteria. The overall sample comprised of 98 males and 232 females, with a mean age of 32.4 years. The laser therapies in each included study had different active media and varying wavelengths. Topical medication used in the comparative group were triamcinolone acetonide, amlexanox, granofurin, and solcoseryl. Findings showed that patients who reported lower pain and decreased aphthous ulcer lesions were more in the laser therapy group than in the topical medication group.

Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy was better in treating aphthous ulcer lesions in comparison to topical medications, and all laser wavelengths in the included reports were seen to be effective. However, the results should be interpreted with caution, because no study demonstrated low-risk of bias in all the assessed domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S281495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680689PMC
November 2020

Dentists Behavioral Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Direct Clinical Observational Study.

J Cancer Educ 2020 Oct 22. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

This study aimed to investigate the possible factors affecting dentists' behavior relating to performing oral cancer examinations as part of routine clinical examination. A total of 95 direct clinical observation sessions-utilizing an instrument consisting of 19 evidence-based observational criteria for oral cancer examinations-were observed by four calibrated dentists. Thirty-two final-year students, 32 interns, and 31 faculty members of Jazan Dental School were examined between April 9 and May 4, 2017. A descriptive analysis was conducted to investigate the frequencies/percentages of the performed observing criteria by all examiners. ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out to investigate the difference between the examiner groups. A total number of 32 patients participated in the study, whereby each patient was examined by three different examiners from each group, as well as by the attending observer/s. Fewer than 50% of the examiners performed the clinical steps necessary for an oral cancer examination-for example, taking into account past medical history, as well as extra and intra-oral examinations. More than 90% of the examiners examined hard tissue, whereas fewer than 30% of them educated their patients about possible risk factors. A significant difference between examiner groups was found in favor of faculty members. A gap between knowledge and actual practice of oral cancer examinations was evident: majority of participants failed to perform the necessary steps for an oral cancer examination. Previous experience and confidence in performing oral cancer examination are possible explanations for the dentist's behavior toward oral cancer examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01903-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Current trends and future prospects of chemical management of oral biofilms.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):660-664. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Oral biofilm, a tribulation encountered on a general basis is known to associate and contribute to many oral and systemic diseases. Eradication of these biofilms is a primary step in treatment of the underlying malady. Management of a biofilm is governed by various factors: the microenvironment within a biofilm, bond between the adhered surface and the biofilm, location of the biofilm, access to the biofilm for removal. Though annihilation is the priority, the mode of approach to achieve the same is equally important, because biofilm's heterogenic nature and location govern the strategical treatment required. Literature supports that the consequences of oral biofilms is not restricted to its home ground, but disseminated to other systems of the body. This contemplates us to procure knowledge on its development, structure and progression to aim its eradication. Therefore, this review attempts to recognize the type of biofilm based on location and enumerate all the possible chemical modes of management for the specific type of oral biofilms encountered. In addition, to the traditional strategies prescribed or administered, newer approaches which are gaining popularity due to their ease and efficiency are also addressed. Frontiers in the above field, under investigation and promising in near future are also compiled. Thus, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive elucidation of chemical management of oral biofilms, both the conventional and novel approaches under investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.08.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7501456PMC
August 2020

Dental care and personal protective measures for dentists and non-dental health care workers.

Dis Mon 2020 Sep 30;66(9):101056. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, UT, United States. Electronic address:

As a pathogen spread primarily by the respiratory route COVID-19 infection not only poses significant risks to health care workers, but to dentists and dental health care workers, owing to the potential prolonged exposure and proximity to patients. This holds true for non-dentist health care workers who often in the setting of emergency departments and urgent care centers are tasked with addressing oral symptoms including abscesses, damaged teeth, jaw injuries and other dental urgencies. Infection control practice guidelines were evaluated for COVID-19 infection prevention in a dental setting. In this brief review, protective measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection for dentists and non-dentist health care providers will be introduced. This includes patient evaluation, personal and patient protective equipment use, sterilization and disinfection protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2020.101056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392592PMC
September 2020

Minimally invasive procedures for the recognition and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer.

