Publications by authors named "Mohammed Gulrez Zariwala"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative Assessment of the Acute Effects of Whey, Rice and Potato Protein Isolate Intake on Markers of Glycaemic Regulation and Appetite in Healthy Males Using a Randomised Study Design.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 23;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Centre for Nutraceuticals, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK.

Global protein consumption has been increasing for decades due to changes in demographics and consumer shifts towards higher protein intake to gain health benefits in performance nutrition and appetite regulation. Plant-derived proteins may provide a more environmentally sustainable alternative to animal-derived proteins. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate, for the first time, the acute effects on glycaemic indices, gut hormones, and subjective appetite ratings of two high-quality, plant-derived protein isolates (potato and rice), in comparison to a whey protein isolate in a single-blind, triple-crossover design study with nine male participants (30.8 ± 9.3 yrs). Following a 12 h overnight fast, participants consumed an equal volume of the three isocaloric protein shakes on different days, with at least a one-week washout period. Glycaemic indices and gut hormones were measured at baseline, then at 30, 60, 120, 180 min at each visit. Subjective palatability and appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) over the 3 h, at each visit. This data showed significant differences in insulin secretion with an increase in whey (+141.8 ± 35.1 pmol/L; = 0.011) and rice (-64.4 ± 20.9 pmol/L; = 0.046) at 30 min compared to potato protein. A significantly larger total incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was observed with whey versus potato and rice with < 0.001 and = 0.010, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in average appetite perception between the different proteins. In conclusion, this study suggests that both plant-derived proteins had a lower insulinaemic response and improved glucose maintenance compared to whey protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308460PMC
June 2021

The Assessment of Daily Energy Expenditure of Commercial Saturation Divers Using Doubly Labelled Water.

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:687605. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Commercial saturation divers are exposed to unique environmental conditions and are required to conduct work activity underwater. Consequently, divers' physiological status is shown to be perturbed and therefore, appropriate strategies and guidance are required to manage the stress and adaptive response. This study aimed to evaluate the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of commercial saturation divers during a 21-day diving operation in the North Sea. Ten saturation divers were recruited during a diving operation with a living depth of 72 metres seawater (msw) and a maximum working dive depth of 81 msw. Doubly labelled water (DLW) was used to calculate DEE during a 10-day measurement period. Energy intake was also recorded during this period by maintaining a dietary log. The mean DEE calculated was 3030.9 ± 513.0 kcal/day, which was significantly greater than the mean energy intake (1875.3 ± 487.4 kcal; = 0.005). There was also a strong positive correction correlation between DEE and total time spent performing underwater work ( = 0.7, = 0.026). The results suggested saturation divers were in a negative energy balance during the measurement period with an intraindividual variability in the energy cost present that may be influenced by time spent underwater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.687605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208080PMC
May 2021

Micellar Nanocarriers of Hydroxytyrosol Are Protective against Parkinson's Related Oxidative Stress in an In Vitro hCMEC/D3-SH-SY5Y Co-Culture System.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 31;10(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Centre for Nutraceuticals, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK.

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a natural phenolic antioxidant which has neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Due to issues such as rapid metabolism, HT is unlikely to reach the brain at therapeutic concentrations required for a clinical effect. We have previously developed micellar nanocarriers from Pluronic F68 (P68) and dequalinium (DQA) which have suitable characteristics for brain delivery of antioxidants and iron chelators. The aim of this study was to utilise the P68 + DQA nanocarriers for HT alone, or in combination with the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO), and assess their physical characteristics and ability to pass the blood-brain barrier and protect against rotenone in a cellular hCMEC/D3-SH-SY5Y co-culture system. Both HT and HT + DFO formulations were less than 170 nm in size and demonstrated high encapsulation efficiencies (up to 97%). P68 + DQA nanoformulation enhanced the mean blood-brain barrier (BBB) passage of HT by 50% ( < 0.0001, = 6). This resulted in increased protection against rotenone induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by up to 12% and 9%, respectively, compared to the corresponding free drug treatments ( < 0.01, = 6). This study demonstrates for the first time the incorporation of HT and HT + DFO into P68 + DQA nanocarriers and successful delivery of these nanocarriers across a BBB model to protect against PD-related oxidative stress. These nanocarriers warrant further investigation to evaluate whether this enhanced neuroprotection is exhibited in in vivo PD models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226543PMC
May 2021

Excessive Iron Induces Oxidative Stress Promoting Cellular Perturbations and Insulin Secretory Dysfunction in MIN6 Beta Cells.

