Publications by authors named "Mohammadreza Rafati"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of Neuroprtective Effects of L-Carnitine and Fat Emulsion in the CVA Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Clinical Trial.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(1):111-119

Department of Neurology, Bu Ali Sina General Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Cerebral infarction presents with neurological deficits caused by the death of neurons in a focal area of the brain. S100B is a biomarker that increases in brain damage. Neuroprotectives can reduce the brain sequels after neurological insult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of L-carnitine and Fat emulsion (Lipofundin) alone and in combination in patients with ischemic stroke. In a prospective, RCT, and double-blind study 100 patients with MCA ischemic cerebrovascular accident who were admitted in the first 24 h of injury entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned into four groups of L-carnitine, fat emulsion, L-carnitine plus fat emulsion and control. Fat emulsion 10%, 500 mL, was infused over 6 to 12 h and 1 gr of L-carnitine (10 mL of solution) was administered orally to patients in addition to common therapies, according to the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines. The patients in the control group received only the usual treatment according to stroke guidelines. Blood samples before the intervention, then after 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days later were taken and immunoenzymatic colorimetric method was used for quantitative determination of S100B concentration in the patients' serum. In the within group analysis, all of our treatment interventions (except control group) have decreased S100B levels statistically significant ( < 0.05). Moreover, changes in observed levels of S100B before and after intervention were different between the groups and the observed differences were statistically significant ( = 0.01). In the GEE model, it was found that S100B levels in the L-carnitine plus fat emulsion group decreased more than the control group and this decline has been statistically significant [ = 0.02, 20.47 (CI 95%: 6.25-34.41)], but in comparison of L-carnitine and fat emulsion group with control group, did not reached statistical significance ( > 0.05). Based on the results obtained from this study, it seems that L-carnitine with fat emulsion could lead to neuroprotective effects with a significant reduction in the S100B biomarker.
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January 2020

Nigella sativa L. for prevention of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Dec 3;47:102205. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa) extract on preventing the incidence of acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) in breast cancer patients.

Methods: Sixty-two breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) were randomly assigned to receiveN. sativa 5% gel or placebo. Patients were instructed to apply the medications twice daily during RT period. The severity of ARD, the incidence of moist desquamation, worst experienced pain, and skin-related quality of life (SRQOL) scores were assessed weekly during RT.

Results: Patients who were treated with the N. sativa gel developed ARD significantly less frequently compared to those who used the placebo (p < 0.05 for all weeks except week 2, p = 0.36). The incidence time of grade 2 and 3 of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) toxicity was prolonged significantly with N. sativa gel as compared to placebo (35 vs. 29 days, p = 0.00 and 42 vs. 40 days, p = 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the occurrence of moist desquamation was delayed in the N. sativa gel group compared with the placebo group (37 vs. 33 days, p = 0.01). The mean score of the worst pain that patients experienced in the placebo group was significantly higher than that of the N. sativa gel group at week 3 (2.5 ± 0.5 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3, p < 0.05). Nonetheless, the application of N. sativa gel had no significant effect on the SRQOL of patients at any week.

Conclusion: N. sativa extract significantly decreases the severity of ARD and delays the onset of moist desquamation in breast cancer patients.
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December 2019

The efficacy and safety of two different doses of caffeine in respiratory function of preterm infants.

Caspian J Intern Med 2018 ;9(1):46-53

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Caffeine is widely used for prevention of apnea and helps successful extubation from mechanical ventilation. It facilitates the transition from invasive to noninvasive support and reduces duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants. The optimum caffeine dose in preterm infants has not been well-studied in terms of benefits and risks. We compared efficacy and safety of once versus twice-daily caffeine dose in premature infants.

Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted in Bu-Ali Sina Teaching Hospital, Sari. Patients with gestational age of <37 weeks were included. Both groups received 20 mg/kg loading dose of caffeine intravenously followed by maintenance dose of 5 mg/kg/day in group 1 or 2.5 mg/kg every 12 hours in group 2. Extubation failure, CPAP failure and possibly adverse reactions were evaluated.

