Publications by authors named "Mohammed A Jafer"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pharmacological Means of Pain Control during Separator Placement: A Systematic Review.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Mar 1;22(3):316-323. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. e-mail:

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of adjuvant analgesics/anesthetics in pain control after separator placement compared with no medication.

Background: Separator placement to create space for cementing bands is the first clinical procedure done in orthodontics. Pain in this stage can negatively affect patient compliance and trust in the clinician. To date, there is no universally accepted regimen for pain control.

Materials And Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. One hundred and thirty-two potentially relevant studies were found. A total of eight randomized clinical trials including 642 subjects were selected. Data were extracted into customized forms, and selected studies were assessed for risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Results: Results showed the use of analgesics led to lower reported pain scores at almost all time intervals. NSAIDs resulted in a statistically significant reduction in pain compared to a control group.

Conclusion: According to the available literature, the use of analgesics is effective in controlling orthodontic pain due to separators. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen show a stable analgesic effect.

Clinical Implication: Acetaminophen 650 mg or ibuprofen 400 mg taken 1 hour prior to separator placement can reduce pain associated with the procedure.
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March 2021

Does Dental Fear in Children Predict Untreated Dental Caries? An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 12;8(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Dental Public Health, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Despite free health care services in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of caries in children is substantially greater in comparison to other high-income countries. Dental fear in children may be an important issue that needs attention. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the role of dental fear in predicting untreated dental caries in schoolchildren. This analytical cross-sectional study included children aged 8-10 years residing in Saudi Arabia. Dental status via oral examinations was surveyed with the WHO standardized chart and the Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale was used to score dental fear. Descriptive, binary, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to report the findings at 5% statistical significance. Overall, there were 798 schoolchildren with an average fear score of 36. Nearly 70.4% reported fear of someone examining their mouth. About 76.9% had at least one carious tooth in their oral cavity. Children with dental fear were 1.8 times (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.56) more likely to have at least one untreated carious tooth in their oral cavity than those who did not express fear during oral examinations and dental procedures. Thus, the current study concludes that fear of dentists and dental treatment procedures successfully predicts untreated carious teeth in schoolchildren.
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May 2021

COVID-19 and Periodontitis: A Reality to Live with.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Dec 1;21(12):1398-1403. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Phone: +966507633755, e-mail:

Background: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a r ecent pandemic that is advancing at a r apid r ate. The future course of the disease includes severe r espiratory infection and also leads to death if unattended. Meticulous measures are necessary before attending any patient. The dental operatories and the clinic surroundings must be well sanitized so as to prevent the spread of pandemic.

Aim And Objective: This r eview discusses in brief about the pathophysiology and course of COVID-19. Further, we discussed in detail the management aspects of patients in periodontal perspective and the sanitization procedures required for the dental clinic.

Review Results: The SARS coronavirus enters the human circulation via the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptors which are also found on the oral mucosal surfaces. Furin and Cathepsin L are the pro-inflammatory molecules released during pathogenesis of periodontitis and mediate the molecular pathways that help the virus invade into the host. The clinic set-up should be modified to best suit the pandemic conditions. This includes the three phases, i.e., phase I: preparatory phase; phase II: implementation phase; and phase III: follow-up. The patient management is explained based on the emergency needs of the patient based on the recent AAP classification of periodontal diseases and conditions 2017 as emergency, urgent, and elective treatment needs which have been explained in detail.

Conclusion: It can be strongly concluded that there is direct relationship between oral health and systemic health. The treatment procedures and sanitization protocols must be definitely modified. Further consensus and systematic reviews help us arriving at a more standardized protocol.

Clinical Significance: This review would help clinicians modify the way they treat patients in the clinic and provide better services depending upon the emergency needs of the patient.
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December 2020

Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) awareness among the dental interns, dental auxiliaries and dental specialists in Saudi Arabia: A nationwide study.

J Infect Public Health 2020 Jun 29;13(6):856-864. Epub 2020 May 29.

School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Dental health care workers (DHCW's) are invariably at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19. The objectives were; to investigate the current knowledge on COVID-19 among the DHCW's; and to conduct quasi-experiment among the DHCW's who were unaware of the disseminated COVID-19 information.

Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional study targeting dental interns, auxiliaries, and specialists with a two-staged cluster sampling technique was performed. A 17-item questionnaire was subjected to reliability and validity tests before being administered. The participants for quasi-experiment were separated from the original sample after their initial response. Chi-square test assessed responses to knowledge statements between the participants. Difference in mean knowledge scores between the categories of DHCW's and sources of COVID-19 information was assessed using ANOVA. Data from the quasi experiment (pre vs post knowledge intervention) was subjected to paired t-test. Percentage of DHCWs providing correct or wrong responses to each knowledge statement at baseline and after 7 days were compared using McNemar test.

Results: The overall sample consisted of 706 (N) participants, and the DHCW's with no prior knowledge on COVID-19 (N=206) were part of the quasi experiment. Findings from cross-sectional study revealed that knowledge was significantly (p<0.05) related to the qualification level (interns vs auxiliaries vs specialists). However, the difference in the source of information (WHO/CDC vs Journal articles vs MoH) did not demonstrate any effect. Number of participants with correct responses to knowledge questions had significantly (p<0.05) increased after intervention. Also, the overall mean knowledge score (10.74±2.32 vs 12.47±1.68; p<0.001) had increased significantly after the intervention.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the basic knowledge on COVID-19 among the DHCW's in Saudi Arabia is acceptable. Timely dissemination of information by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia had a positive impact on the COVID-19 knowledge score of the DHCW's.
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June 2020