Dis Mon 2020 Dec 30;66(12):101033. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, Utah 84095, United States. Electronic address:

Oral cancer represents a blend of genetic and epigenetic instability. Many a times, oral cancer occurs in the background of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), which could be easily detected and diagnosed. Various diagnostic aids have been explored for early detection of oral cancer. Some of the minimally invasive (chair-side diagnostic) procedures such as vital staining and light-based systems are used widely in the clinical practice as well as in the hospital setting owing to their simple and easy operability. In addition, these chair-side diagnostic procedures offer relatively good sensitivity and specificity despite some of their limitations. These diagnostic tools could complement good clinical history and thorough examination of patients for early detection of oral precancer and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2020.101033DOI Listing
December 2020

Epidemiologic aspects of oral cancer.

Dis Mon 2020 Dec 27;66(12):100988. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, Utah, United States. Electronic address:

Oral cancer is depicted by diverse geographic disparity in its incidence and prevalence, with a wide range of variation in its distribution across various parts of the world. The present review aims at focusing on the global epidemiological data of oral cancer and catalogues the available data from the past to till date on burden of oral cancer across different continents in the world. The review also suggests a few ideas on modifying the recording of the epidemiological data of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2020.100988DOI Listing
December 2020

Antibiotics for Periodontal Infections: Biological and Clinical Perspectives.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Apr 1;21(4):372-376. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Phone: +966 507633755, e-mail:

Aim: The review is to highlight the use of antibiotics in periodontal infections and prevent indiscriminate use of antibiotics.

Background: Periodontitis is the most common disease of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and its etiological factor can be related to the existence of virulent microorganisms in the dental plaque biofilm which harbors millions of microorganisms. In addition, the pathogenesis of this disease is greatly influenced by the host immune response that leads to the cyclic destruction and healing pattern.

Review Results: Periodontitis is mostly treated through mechanical debridement using surgical and nonsurgical therapy. However, many times, this treatment does not render desired results due to poor patient compliance, altered immune response, or other host-related factors. This leads to the administration of antibiotics as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. Antibiotics are useful in eliminating periodontopathic microbes, but these agents should be cautiously used and prescribed only if indicated.

Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to unforeseen adverse effects as well as the development of resistant strains of microorganisms.

Clinical Significance: Hence, it is crucial for the dentists to know the indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, correct choice, and dosage of the antimicrobial agent before prescribing it to their patients thereby ensuring the success of periodontal therapy. Thus, the clinician should keep in mind that the antibiotics are merely adjuncts to mechanical therapy and not its replacement.
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April 2020

Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) awareness among the dental interns, dental auxiliaries and dental specialists in Saudi Arabia: A nationwide study.

J Infect Public Health 2020 Jun 29;13(6):856-864. Epub 2020 May 29.

School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Dental health care workers (DHCW's) are invariably at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19. The objectives were; to investigate the current knowledge on COVID-19 among the DHCW's; and to conduct quasi-experiment among the DHCW's who were unaware of the disseminated COVID-19 information.

Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional study targeting dental interns, auxiliaries, and specialists with a two-staged cluster sampling technique was performed. A 17-item questionnaire was subjected to reliability and validity tests before being administered. The participants for quasi-experiment were separated from the original sample after their initial response. Chi-square test assessed responses to knowledge statements between the participants. Difference in mean knowledge scores between the categories of DHCW's and sources of COVID-19 information was assessed using ANOVA. Data from the quasi experiment (pre vs post knowledge intervention) was subjected to paired t-test. Percentage of DHCWs providing correct or wrong responses to each knowledge statement at baseline and after 7 days were compared using McNemar test.

Results: The overall sample consisted of 706 (N) participants, and the DHCW's with no prior knowledge on COVID-19 (N=206) were part of the quasi experiment. Findings from cross-sectional study revealed that knowledge was significantly (p<0.05) related to the qualification level (interns vs auxiliaries vs specialists). However, the difference in the source of information (WHO/CDC vs Journal articles vs MoH) did not demonstrate any effect. Number of participants with correct responses to knowledge questions had significantly (p<0.05) increased after intervention. Also, the overall mean knowledge score (10.74±2.32 vs 12.47±1.68; p<0.001) had increased significantly after the intervention.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the basic knowledge on COVID-19 among the DHCW's in Saudi Arabia is acceptable. Timely dissemination of information by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia had a positive impact on the COVID-19 knowledge score of the DHCW's.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255993PMC
June 2020

Epidemiological aspects of leprosy.

