Publications by authors named "Mohammed Amin"

87 Publications

Half Metallic Ferromagnetism and Transport Properties of Zinc Chalcogenides ZnXSe (X = Ti, V, Cr) for Spintronic Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Dec 22;15(1). Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Materials Science and Engineering Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

In ferromagnetic semiconductors, the coupling of magnetic ordering with semiconductor character accelerates the quantum computing. The structural stability, Curie temperature (T), spin polarization, half magnetic ferromagnetism and transport properties of ZnXSe (X = Ti, V, Cr) chalcogenides for spintronic and thermoelectric applications are studied here by density functional theory (DFT). The highest value of T is perceived for ZnCrSe. The band structures in both spin channels confirmed half metallic ferromagnetic behavior, which is approved by integer magnetic moments (2, 3, 4) μ of Ti, V and Cr based spinels. The HM behavior is further measured by computing crystal field energy ΔE, exchange energies Δ(), Δ () and exchange constants (Nα and Nβ). The thermoelectric properties are addressed in terms of electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and power factor in within a temperature range 0-400 K. The positive Seebeck coefficient shows p-type character and the PF is highest for ZnTi2Se4 (1.2 × 10 W/mK) among studied compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15010055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746128PMC
December 2021

Delirium screening tools in the post-anaesthetic care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2022 Jan 3. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia.

Background: Delirium is a serious neurocognitive disorder among surgical patients in the post-anaesthetic care unit (PACU). Despite the development of screening tools to identify delirium, it is not clear which tool is the most accurate and reliable in assessing delirium in the PACU.

Aim: To examine the diagnostic accuracy of delirium screening tools used in the PACU.

Methods: A systematic literature search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Scopus was conducted, using MeSH terms and relevant keywords, from databases establishment to 23 April 2021. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) tool.

Results: A total of 1503 studies were screened from the database search, four studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Six delirium screening tools used in the PACU were identified in the selected studies. Three studies evaluated screening tools in adult surgical patients without cognitive impairment and dementia. Two studies evaluated screening tools among patients who were scheduled for elective surgery. Review results indicated that two tools, the 4A's test (4AT; sensitivity 96%; specificity 99%) and the 3 min diagnostic interview for the Confusion Assessment Method (3D-CAM; sensitivity 100%; specificity 88%), had greatest validity and reliability as a screening tool for detecting delirium in the PACU.

Conclusion: Results indicate the 4AT and the 3D-CAM are most accurate screening tools to detect delirium in the PACU. Further research is required to validate those tools among a broader surgical population, including patients with cognitive impairment, dementia and those undergoing emergency surgical procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-021-02057-wDOI Listing
January 2022

High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) among E. coli from aquatic environments in Bangladesh.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(12):e0261970. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Laboratory of Food Safety and One Health, Laboratory Sciences and Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Fluro(quinolones) is an important class of antibiotic used widely in both human and veterinary medicine. Resistance to fluro(quinolones) can be acquired by either chromosomal point mutations or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). There is a lack of studies on the prevalence of PMQR in organisms from environmental sources in Bangladesh. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PMQR genes in E. coli from various water sources and analysed associations between multi-drug resistance (MDR) and resistance to extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. We analysed 300 E. coli isolates from wastewaters of urban live-bird markets (n = 74) and rural households (n = 80), rural ponds (n = 71) and river water samples (n = 75) during 2017-2018. We isolated E. coli by filtering 100 ml of water samples through a 0.2μm cellulose membrane and incubating on mTEC agar media followed by identification of isolated colonies using biochemical tests. We selected one isolate per sample for detection of PMQR genes by multiplex PCR and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion. Clonal relatedness of PMQR-positive isolates was evaluated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR). About 66% (n = 199) of E. coli isolates harbored PMQR-genes, predominantly qnrS (82%, n = 164) followed by aac(6')-lb-cr (9%, n = 17), oqxAB (7%, n = 13), qnrB (6%, n = 11) and qepA (4%, n = 8). Around 68% (n = 135) of PMQR-positive isolates were MDR and 92% (n = 183) were extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing of which the proportion of positive samples was 87% (n = 159) for blaCTX-M-1' 34% (n = 62) for blaTEM, 9% (n = 16) for blaOXA-1, blaOXA-47 and blaCMY-2, and 2% (n = 4) for blaSHV. Further, 16% (n = 32) of PMQR-positive isolates were resistant to carbapenems of which 20 isolates carried blaNDM-1. Class 1 integron (int1) was found in 36% (n = 72) of PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. PMQR genes were significantly associated with ESBL phenotypes (p≤0.001). The presence of several PMQR genes were positively associated with ESBL and carbapenemase encoding genes such as qnrS with blaCTXM-1 (p<0.001), qnrB with blaTEM (p<0.001) and blaOXA-1 (p = 0.005), oqxAB and aac(6')-lb-cr with blaSHV and blaOXA-1 (p<0.001), qnrB with blaNDM-1 (p<0.001), aac(6')-lb-cr with blaOXA-47 (p<0.001) and blaNDM-1 (p = 0.002). Further, int1 was found to correlate with qnrB (p<0.001) and qepA (p = 0.011). ERIC-PCR profiles allowed identification of 84 of 199 isolates with 85% matching profiles which were further grouped into 33 clusters. Only 5 clusters had isolates (n = 11) with identical ERIC-PCR profiles suggesting that PMQR-positive E. coli isolates are genetically heterogeneous. Overall, PMQR-positive MDR E. coli were widely distributed in aquatic environments of Bangladesh indicating poor wastewater treatment and highlighting the risk of transmission to humans and animals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0261970PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8716050PMC
January 2022

Emerging advances and current applications of nanoMOF-based membranes for water treatment.