Cells 2021 May 9;10(5). Epub 2021 May 9.

Centre for Nutraceuticals, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK.

Exposure to high levels of glucose and iron are co-related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and dysregulation of insulin synthesis and secretion, although the precise mechanisms are not well clarified. The focus of this study was to examine the consequences of exposure to high iron levels on MIN6 β-cells. MIN6 pseudoislets were exposed to 20 µM (control) or 100 µM (high) iron at predefined glucose levels (5.5 mM and 11 mM) at various time points (3, 24, 48, and 72 h). Total iron content was estimated by a colourimetric FerroZine™ assay in presence or absence of transferrin-bound iron. Cell viability was assessed by a resazurin dye-based assay, and ROS-mediated cellular oxidative stress was assessed by estimating malondialdehyde levels. β-cell iron absorption was determined by a ferritin immunoassay. Cellular insulin release and content was measured by an insulin immunoassay. Expression of SNAP-25, a key protein in the core SNARE complex that modulates vesicle exocytosis, was measured by immunoblotting. Our results demonstrate that exposure to high iron levels resulted in a 15-fold (48 h) and 4-fold (72 h) increase in cellular iron accumulation. These observations were consistent with data from oxidative stress analysis which demonstrated 2.7-fold higher levels of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, exposure to supraphysiological (11 mM) levels of glucose and high iron (100 µM) at 72 h exerted the most detrimental effect on the MIN6 β-cell viability. The effect of high iron exposure on total cellular iron content was identical in the presence or absence of transferrin. High iron exposure (100 µM) resulted in a decrease of MIN6 insulin secretion (64% reduction) as well as cellular insulin content (10% reduction). Finally, a significant reduction in MIN6 β-cell SNAP-25 protein expression was evident at 48 h upon exposure to 100 µM iron. Our data suggest that exposure to high iron and glucose concentrations results in cellular oxidative damage and may initiate insulin secretory dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells by modulation of the exocytotic machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10051141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151797PMC
May 2021

Mouth Rinsing With a Pink Non-caloric, Artificially-Sweetened Solution Improves Self-Paced Running Performance and Feelings of Pleasure in Habitually Active Individuals.

Front Nutr 2021 12;8:678105. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Nutraceuticals, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, Westminster, United Kingdom.

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mouth rinsing with a pink non-caloric, artificially sweetened solution can improve self-selected running speed and distance covered during a 30 min running protocol. Ten healthy and habitually active individuals (six males, four females) completed two experimental trials in a randomised, single-blind, crossover design. Each experimental trial consisted of a 30 min treadmill run at a self-selected speed equivalent to 15 (hard/heavy) on the rating of perceived exertion scale. During exercise, participants mouth rinsed with either a pink or a clear non-caloric, artificially sweetened solution, with performance, perceptual and physiological measures obtained throughout. Self-selected running speed (+0.4 ± 0.5 km·h, = 0.024, = 0.25) and distance covered (+213 ± 247 m, = 0.023, = 0.25) during the 30 min running protocol were both improved by 4.4 ± 5.1% when participants mouth rinsed with the pink solution when compared to the clear solution. Feelings of pleasure were also enhanced during the 30 min treadmill run when participants mouth rinsed with the pink solution, with ratings increased from 3.4 ± 0.7 in the clear condition to 3.8 ± 0.6 in the pink condition (+0.4 ± 0.5, = 0.046, = 0.54). Mouth rinsing with a pink non-caloric, artificially sweetened solution improved self-selected running speed, total distance covered, and feelings of pleasure obtained during a 30 min running protocol when compared to an isocaloric and taste-matched clear solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.678105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153227PMC
May 2021

Co-Administration of Iron and a Bioavailable Curcumin Supplement Increases Serum BDNF Levels in Healthy Adults.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jul 22;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 22.