Dis Mon 2020 Jul 2;66(7):100899. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, UT, United States. Electronic address:

Leprosy is a bacterial infection causing severe disfigurement of the affected individual. It is considered as an ancient disease affecting humanity since thousands of years and also has tremendous stigma associated with it. It is known as a neglected tropical disease. In spite of all the efforts, the disease remains a major healthcare distress in many underdeveloped and developing countries like India and Brazil. Thus, to understand the disease and implement various strategies successfully, one need to understand the epidemiological aspect of the disease along with various operational factors influencing the epidemiological data. Thus, the present paper describes the various epidemiological facts and figures of leprosy along with the suggestions and measures to tackle this global ailment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2019.100899DOI Listing
July 2020

What Do Dentists and Dental Students Think of Oral Cancer and Its Control and Prevention Strategies? A Qualitative Study in Jazan Dental School.

J Cancer Educ 2021 02;36(1):134-142

Department of Health Promotion, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Jazan region of Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of oral cancer: 35% of cases. However, little is known about the view of dentists and dental students on possible factors that contribute to this high rate with scarce efforts regarding prevention. The study investigated possible factors related to oral cancer as perceived by dentists and dental students, using a qualitative approach. Six focus groups conducted in Jazan Dental School (JDS) and participants included dental students, interns, faculty members, and key decision-makers. All participants acknowledged oral cancer a serious public health issue in Jazan affecting all ages. The majority thought that tobacco is a major risk factor in this region, which can easily be obtained by individuals of any age or gender. Further, formal dental education in the country is not focusing on the local related risk factors. Participants agreed that practicing oral cancer examination and its risk factors education is related to clinicians' attitude and skills. Several participants declared that no organized effort established toward oral cancer and its risk factors in the region. Cultural acceptance of oral cancer risk factors was mentioned as one of the challenges for patients. The findings indicate that dental education and training at JDS are not focusing on necessary related oral health issues and their risk factors in the community. Also, it casts a new light on the fact that dentists are not educating their patients because they lack the knowledge and the skill of health education and patients' communication methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-019-01609-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835163PMC
February 2021

What do dental college clinicians know about oral cancer and its risk factors? An assessment among final year students, interns and faculty members in saudi arabia.

J Clin Exp Dent 2018 Sep 1;10(9):e908-e913. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Emeritus professor. Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University/CAPHRI, The Netherlands.

Background: The ability of health care professionals to perform oral cancer examination depends partly on their knowledge of the disease and its risk factors. This study aimed to assess and compare the knowledge of final year students, interns and faculty members regarding oral cancer and its risk factors.

Material And Methods: A 35-item questionnaire about knowledge of oral cancer and its risk factors was distributed among participants from Jazan University's Dental School. A minimum score of 18 was the cut-off point for an acceptable total score of oral cancer knowledge [OCTS]. Descriptive statistics described the relations between demographics variables and knowledge levels of participants. The differences between OCTS, diagnostic-clinical examination knowledge [DCK] and supportive knowledge [SK] and sex and occupation were analyzed using independent t-test and ANOVAs respectively.

Results: A total of 72 students, 68 interns and 88 faculty members completed the questionnaires (N = 228); with an average age of 23.8 ± 0.9 years, 25.1 ± 1.5 years and 40.6 ± 9.1 years with 55.1% males. OCTS was 20.2 ± 3.6 out of 35. No significant difference between OCTS and participants' sex was found (t (203) = 1.342, = .181, 95% CI for difference -.302 ــ 1.589). No significant differences in OCTS between students, interns and faculty members (F (2, 225) = 2.116, = .123). A significant difference in SK between final year students, interns, and faculty members was founded (F (2, 194) = 5.62, = .004).

Conclusions: Knowledge of oral cancer and its risk factors among Jazan Dental School's final year students, interns and faculty members is acceptable. However, due to the high rate of oral cancer in Jazan, emphasizing knowledge of oral cancer and its risk factors in the curriculum of Jazan Dental School is required. Oral cancer, risk factors, knowledge, dental education, curriculum, dental students, dentists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.55168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6203918PMC
September 2018

Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child's health in low- and middle-income countries.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2019 Mar;41(1):18-26

CAPHRI, Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: To summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on physical and mental health.