Chemosphere 2021 Dec 22:133369. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are significantly tunable materials that can be exploited in a wide range of applications. In recent years, a large number of studies have been focused on synthesizing nano-scale MOFs (nanoMOFs), thus taking advantage of these unique materials in various applications, especially those that are only possible at nano-scale. One of the technologies where nanoMOF materials occupy a central role is the membrane technology as one of the most efficient separation techniques. Therefore, numerous reports can be found on the enhancement of the physiochemical properties of polymeric membranes by using nanoMOFs, leading to remarkably improved performance. One of the most considerable applications of these nanoMOF-based membranes is in water treatment systems, because freshwater scarcity is now an undeniable crisis facing humanity. In this in-depth review, the most prominent synthesis and post-synthesis methods for the fabrication of nanoMOFs are initially discussed. Afterwards, different nanoMOF-based composite membranes such as thin-film nanocomposites (TFN) and mixed-matrix membranes (MMM) and their various fabrication methods are reviewed and compared. Then, the impacts of using MOFs-based membranes for water purification through growing metal-organic frameworks crystals on the support materials and utilization of metal-organic frameworks as fillers in mixed matrix membrane (MMM) are highlighted. Finally, a summary of pros and cons of using nanoMOFs in membrane technology for water treatment purposes and clear future prospects and research potentials are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.133369DOI Listing
December 2021

Recent Advances and Perspectives of Battery-Type Anode Materials for Potassium Ion Storage.

ACS Nano 2021 Dec 3;15(12):18931-18973. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

JST-ERATO Yamauchi Materials Space-Tectonics Project and International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.

Potassium ion energy storage devices are competitive candidates for grid-scale energy storage applications owing to the abundancy and cost-effectiveness of potassium (K) resources, the low standard redox potential of K/K, and the high ionic conductivity in K-salt-containing electrolytes. However, the sluggish reaction dynamics and poor structural instability of battery-type anodes caused by the insertion/extraction of large K ions inhibit the full potential of K ion energy storage systems. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the exploration of promising anode materials. This Review begins with a brief introduction of the operation principles and performance indicators of typical K ion energy storage systems and significant advances in different types of battery-type anode materials, including intercalation-, mixed surface-capacitive-/intercalation-, conversion-, alloy-, mixed conversion-/alloy-, and organic-type materials. Subsequently, host-guest relationships are discussed in correlation with the electrochemical properties, underlying mechanisms, and critical issues faced by each type of anode material concerning their implementation in K ion energy storage systems. Several promising optimization strategies to improve the K storage performance are highlighted. Finally, perspectives on future trends are provided, which are aimed at accelerating the development of K ion energy storage systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c08428DOI Listing
December 2021

Development of an in silico multi-epitope vaccine against SARS-COV-2 by précised immune-informatics approaches.

Inform Med Unlocked 2021 3;27:100781. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna, 6600, Bangladesh.

The coronavirus family has been infecting the human population for the past two decades, but the ongoing coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 has posed an enigmatic challenge to global public health security. Since last year, the mutagenic quality of this virus is causing changes to its genetic material. To prevent those situations, the FDA approved some emergency vaccines but there is no assurance that these will function properly in the complex human body system. In point of view, a short but efficient effort has made in this study to develop an immune epitope-based therapy for the rapid exploitation of SARS-CoV-2 by applying in silico structural biology and advancing immune information strategies. The antigenic epitopes were screened from the Surface, Membrane, Envelope proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and passed through several immunological filters to determine the best possible one. According to this, 7CD4+, 10CD8+ and 5 B-cell epitopes were found to be prominent, antigenic, immunogenic, and most importantly, highly conserved among 128 Bangladeshi and 110 other infected countries SARS-CoV-2 variants. After that, the selected epitopes and adjuvant were linked to finalize the multi-epitope vaccine by appropriate linkers. The immune simulation disclosed that the engineered vaccine could activate both humoral and innate immune responses. For the prediction of an effective binding, molecular docking was carried out between the vaccine and immunological receptors (TLRs). Strong binding affinity and good docking scores clarified the stringency of the vaccines. Furthermore, MD simulation was performed within the highest binding affinity complex to observe the stability. Codon optimization and other physicochemical properties revealed that the vaccine would be suitable for a higher expression at cloning level. So, monitoring the overall in silico assessment, we anticipated that our engineered vaccine would be a plausible prevention against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imu.2021.100781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563510PMC
November 2021

Molecular insights into plant-microbe interactions for sustainable remediation of contaminated environment.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jan 29;344(Pt B):126246. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea. Electronic address:

The widespread distribution of organic and inorganic pollutants in water resources have increased due to rapid industrialization. Rhizospheric zone-associated bacteria along with endophytic bacteria show a significant role in remediation of various pollutants. Metaomics technologies are gaining an advantage over traditional methods because of their capability to obtain detailed information on exclusive microbial communities in rhizosphere of the plant including the unculturable microorganisms. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are functional methodologies that help to reveal the mechanisms of plant-microbe interactions and their synergistic roles in remediation of pollutants. Intensive analysis of metaomics data can be useful to understand the interrelationships of various metabolic activities between plants and microbes. This review comprehensively discusses recent advances in omics applications made hitherto to understand the mechanisms of plant-microbe interactions during phytoremediation. It extends the delivery of the insightful information on plant-microbiomes communications with an emphasis on their genetic, biochemical, physical, metabolic, and environmental interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126246DOI Listing
January 2022

Macroscopic MOF Architectures: Effective Strategies for Practical Application in Water Treatment.