School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is key for the maintenance of normal neuronal function and energy homeostasis and has been suggested to improve cognitive function, including learning and memory. Iron and the antioxidant curcumin have been shown to influence BDNF homeostasis. This 6-week, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of oral iron supplementation at low (18 mg) and high (65 mg) ferrous (FS) iron dosages, compared to a combination of these iron doses with a bioavailable formulated form of curcumin (HydroCurc; 500 mg) on BDNF levels in a healthy adult cohort of 155 male (26.42 years ± 0.55) and female (25.82 years ± 0.54) participants. Participants were randomly allocated to five different treatment groups: both iron and curcumin placebo (FS0+Plac), low dose iron and curcumin placebo (FS18+Plac), low dose iron and curcumin (FS18+Curc), high dose iron and curcumin placebo (FS65+Plac) and high dose iron and curcumin (FS65+Curc). Results showed a significant increase in BDNF over time (26%) in the FS18+Curc group ( = 0.024), and at end-point between FS18+Curc and FS18+Plac groups (35%, = 0.042), demonstrating for the first time that the combination with curcumin, rather than iron supplementation alone, results in increased serum BDNF. The addition of curcumin to iron supplementation may therefore provide a novel approach to further enhance the benefits associated with increased BDNF levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463477PMC
July 2020

Generation of High Dose Inhalable Effervescent Dispersions against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

Pharm Res 2020 Jul 19;37(8):150. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

The School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AD, UK.

Purpose: Novel particle engineering approach was used in this study to generate high dose inhalable effervescent particles with synergistic effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

Methods: Spray dried co-amorphous salt of ciprofloxacin (CFX) and tartaric acid (TA) was prepared and coated with external layer of sodium bicarbonate and silica coated silver nanobeads. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to optimize physicochemical properties of particles for enhanced lung deposition.

Results: Generated particles were co-amorphous CFX/TA showing that CFX lost its zwitterionic form and exhibiting distinct properties to CFX/HCl as assessed by FTIR and thermal analysis. Particles exhibited mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.3 μm, emitted dose of 78% and fine particle dose of 85%. Particles were further evaluated via antimicrobial assessment of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). MIC and MBEC results showed that the hybrid particles were around 3-5 times more effective when compared to CFX signifying that synergistic effect was achieved. Diffusing wave spectroscopy results showed that the silver containing particles had a disruptive effect on rheological properties as opposed to silver free particles.

Conclusions: Overall, these results showed the potential to use particle engineering to generate particles that are highly disruptive of bacterial biofilms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-020-02878-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7369260PMC
July 2020

N-Acetylcysteine Nanocarriers Protect against Oxidative Stress in a Cellular Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jul 9;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK.

Oxidative stress is a key mediator in the development and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The antioxidant n-acetylcysteine (NAC) has generated interest as a disease-modifying therapy for PD but is limited due to poor bioavailability, a short half-life, and limited access to the brain. The aim of this study was to formulate and utilise mitochondria-targeted nanocarriers for delivery of NAC alone and in combination with the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO), and assess their ability to protect against oxidative stress in a cellular rotenone PD model. Pluronic F68 (P68) and dequalinium (DQA) nanocarriers were prepared by a modified thin-film hydration method. An MTT assay assessed cell viability and iron status was measured using a ferrozine assay and ferritin immunoassay. For oxidative stress, a modified cellular antioxidant activity assay and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay and mitochondrial hydroxyl assay were utilised. Overall, this study demonstrates, for the first time, successful formulation of NAC and NAC + DFO into P68 + DQA nanocarriers for neuronal delivery. The results indicate that NAC and NAC + DFO nanocarriers have the potential characteristics to access the brain and that 1000 μM P68 + DQA NAC exhibited the strongest ability to protect against reduced cell viability ( = 0.0001), increased iron ( = 0.0033) and oxidative stress ( ≤ 0.0003). These NAC nanocarriers therefore demonstrate significant potential to be transitioned for further preclinical testing for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402157PMC
July 2020

Deferoxamine and Curcumin Loaded Nanocarriers Protect Against Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity.

J Parkinsons Dis 2020 ;10(1):99-111

School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK.