Methods: We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality.

Results: A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good.

Conclusion And Recommendations: Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. Further studies following a longitudinal design, and using common methods to assess the health impact of child labor in different country contexts would inform policy making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459361PMC
March 2019

Oral Lesions in Neonates.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016 Apr-Jun;9(2):131-8. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Professor, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4921882PMC
July 2016

Chemical Plaque Control Strategies in the Prevention of Biofilm-associated Oral Diseases.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2016 Apr 1;17(4):337-43. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dental plaque is a biofilm that forms naturally on the surfaces of exposed teeth and other areas of the oral cavity. It is the primary etiological factor for the most frequently occurring oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specific, nonspecific, and ecologic plaque hypothesis explains the causation of dental and associated diseases. Adequate control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of prevention of periodontitis and dental caries. Mechanical plaque control is the mainstay for prevention of oral diseases, but it requires patient cooperation and motivation; therefore, chemical plaque control agents act as useful adjuvants for achieving the desired results. Hence, it is imperative for the clinicians to update their knowledge in chemical antiplaque agents and other developments for the effective management of plaque biofilm-associated diseases. This article explores the critical analysis of various chemical plaque control strategies and the current trends in the control and prevention of dental plaque biofilm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1851DOI Listing
April 2016

Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India - A cross sectional study.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016 Apr;6(Suppl 1):S35-40

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20).

Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI.

Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-0762.181165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4863481PMC
April 2016

Vitamin D & its analogues in type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a systematic review.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2015 15;14:58. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, KSA.

Nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes often leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and found to be regulated by nuclear receptors such as vitamin D receptors (VDR). Vitamin D and its analogues have been effectively used in patients with CKD. The review attempts to summarize the available evidence on the role of vitamin D in DN. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies assessing the role of vitamin D or its analogues on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients. Studies evaluating kidney functions (urinary albumin/protein creatinine ratio, albuminuria and eGFR) were included and quality and risk of bias assessment performed. Additionally effect on 25 (OH) vitamin D, calcium and HbA1c were evaluated. The mean or its % change along with their standard deviation (SD) was used for reporting our results. RevMan (V5.2) was used for data analysis. Six studies included in this review evaluated the role of cholecalciferol, calcitriol and paricalcitol in patients with DN. Study designs differed (three randomized, one non-randomized and two uncontrolled trials) with varying degree of quality and risk of biases. Vitamin D analogues showed significant improvement in kidney function in two randomized studies. None of the studies reported significant incidences of hypercalcemia. Vitamin D analogues show significant improvement of kidney function in DN. Randomized controlled trials with longer duration, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D and its analogues are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0186-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4502529PMC
July 2015

The Periodontal Status and Associated Systemic Health Problems among an Elderly Population Attending the Outpatient Clinics of a Dental School.

Authors:
Mohammed Jafer

J Contemp Dent Pract 2015 12 1;16(12):950-6. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Lecturer and Head, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry Jazan University, PO Box 114, Jazan, Saudi Arabia, e-mail:

Aim: Periodontal diseases are associated with systemic health and health behaviors; the purpose of this study was to investigate periodontal health status and its association with systemic health and health behaviors in the elderly.

Materials And Methods: Data was collected from 300 random Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) dental school patient charts, aged 65 or higher. A modified WHO form was used to collect the date on: periodontal conditions using the community periodontal index (CPI), demographics, systemic health and certain health behaviors. Community periodontal index collected data for six sextants. Descriptive tests and bivariate analytic tests, Chi-square test and computation of odds ratio, investigated any association between certain periodontal conditions and demographic as well as systemic health attributes.

Results: In the study cohort, the average age was 73.7 ± 6.8 years. Moderate periodontitis (38.9%) was the most prevalent periodontal health condition, while severe periodontitis was the least prevalent periodontal health (6.1%). Nearly 30% of the cohort had healthy periodontium. Only insurance status was associated with healthy periodontium (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Moderate periodontitis was the most prevalent among the studied subjects. A positive association was found with the insurance status of the subjects and the healthy periodontium. No association was found between periodontal disease and smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1787DOI Listing
December 2015
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