Small 2021 Oct 29:e2104387. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, P. R. China.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have potential applications in removing pollutants such as heavy metals, oils, and toxins from water. However, due to the intrinsic fragility of MOFs and their fine powder form, there are still technical barriers to their practical application such as blockage of pipes, difficulty in recovery, and potential environmental toxicity. Therefore, attention has focused on approaches to convert nanocrystalline MOFs into macroscopic materials to overcome these limitations. Recently, strategies for shaping MOFs into beads (0D), nanofibers (1D), membranes (2D), and gels/sponges (3D) with macrostructures are developed including direct mixing, in situ growth, or deposition of MOFs with polymers, cotton, foams or other porous substrates. In this review, successful strategies for the fabrication of macroscopic materials from MOFs and their applications in removing pollutants from water including adsorption, separation, and advanced oxidation processes, are discussed. The relationship between the macroscopic performance and the microstructure of materials, and how the range of 0D to 3D macroscopic materials can be used for water treatment are also outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202104387DOI Listing
October 2021

Diaryl Sulfide Derivatives as Potential Iron Corrosion Inhibitors: A Computational Study.

Molecules 2021 Oct 19;26(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

The present work aimed to assess six diaryl sulfide derivatives as potential corrosion inhibitors. These derivatives were compared with dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone), a common leprosy antibiotic that has been shown to resist the corrosion of mild steel in acidic media with a corrosion efficiency exceeding 90%. Since all the studied compounds possess a common molecular backbone (diphenyl sulfide), dapsone was taken as the reference compound to evaluate the efficiency of the remainder. In this respect, two structural factors were examined, namely, (i) the effect of replacement of the S-atom of diaryl sulfide by SO or SO group, (ii) the effect of the introduction of an electron-withdrawing or an electron-donating group in the aryl moiety. Two computational chemical approaches were used to achieve the objectives: the density functional theory (DFT) and the Monto Carlo (MC) simulation. First, B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) model chemistry was employed to calculate quantum chemical descriptors of the studied molecules and their geometric and electronic structures. Additionally, the mode of adsorption of the tested molecules was investigated using MC simulation. In general, the adsorption process was favorable for molecules with a lower dipole moment. Based on the adsorption energy results, five diaryl sulfide derivatives are expected to act as better corrosion inhibitors than dapsone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8538167PMC
October 2021

Fabrication and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide (SGO) Doped PVDF Nanocomposite Membranes with Improved Anti-Biofouling Performance.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Okara, Okara 56181, Pakistan.

Emergence of membrane technology for effective performance is qualified due to its low energy consumption, no use of chemicals, high removal capacity and easy accessibility of membrane material. The hydrophobic nature of polymeric membranes limits their applications due to biofouling (assemblage of microorganisms on surface of membrane). Polymeric nanocomposite membranes emerge to alleviate this issue. The current research work was concerned with the fabrication of sulfonated graphene oxide doped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and investigation of its anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial behavior. The membrane was fabricated through phase inversion method, and its structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-rays diffraction (XRD) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. Performance of the membrane was evaluated via pure water flux; anti-biofouling behavior was determined through Bovine Serum albumin (BSA) rejection. Our results revealed that the highest water flux was shown by M7 membrane about 308.7 Lmh/bar having (0.5%) concentration of SGO with improved BSA rejection. Furthermore, these fabricated membranes showed high antibacterial activity, more hydrophilicity and mechanical strength as compared to pristine PVDF membranes. It was concluded that SGO addition within PVDF polymer matrix enhanced the properties and performance of membranes. Therefore, SGO was found to be a promising material for the fabrication of nanocomposite membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11100749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540047PMC
September 2021

Advances in the Methods for the Synthesis of Carbon Dots and Their Emerging Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Sep 20;13(18). Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea.

Cutting-edge technologies are making inroads into new areas and this remarkable progress has been successfully influenced by the tiny level engineering of carbon dots technology, their synthesis advancement and impressive applications in the field of allied sciences. The advances of science and its conjugation with interdisciplinary fields emerged in carbon dots making, their controlled characterization and applications into faster, cheaper as well as more reliable products in various scientific domains. Thus, a new era in nanotechnology has developed into carbon dots technology. The understanding of the generation process, control on making processes and selected applications of carbon dots such as energy storage, environmental monitoring, catalysis, contaminates detections and complex environmental forensics, drug delivery, drug targeting and other biomedical applications, etc., are among the most promising applications of carbon dots and thus it is a prominent area of research today. In this regard, various types of carbon dot nanomaterials such as oxides, their composites and conjugations, etc., have been garnering significant attention due to their remarkable potential in this prominent area of energy, the environment and technology. Thus, the present paper highlights the role and importance of carbon dots, recent advancements in their synthesis methods, properties and emerging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13183190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469539PMC
September 2021

Novel Optical Biosensor Based on a Nano-Gold Coated by Schiff Base Doped in Sol/Gel Matrix for Sensitive Screening of Oncomarker CA-125.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 3;6(32):20812-20821. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt, 11837 El Sherouk City, Cairo, Egypt.