Results: The mean of gestational age and birth weight were 32.27±3.23 (weeks) and 1824.5±702.54 (gr), respectively. The rate of extubation and CPAP failure and length of NICU stay were lower in twice-daily-group with no statistically significant difference. The means of O saturations on the first three days of caffeine therapy were higher in twice-daily-group. Caffeine was generally safe and well tolerated.

Conclusions: This study, which assayed short-term effects of caffeine, showed that twice daily caffeine maintenance dose was related to more benefits in facilitating extubation or prevention of CPAP failure in preterm infants. However, there was not statistically significant difference between two groups.
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January 2018

Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli among Uropathogens of Pediatrics in North of Iran.

Biomed Res Int 2015 3;2015:309478. Epub 2015 May 3.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, University of Florida, Box 100486, Gainesville, FL 32610-0486, USA ; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Km 18 Khazarabad Road, Khazar Square, Sari, Mazandaran 48471-16548, Iran.

Escherichia coli remains as one of the most important bacteria causing infections in pediatrics and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) making them resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In this study we aimed to genotype ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pediatric patients for ESBL genes and determine their association with antimicrobial resistance. One hundred of the E. coli isolates were initially considered ESBL producing based on their MIC results. These isolates were then tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of CTX, TEM, SHV, GES, and VEB beta-lactamase genes. About 30.5% of isolated E. coli was ESBL-producing strain. The TEM gene was the most prevalent (49%) followed by SHV (44%), CTX (28%), VEB (8%), and GES (0%) genes. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were susceptible to carbapenems (66%) and amikacin (58%) and showed high resistance to cefixime (99%), colistin (82%), and ciprofloxacin (76%). In conclusion, carbapenems were the most effective antibiotics against ESBl-producing E. coli in urinary tract infection in North of Iran. The most prevalent gene is the TEM-type, but the other resistant genes and their antimicrobial resistance are on the rise.
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March 2016

Adherence to American society of health-system pharmacists surgical antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in a teaching hospital.

J Res Pharm Pract 2014 Apr;3(2):62-6

Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objective: Surgical site infections are the second most common type of adverse events occurring in hospitalized patients, whereas an estimated 40-60% of these infections are thought to be preventable. Choice of regimen, administration timing or duration of antibiotic prophylaxis is reported to be inappropriate in approximately 25-50% of cases. We tried to evaluate an antibiotic administration pattern for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in a teaching hospital.

Methods: This study was conducted at the general surgery and orthopedic wards of a teaching hospital affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The medical records of admitted patients who underwent different surgical procedures were reviewed. Compliance was assessed with the recommendations of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' guidelines for every aspect of antibiotic prophylaxis. All data were coded and analyzed by SPSS16 software using Student's t-test and Chi-square test.

Findings: During 1 year, 759 patients who underwent different surgeries were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 32.02 ± 18.79 years. Hand and foot fractures repair were the most frequent surgery types. About 56.4% of administered prophylactic antibiotics were in accordance with the American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP) guidelines regarding prophylaxis indication. The most commonly antibiotic used was cefazolin and antibiotic choices were appropriate in 104 of 168 surgical procedures (62%). Gentamicin, metronidazole and ceftriaxone were the most frequently antibiotics that used inappropriately. Only in 100 of 168 procedures, duration was concordant with the ASHP guideline, whereas in 68 procedures, duration was longer than recommended time. In 98 procedures, the dose was lower and in one procedure, it was higher than recommended doses.

Conclusion: Although such guidelines have been in place for many years, studies showed that much inappropriate antibiotic use as prophylaxis and poor adherence to guidelines are still major issues. It is essential for surgeons to be aware to consider the best antibiotic choices, dose and duration based on reliable guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis.
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April 2014