Background: Reduced glutathione and excess free iron within dopaminergic, substantia nigra neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) can drive accumulation of toxic hydroxyl radicals resulting in sustained oxidative stress and cellular damage. Factors such as brain penetrance and bioavailability have limited the advancement of potential antioxidant and iron chelator therapies for PD.

Objective: This study aimed to develop novel nanocarrier delivery systems for the antioxidant curcumin and/or iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) to protect against rotenone-induced changes in cell viability and oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

Methods: Nanocarriers of curcumin and/or DFO were prepared using Pluronic F68 (P68) with or without dequilinium (DQA) by modified thin-film hydration. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and oxidative stress was measured using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and cellular antioxidant activity assays.

Results: All formulations demonstrated high encapsulation efficiency (65-96%) and nanocarrier size was <200 nm. 3-h pretreatment with P68 or P68+DQA nanocarriers containing various concentrations of curcumin and/or DFO significantly protected against rotenone-reduced cell viability. The addition of DFO to curcumin-loaded P68+DQA nanocarriers resulted in increased protection by at least 10%. All nanoformulations significantly protected against rotenone-induced lipid peroxidation (p < 0.0001). The addition of DQA, which targets mitochondria, resulted in up to 65% increase in cellular antioxidant activity. In nearly all preparations, the combination of 10 μM curcumin and 100 μM DFO had the most antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates for the first time the formulation and delivery using P68 and P68+DQA curcumin and/or DFO nanocarriers to protect against oxidative stress induced by a rotenone PD model. This strategy to combine antioxidants with iron chelators may provide a novel approach to fully utilise their therapeutic benefit for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-191754DOI Listing
April 2021

Griseofulvin solvate solid dispersions with synergistic effect against fungal biofilms.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 Dec 3;184:110540. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London, W1W 6UW, United Kingdom.

Fungal biofilms are invariably recalcitrant to antifungal drugs and thus can cause recurrent serious infections. The aim of this work was to prepare highly effective form of the antifungal drug griseofulvin using the chloroform solvate embedded into different polymeric matrices. Based on their solid solubility, solvated (chloroform) and non-solvated (methanol and acetone) solid dispersions were prepared using different materials: silica, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) by which HPMCAS dispersions showed the highest solubility of about 200 μg/mL compared with ∼30 μg/mL for pure griseofulvin. The anti fungal potential of griseofulvin was assessed against the dermatophytes T. rubrum. Metabolic and protease activity of T. rubrum NCPF 935 with and without the presence of GF:HPMCAS chloroform solvates showed significant reduction compared to the untreated control after 24 h period. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed thin hyphae compared to Control and GF:HPMCAS (non solvated). Dynamic vapour sorption data showed that HPMCAS formed most stable solvate structure preventing recrystallization and solvate expulsion, which could explain the disruptive effect of the biofilms. This could be explained by the formed hydrogen bonds as revealed by the solid and liquid state NMR data, which was further confirmed via thermal and FTIR analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.110540DOI Listing
December 2019

Fabrication of inhaled hybrid silver/ciprofloxacin nanoparticles with synergetic effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2018 Jul 11;128:27-35. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK.

Ciprofloxacin (CFX) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used as a first line treatment against infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumonia that are commonly acquired by cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no inhalation formulation is currently available for ciprofloxacin. Hybrid silica coated silver nanoparticles were prepared using Stöber reaction and the optimum ratio of chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate was used to encapsulate CFX. Particle deposition was assessed in vitro using twin stage impinger while antimicrobial activity was evaluated based on the planktonic growth of P. aeruginosa as well as against P. aeruginosa sp biofilm formation. In vitro deposition results showed significant deposition in stage 2 using twin stage impinger (TSI) (∼70%). Compared to CFX, the formed hybrid nanoparticles were 3-4 folds more effective against inhibiting growth and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. aeruginosa NCTC 10662.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.04.006DOI Listing
July 2018

Study on the Pulmonary Delivery System of Apigenin-Loaded Albumin Nanocarriers with Antioxidant Activity.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2017 Aug 10;30(4):274-288. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary .

Background: Respiratory diseases are mainly derived from acute and chronic inflammation of the alveoli and bronchi. The pathophysiological mechanisms of pulmonary inflammation mainly arise from oxidative damage that could ultimately lead to acute lung injury. Apigenin (Api) is a natural polyphenol with prominent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the lung. Inhalable formulations that consist of nanoparticles (NPs) have several advantages over other administration routes, and therefore, this study investigated the application of apigenin-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-Api-NPs) for pulmonary delivery.

Methods: Dry powder formulations of BSA-Api-NPs were prepared by spray drying and characterized by laser diffraction particle sizing, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction. The influence of dispersibility enhancers (lactose monohydrate and l-leucine) on the in vitro aerosol deposition using a next-generation impactor was investigated in comparison to excipient-free formulation. The dissolution of Api was determined in simulated lung fluid by using the Franz cell apparatus. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay.

Results: The encapsulation efficiency and the drug loading were measured to be 82.61% ± 4.56% and 7.51% ± 0.415%. The optimized spray drying conditions were suitable to produce particles with low residual moisture content. The spray-dried BSA-Api-NPs possessed good aerodynamic properties due to small and wrinkled particles with low mass median aerodynamic diameter, high emitted dose, and fine particle fraction. The aerodynamic properties were enhanced by leucine and decreased by lactose, however, the dissolution was reversely affected. The DPPH assay confirmed that the antioxidant activity of encapsulated Api was preserved.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence to support that albumin nanoparticles are suitable carriers of Api and the use of traditional or novel excipients should be taken into consideration. The developed BSA-Api-NPs are a novel delivery system against lung injury with potential antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jamp.2016.1316DOI Listing
August 2017

Comparison study of oral iron preparations using a human intestinal model.

Sci Pharm 2013 Oct-Dec;81(4):1123-39. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

Department of Human & Health Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London, W1W 6UW, UK.

Iron deficiency and related iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are the most prevalent nutritional disorders worldwide. The standard treatment involves supplementation with solid or liquid iron supplement preparations, usually based on a ferrous salt such as ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous gluconate. In the present study, we compared iron uptake and absorption from various solid and liquid iron supplement preparations currently available in the United Kingdom using the well-characterised human epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Intracellular ferritin protein formation by the Caco-2 cell was considered an indicator of cellular iron uptake and absorption. We investigated the effects of formulation ingredients at a defined pH on iron uptake and absorption, and designed a novel two-stage dissolution-absorption protocol that mimicked physiological conditions. Our experiments revealed wide variations in the rate of dissolution between the various solid iron preparations. Conventional-release ferrous iron tablets dissolved rapidly (48 ± 4 mins to 64 ± 4 mins), whereas modified-released tablets and capsules took significantly longer to undergo complete dissolution (274 ± 8 to 256 ± 8 mins). Among the solid iron preparations, ferrous sulphate conventional-release tablets demonstrated the highest iron absorption, whereas modified-release ferrous preparations demonstrated uniformly low iron absorption, as compared to the control (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that there are wide-ranging variations in dissolution times and iron uptake from oral iron preparations, with the physical characteristics of the preparation as well as the form of iron playing a key role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1304-03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3867244PMC
January 2014

Enhancement of immune response of HBsAg loaded poly (L-lactic acid) microspheres against hepatitis B through incorporation of alum and chitosan.

J Microencapsul 2007 Sep;24(6):539-52

Centre for Drug Delivery Research, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London, UK.

Purpose: Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLA) microparticles encapsulating Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with alum and chitosan were investigated for their potential as a vaccine delivery system.

Methods: The microparticles, prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation method with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or chitosan as the external phase stabilising agent showed a significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency of the antigen.

Results: PLA-Alum and PLA-chitosan microparticles induced HBsAg serum specific IgG antibody responses significantly higher than PLA only microparticles and free antigen following subcutaneous administration. Chitosan not only imparted a positive charge to the surface of the microparticles but was also able to increase the serum specific IgG antibody responses significantly.

Conclusions: The cytokine assays showed that the serum IgG antibody response induced is different according to the formulation, indicated by the differential levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). The microparticles eliciting the highest IgG antibody response did not necessarily elicit the highest levels of the cytokines IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-gamma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652040701443700DOI Listing
September 2007
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