The urge for sensitive, facile, minimally invasive, and fast detection method of CA-125, a significant and crucial biomarker in ovarian malignancy, is currently substantial. This paper describes the detailed construction and characterization of a newly designed optical nano-biosensor to detect CA-125 accurately and sensitively. The fabricated sensor consists of a nano-gold thin film doped into a matrix of sol-gel, exhibiting a centered fluorescence band at 423 nm when excited at 340 nm. The quantification of CA-125 relies on its quenching ability of this fluorescence signal. The sensor was challenged to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity in detecting CA-125 present in samples collected from ovarian cancer diagnosed patients and compared to samples from healthy women as a control. Our findings revealed that the developed biosensor had a sensitivity of 97.35% and a specificity of 94.29%. Additionally, a wide linearity range over 2.0-127.0 U mL for CA-125 was achieved with a detection limit of 1.45 U mL. Furthermore, the sensor could successfully discriminate samples between healthy and diseased people, which demonstrates its suitability in CA-125 assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374908PMC
August 2021

Characterization of Pathogenic Isolated From Fish Aquaculture of the Southwest Coastal Area of Bangladesh.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:635539. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratory of Environmental Health, Laboratory Sciences and Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture and a threat to human health. Here, we explored the incidence, virulence potential, and diversity of isolates from aquaculture farms in Bangladesh. We examined a total of 216 water, sediment, (tilapia), (rui), and (shrimp) samples from the aquaculture system where 60.2% (130/216) samples were positive for . Furthermore, we identified 323 strains from contaminated samples, 17 of which were found positive for , a virulence gene. Four isolates out of the 17 obtained were able to accumulate fluid in the rabbit ileal loop assay. The correlation between the contamination of and environmental factors was determined by Pearson correlation. The temperature and salinity were significantly correlated (positive) with the incidence of . Most of the pathogenic isolates (94.1%) were found resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin. O8: KUT was the predominant serotype of the potentially pathogenic isolates. ERIC-PCR reveals genetic variation and relatedness among the pathogenic isolates. Therefore, this region-specific study establishes the incidence of potential infection with from the consumption of tilapia, rui, and shrimp raised in farms in Satkhira, Bangladesh, and the basis for developing strategies to reduce the risk for diseases and economic burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.635539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982743PMC
March 2021

Human Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing in Relation to Animal and Environmental Exposures in Bangladesh: An Observational One Health Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 03 3;129(3):37001. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Background: Human exposure to intensively farmed livestock is a potential risk for transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) but few studies have assessed the relative role of animal vs. environmental sources of ARB in low-resource community settings.

Objectives: We conducted an observational study to compare ARB colonization and antibiotic-resistant gene prevalence and abundance in humans with high or low exposure to poultry in rural households, commercial poultry farms, and urban markets in Bangladesh.

Methods: Extended-spectrum (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant were quantified in feces from adults with high or low poultry exposure (, respectively), poultry (), drinking water (), and wastewater () from 40 rural households, 40 poultry farms, and 40 urban markets.

Results: ESBL-producing (ESBL-EC) prevalence was 67.5% (95% CI: 61.0, 74.0) in samples from adults, 68.0% (95% CI: 61.5, 74.5) in samples from poultry, and 92.5% (95% CI: 87.7, 97.3) in wastewater samples. Carbapenem-resistant prevalence was high in market wastewaters [30% (95% CI: 15.0, 45.0)] but low in humans (1%) and poultry (1%). Human, poultry, and wastewater isolates shared common resistance genes: , , and . Human colonization was not significantly associated with exposure to poultry or setting (rural, farm, or market). Ninety-five percent of commercial poultry farms routinely administered antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were significantly different in household vs. farm and market poultry isolates for four of seven antibiotic classes. In human isolates, there were no differences except aminoglycoside resistance (16.4% high vs. 4.4% low exposure, ). Urban market wastewaters and poultry samples had significantly higher concentrations of ESBL-EC () and () compared with samples from farms and rural households.

Discussion: ESBL-EC colonization was high in humans but not significantly associated with exposure to poultry. Bidirectional transmission of antibiotic resistance is likely between humans, poultry, and the environment in these community settings, underlining the importance of One Health mitigation strategies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7670.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP7670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7929562PMC
March 2021

Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of PtRu/nitrogen and sulphur co-doped crumbled graphene in acid and alkaline media.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 21;590:154-163. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, Univ. Polytechnique Hauts-de-France, UMR 8520, IEMN, F-59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

The low mass activity and high price of pure platinum (Pt)-based catalysts predominantly limit their large-scale utilization in electrocatalysis. Therefore, the reduction of Pt amount while preserving the electrocatalytic efficiency represents a viable alternative. In this work, we prepared new PtRu nanoparticles supported on sulphur and nitrogen co-doped crumbled graphene with trace amounts of iron (PtRu/PF) electrocatalysts. The PtRu/PF catalysts exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic performance and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at pH = 0. Moreover, the prepared PtRu/PF electrocatalyst displayed higher HER activity than commercial 20% Pt/C. The PtRu/PF catalyst achieved a current density of 10 mA cm at an overpotential value of only 22 mV for HER, performing better activity than many other Pt-based electrocatalysts. Besides, the PtRu/PF revealed a good performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. The PtRu/PF catalyst recorded a current density of 10 mA cm at an overpotential of only 270 mV for OER in KOH (1.0 M) solution and an onset potential of 0.96 V vs. RHE (at 1 mA cm) for ORR in KOH (0.1 M) solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.01.049DOI Listing
May 2021

Adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibitive characteristics of newly synthesized cyano-benzylidene xanthenes on copper/sodium hydroxide interface: Electrochemical, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Nov 2;580:108-125. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, P.O. Box 888, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, 11566 Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Elegant process for synthesis of 3-(7H-dibenzo[c,h]xanthen-7-yl)benzaldehyde (3), as new starting material to create a set of novel xanthene analogues, 2-(3-(7H-dibenzo[c,h]xanthen-7-yl)benzylidene)malononitrile (4), 3-(3-(7H-dibenzo[c,h]xanthen-7-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (5), and Ethyl-3-(3-(7H-dibenzo[c,h]xanthen-7-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacrylate (6), was achieved starting with available materials under mild conditions. Various concentrations (ca. 0.1-1.0 mM) of the synthesized cyano-benzylidene xanthene derivatives, namely compounds 3-6, were tested as inhibitors to control copper corrosion in alkaline solutions employing polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Results revealed that the four studied xanthenes derivatives served as efficient (mixed-type) inhibitors. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration.The inhibition performance of studied compounds varied according to their chemical structures. The best inhibitor, compound (5), achieved a maximum inhibition efficiency of 98.7% (calculated from corrosion current densities) and ~ 95% (estimated from charge-transfer resistance values) at a concentration of 1.0 mM. The morphology of the corroded and inhibited copper surfaces was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) profiles. XPS data were used to compare the inhibition efficiencies exhibited by studied compounds. The oxidation rate of the Cu surface was found to be frivolous, referring to high inhibition efficiency, only in the presence of inhibitor (5), and Cu share is 87% of all copper components. The shares of Cu were significantly reduced to 43%, 26% and 20% for inhibitors (3), (4) and (6), respectively. These findings go parallel with the results obtained from electrochemical measurements. The quantum-chemical calculations of the investigated molecules were performed to support electrochemical findings, and their correlations with the inhibition efficiency of the synthesized compounds were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.06.110DOI Listing
November 2020

Synthesis of air-stable two-dimensional nanoplatelets of Ruddlesden-Popper organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.

Nanoscale 2020 May;12(18):10072-10081

NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826, USA.

We present a simple and facile method to synthesize nanoplatelets of 2D Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) perovskites of the type (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7 where n = 2. The 2D RP nanoplatelets are synthesized from bulk 2D RP crystals via a reflux pre-treatment mediated-ultrasonication method. The as-synthesized 2D RP nanoplatelets are highly air-stable even after two months of storage under an ambient atmosphere. The bulk 2D RP crystals and 2D RP nanoplatelets are characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence, time correlated single photon counting measurement, etc. A significant blue shift in the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum, high photoluminescence in the UV region, and the modified work function of the nanoplatelets indicate a strong quantum confinement effect. The quantum confinement in the nanoplatelets is further confirmed using XPS. A photodetector fabricated using these 2D RP nanoplatelets exhibits a high photodetectivity of 3.09 × 1010 Jones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr10543cDOI Listing
May 2020

Occurrence and genetic characteristics of mcr-1-positive colistin-resistant E. coli from poultry environments in Bangladesh.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 09 25;22:546-552. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Food Safety and One Health, Laboratory Sciences and Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh; Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections. We determined the occurrence and characteristics of mcr-1-producing Escherichia coli obtained from live bird markets (LBMs), rural poultry farms (RPFs) and rural household backyard poultry environments (HBPs) in Bangladesh.

Methods: We tested 104 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated during 2017-2018 from poultry sources for colistin resistance. We analysed the resistant isolates for the mcr genes and characterized mcr-positive isolates for antibiotic susceptibility, antibiotic resistance genes, transmissible plasmids and clonal diversity.

Results: Of 104 isolates, 98 (94%) had MIC ≥4 μg/mL and 14 (13.5%) were positive for mcr-1, of which 10 were from LBMs (n = 10), 3 were from RPFs and 1 was from an HBP. All 14 mcr-1 E. coli were resistant to third-generation cephalosporin and tetracycline, whereas 12 were resistant to fluoroquinolone and sulfamethoxazole, 10 were resistant to aminoglycosides and 3 were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Four isolates carried conjugative mcr-1 plasmid of 23-55 MDa in size. The 55 MDa plasmid found in two isolates carried additional resistant genes including bla and bla (ESBL), qnrB (fluoroquinolone), and rmtB (aminoglycoside). These plasmids belong to the IncF family with additional replicons: HI1 and N. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction revealed a heterogeneous banding pattern of mcr-1-positive isolates.

Conclusion: We report a 13.5% prevalence of mcr-1-positive MDR E. coli in poultry faecal samples predominantly from LBMs in Bangladesh accentuating the need for safe disposal of poultry faeces and hygiene practices among people exposed to poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2020.03.028DOI Listing
September 2020

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to HIV Stigma and Discrimination Among Healthcare Workers in Oman.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2020 Feb 9;20(1):e29-e36. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Directorate General for Disease Surveillance & Control, Ministry of Health, Oman.

Objectives: Stigma and discrimination undermine the quality of life of people with HIV and their access to health services. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Oman.

Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between July and November 2016. A questionnaire was distributed to 1,400 government HCWs to determine HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices.

Results: A total of 1,281 HCWs participated (response rate = 92%). Routine tasks, such as dressing wounds, drawing blood and touching clothes, were a cause of concern for 24-52% of HCWs. Only 69% correctly answered questions regarding the transmission of HIV via eating/drinking and mosquito bites. Compared to other HCWs, doctors had significantly higher knowledge (mean = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19 to 0.73; <0.001), attitude (mean = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.31 to 1.24; = 0.001) and practice (mean = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.59 to 2.55; <0.001) scores. Expatriates also scored significantly higher in knowledge (mean = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.23; <0.001), attitude (mean = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.48; <0.001) and practice (mean = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.34; <0.001) compared to Omani nationals. Finally, those with >15 years' work experience scored significantly higher on knowledge (mean = -0.60, 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.08; = 0.025) and attitude (mean = -0.99, 95% CI: -1.87 to -0.10; = 0.029) compared to those with less experience.

Conclusion: The high rate of HIV-related stigma among HCWs in Oman should be rectified in order to achieve the 90-90-90 target set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2020.20.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065692PMC
February 2020

Cetuximab Conjugated with Octreotide and Entrapped Calcium Alginate-beads for Targeting Somatostatin Receptors.

Sci Rep 2020 03 13;10(1):4736. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University James Parsons Building, Liverpool, UK.

There is a need to formulate oral cetuximab (CTX) for targeting colorectal cancer, which is reported to express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Therefore, coating CTX with a somatostatin analogue such as octreotide (OCT) is beneficial. Alginate was used to coat CTX to facilitate delivery to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This study aimed to deliver CTX conjugated with OCT in the form of microparticles as a GIT-targeted SSTR therapy. Both CTX and OCT were conjugated using a solvent evaporation method and the conjugated CTX-OCT was then loaded onto Ca-alginate-beads (CTX-OCT-Alg), which were characterized for drug interactions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). Moreover, the morphology of formulated beads was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The drug content and release profile were studied using UV spectroscopy. Finally, in vitro cytotoxicity of all compounds was evaluated. The results showed homogenous conjugated CTX-OCT with a diameter of 0.4 mm. DSC showed a delay in the OCT peak that appeared after 200 °C due to small polymer interaction that shifted the OCT peak. Moreover, FTIR showed no prominent interaction. SEM showed clear empty cavities in the plain Ca-alginate-beads, while CTX-OCT-Alg showed occupied beads without cavities. CTX-OCT-Alg had a negligible release in 0.1 N HCl, while the CTX-OCT was completely released after 300 min in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. All formulations showed good antiproliferative activity compared with free drugs. The formulated CTX-OCT-Alg are a promising platform for targeting colorectal cancer through GIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61605-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069942PMC
March 2020

Biochemical Characterization of Oyster and Clam Galectins: Selective Recognition of Carbohydrate Ligands on Host Hemocytes and Parasites.

Front Chem 2020 25;8:98. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Both vertebrates and invertebrates display active innate immune mechanisms for defense against microbial infection, including diversified repertoires of soluble and cell-associated lectins that can effect recognition and binding to potential pathogens, and trigger downstream effector pathways that clear them from the host internal milieu. Galectins are widely distributed and highly conserved lectins that have key regulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, galectins can bind to exogenous ("non-self") carbohydrates on the surface of bacteria, enveloped viruses, parasites, and fungi, and function as recognition receptors and effector factors in innate immunity. Like most invertebrates, eastern oysters () and softshell clams () can effectively respond to most immune challenges through soluble and hemocyte-associated lectins. The protozoan parasite , however, can infect eastern oysters and cause "Dermo" disease, which is highly detrimental to both natural and farmed oyster populations. The sympatric , initially isolated from infected clams, can also be present in oysters, and there is little evidence of pathogenicity in either clams or oysters. In this review, we discuss selected observations from our studies on the mechanisms of recognition that are mediated by galectin-carbohydrate interactions. We identified in the oyster two galectins that we designated CvGal1 and CvGal2, which strongly recognize trophozoites. In the clam we also identified galectin sequences, and focused on one (that we named MaGal1) that also recognizes species. Here we describe the biochemical characterization of CvGal1, CvGal2, and MaGal1 with focus on the detailed study of the carbohydrate specificity, and the glycosylated moieties on the surfaces of the oyster hemocytes and the two species ( and ). Our goal is to gain further understanding of the biochemical basis for the interactions that lead to recognition and opsonization of the trophozoites by the bivalve hemocytes. These basic studies on the biology of host-parasite interactions may contribute to the development of novel intervention strategies for parasitic diseases of biomedical interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053492PMC
February 2020

Control of the 2018-2019 dengue fever outbreak in Oman: A country previously without local transmission.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jan 19;90:97-103. Epub 2019 Oct 19.

Directorate General for Health Services, Muscat Governorate, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman. Electronic address:

Background: In December 2018, routine surveillance identified an autochthonous outbreak of dengue fever in Muscat Governorate, Oman, a region previously free of dengue fever.

Methods: Routine surveillance confirmed locally acquired cases in the second week of December, leading to a rapid public health response including case management guidance and epidemiological investigations. The main activity was the vector survey using systematic sampling to assess extent of previously unreported Aedes aegypti presence followed by a campaign aimed to eliminate breeding sites of A. aegypti".

Results: During a 5-month period, 343 suspected cases were reported from Muscat Governorate with 122 from the outbreak affected area. Out of 207 probable cases eligible for laboratory testing as per guidelines issued, 59 cases were confirmed. The vector elimination campaign started on January 8, 2019 after a media advocacy using television and social media and concluded on January 23. By the end of campaign, the case load had decreased significantly in the affected area with no reports of locally acquired cases from adjoining areas of Muscat Governorate, indicating no further spread.

Conclusions: Rapid notification and early community-wide, extensive vector control activities effectively contained the autochthonous dengue fever virus outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.10.017DOI Listing
January 2020

Maternal Antibodies Elicited by Immunization With an O- Polysaccharide Glycoconjugate Vaccine Protect Infant Mice Against Lethal Typhimurium Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:2124. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Non-typhoidal (NTS) are a leading cause of pediatric invasive bacterial infections in sub-Saharan Africa with high associated case fatality rates in children under 5 years old. We have developed glycoconjugate vaccines consisting of the lipid A-removed surface polysaccharide of NTS, core and O-polysaccharide (COPS), and the flagellar monomer protein (FliC) from the homologous serovar as the carrier. We previously established that COPS:FliC was immunogenic and protective in mice immunized as adults or infants; however, the brief period of murine infancy precluded the evaluation of protection against invasive NTS (iNTS) disease in early life. In the present study, we used a mouse model of maternal immunization to investigate transmission of . Typhimurium COPS:FliC-induced maternal antibodies and protection against lethal iNTS challenge in infant mice. We found that vaccinated dams developed high levels of COPS- and FliC-specific IgG, which were transferred to their offspring. Sera from both vaccinated mothers and their litters mediated complement-dependent bactericidal activity . Passively immunized 2-week old infant mice born to vaccinated mothers were fully protected from challenge with an . Typhimurium blood isolate from sub-Saharan Africa. The pre-clinical findings reported herein demonstrate that anti-COPS:FliC antibodies induced by vaccination are sufficient for protection of murine infants against experimental . Typhimurium infection. By underscoring the protective role of antibody, our results suggest that maintaining an adequate titer of protective anti- antibodies during early life, either through pediatric or maternal COPS:FliC vaccination, may reduce iNTS disease in young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743215PMC
October 2020

Computational model demonstrates that Ndc80-associated proteins strengthen kinetochore-microtubule attachments in metaphase.

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 2019 11 11;76(11-12):549-561. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Chromosome segregation is mediated by spindle microtubules that attach to the kinetochore via dynamic protein complexes, such as Ndc80, Ska, Cdt1 and ch-TOG during mitotic metaphase. While experimental studies have previously shown that these proteins and protein complexes are all essential for maintaining a stable kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) interface, their exact roles in the mitotic metaphase remains elusive. In this study, we employed experimental and computational methods in order to characterize how these proteins can strengthen kMT attachments in both nonload-bearing and load-bearing conditions, typical of prometaphase and metaphase, respectively. Immunofluorescence staining of HeLa cells showed that the levels of Ska and Cdt1 significantly increased from prometaphase to metaphase, while levels of the Ndc80 complex remained unchanged. Our new computational model showed that by incorporating binding and unbinding of each protein complex coupled with a biased diffusion mechanism, the displacement of a possible complex formed by Ndc80-Ska-Cdt1 is significantly higher than that of Ndc80 alone or Ndc80-Ska. In addition, when we incorporate Ndc80/ch-TOG in the model, rupture force and time of attachment of the kMT interface increases. These results support the hypothesis that Ndc80-associated proteins strengthen kMT attachments, and that the interplay between kMT protein complexes in metaphase ensures stable attachments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cm.21562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641512PMC
November 2019

Mapping the kinetochore MAP functions required for stabilizing microtubule attachments to chromosomes during metaphase.

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 2019 06 9;76(6):398-412. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

In mitosis, faithful chromosome segregation is orchestrated by the dynamic interactions between the spindle microtubules (MTs) emanating from the opposite poles and the kinetochores of the chromosomes. However, the precise mechanism that coordinates the coupling of the kinetochore components to dynamic MTs has been a long-standing question. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate MT nucleation and dynamics, MT-mediated transport and MT cross-linking in cells. During mitosis, MAPs play an essential role not only in determining spindle length, position, and orientation but also in facilitating robust kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) attachments by linking the kinetochores to spindle MTs efficiently. The stability of MTs imparted by the MAPs is critical to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. This review primarily focuses on the specific function of nonmotor kinetochore MAPs, their recruitment to kinetochores and their MT-binding properties. We also attempt to synthesize and strengthen our understanding of how these MAPs work in coordination with the kinetochore-bound Ndc80 complex (the key component at the MT-binding interface in metaphase and anaphase) to establish stable kMT attachments and control accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cm.21559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603900PMC
June 2019

CoO Promoted the Catalytic Activity of Nitrogen-Doped MoS Supported on Carbon Fibers for Overall Water Splitting.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Sep 22;11(35):31889-31898. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Université Lille, CNRS, Central Lille, ISEN, Université Valenciennes, UMR 8520, IEMN , F-59000 Lille , France.

Non-noble metal electrocatalysts have recently witnessed increasing attention for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic electrolytes. However, in alkaline electrolytes, the slow kinetics of water splitting leads to poor HER activities. In this study, we describe the preparation of a hybrid material consisting of cobalt oxide (CoO) decorated on nitrogen-doped MoS supported on carbon fibers (CoO/N-MoS/CF) through a two-step process combining hydrothermal technique and electrochemical deposition. The electrochemical properties of the CoO/N-MoS/CF electrocatalyst were assessed in alkaline medium. The results revealed that CoO/N-MoS/CF exhibits excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activity for the HER and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The CoO/N-MoS/CF delivered a current density of 10 mA/cm at an overpotential of only 78 mV for the HER and a current density of 50 mA/cm at 458 mV for the OER in 1.0 M KOH, performing better than many noble metal-free electrocatalysts. The enhanced catalytic properties of the hybrid nanomaterial could be ascribed to its hierarchical structure, and increased number of active sites, as well as the synergetic cooperation between its different components. Additionally, the CoO/N-MoS/CF nanomaterial was investigated as both cathode and anode for full water splitting in 1.0 M KOH. The water electrolyzer delivered a maximum current density of 53 mA cm at an applied cell voltage of 1.5 V, which is very favorable for overall water-splitting applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b09112DOI Listing
September 2019

Periprosthetic Joint Infection Involving Bilateral Knees with Negative Synovial Fluid Alpha-Defensin.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2019 14;2019:9423946. Epub 2019 Jul 14.

Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, P.O. Box. 35, Al koudh. 123, Muscat, Oman.

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to is uncommon despite relatively high endemicity of human brucellosis and its osteoarticular predilection. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with bacteraemic brucellosis complicated by periprosthetic infection of both knee joints occurring a decade after bilateral knee arthroplasty and associated with a negative synovial fluid alpha-defensin test. The patient was successfully treated with anti- therapy alone and without surgical revision, resulting in clinical and microbiological cure. We propose that should be considered as a possible cause of prosthetic joint infection in the appropriate clinical and epidemiological settings. A negative synovial fluid alpha-defensin (Synovasure AD test) should not be used as a rule-out test for PJI. PJI without radiological loosening may be treated conservatively and solely with antimicrobial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9423946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664600PMC
July 2019

Fecal Colonization With Multidrug-Resistant Among Healthy Infants in Rural Bangladesh.

Front Microbiol 2019 2;10:640. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.

Third generation cephalosporins (3GC) are one of the main choices for treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. Due to their overuse, an increasing trend of resistance to 3GC has been observed in developing countries. Here, we describe fecal colonization of 3GC-resistant (3GCr) in healthy infants (1-12 months old) living in rural areas of Bangladesh. We found that stool samples of 82% of infants ( = 100) were positive for 3GCr with a mean ± standard deviation of 6.21 ± 1.32 log CFU/g wet weight of stool. 3GCr encompasses an average one third (33%) of the total of stool. Almost 77% ( = 63) of these 3GCr were MDR (or resistant to ≥3 classes of antibiotics). Around 90% ( = 74) of 3GCr were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing in which was the predominant (96%, = 71) ESBL-gene followed by (41%, = 30) and (11%, = 8). A significant proportion (26.5%, = 22) of 3GCr was pathogenic, comprising two types, enteroaggregative (EAEC, = 19) and enteropathogenic (EPEC, = 3). Colonization of 3GCr in infant guts was not associated with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, mode of delivery, maternal and infant antibiotic use, disease morbidity, and feeding practices. The high rate of colonization of 3GCr in infants' guts is a serious public health concern which needs immediate attention and warrants further studies to explore the cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454046PMC
April 2019

Chikungunya Masquerading as Acute Rheumatism in an Omani Traveler.

Oman Med J 2019 Jan;34(1):63-65

Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease. It typically presents as an acute febrile illness associated with a varying degree of arthralgia and musculoskeletal sequelae. Cases of chikungunya have been reported from more than 40 countries in several continents. Chikungunya is often reported in travelers returning to non-endemic/epidemic countries. With increasing international travel, it is vital that clinicians in non-endemic areas are made aware of this rapidly spreading infection. Increasing international travel (for social, leisure, and business) between Oman and several chikungunya endemic countries including Pakistan may facilitate the introduction of chikungunya to Oman. We report the first imported case of chikungunya in an Omani traveler with a link to the current outbreak in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2019.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330190PMC
January 2019

Development of a broad spectrum glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent wound and disseminated infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(9):e0203143. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are important human pathogens that are associated with a range of infection types, including wound and disseminated infections. Treatment has been complicated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance. Immunoprophylactic strategies are not constrained by antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Vaccines against these organisms would be important public health tools, yet they are not available. KP surface O polysaccharides (OPS) are protective antigens in animal models of infection. Similarly, PA flagellin (Fla), the major subunit of the flagellar filament, is required for virulence and is a target of protective antibodies in animal models. We report herein the development of a combined KP and PA glycoconjugate vaccine comprised of the four most common KP OPS types associated with human infections (O1, O2, O3, O5), chemically linked to the two Fla types of PA (FlaA, FlaB). Conjugation of KP OPS to PA Fla enhanced anti-polysaccharide immune responses and produced a formulation that generated antibody titers to the four KP OPS types and both PA Fla antigens in rabbits. Passive transfer of vaccine-induced rabbit antisera reduced the bacterial burden and protected mice against fatal intravenous KP infection. Mice passively transferred with conjugate-induced antisera were also protected against PA infection after thermal injury with a FlaB-expressing isolate, but not a FlaA isolate. Taken together, these promising preclinical results provide important proof-of-concept for a broad spectrum human vaccine to prevent KP and PA infections.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203143PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6126813PMC
February 2019
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