Publications by authors named "Mohammadreza Eshraghian"

34 Publications

Food insecurity is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes: a case-control study of new referrals to the University clinics, Shiraz, Southern Iran.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jul 5;19(1):885. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) as "the limited or uncertain availability of enough food for an always active and healthy life" and diabetes as "the most common metabolic disease" are rising in Iran. The aim was to assess the FI, depression, and socioeconomic status as risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 135 patients with T2D as cases (99 females, 36 males, mean age 46.83 years) and 135 subjects without diabetes (89 females, 46 males, mean age 45.93 years) as controls. They had been referred to clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The prior major inclusion criterion for diabetes was fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dl. General, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics and FI status were assessed using the general and 18-items United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) household food security questionnaires, respectively. Chi-square, t-test, and uni-and multi-variate logistic regression tests and SPSS statistical software were used.

Results: The prevalence of FI was 66.7% in cases and 41.5% in controls. According to final analysis model, FI (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.9, P = 0.016), depression (OR = 2.0, P = 0.018), body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m (OR = 1.8, P = 0.025), number of children ≥4 (OR = 1.7, P = 0.046), and having children under 18 years. (OR = 2.1, P = 0.011) were significant independent risk factors for T2D.

Conclusion: The prevalence of FI in patients with T2D was significantly higher compared to the controls. FI was an important risk factor for T2D, even after controlling for the potential confounders. Further studies are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7236-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612121PMC
July 2019

The interaction between apolipoprotein B insertion/deletion polymorphism and macronutrient intake on lipid profile and serum leptin and ghrelin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Eur J Nutr 2019 Apr 27;58(3):1055-1065. Epub 2018 Jan 27.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: We aimed to study whether macronutrient intake could modify the association between ApoB Ins/Del and lipid profile, and serum leptin and ghrelin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: In this study, 700 T2DM patients were recruited. Anthropometric, biochemical and molecular data were collected, and Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The interactions were tested using ANCOVA.

Results: Del-allele carriers with high-MUFA and carbohydrate (≥ 12 and ≥ 54% of energy, respectively) had significantly higher TG (P = 0.04) and LDL-C (P = 0.02) compared to Ins/Ins homozygotes, and these were not significant in subjects with low-MUFA and -carbohydrate (< 12 and < 54%, respectively). A significant interaction was observed between ApoB Ins/Del and diet on TG in both unadjusted (P = 0.03) and adjusted models (model 2 and 3, P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively), and on LDL-C only in adjusted models (model 2 and 3, P = 0.03 and P = 0.029, respectively). Besides, Del-allele carriers with protein, SFA, MUFA and n-3PUFA of ≥ 14, 9, 12 and 0.6%, respectively, had a significant increase in their serum leptin than Ins/Ins homozygotes (P < 0.05). However, these associations were not significant between the two genetic groups in subjects with low intakes of protein, SFA, MUFA and n-3PUFA. Moreover, Del-allele carriers with low carbohydrate (< 54%) had significantly higher leptin and ghrelin than Ins/Ins homozygotes (P < 0.05), however, in high-carbohydrate group, leptin and ghrelin were not significantly lower.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that the interaction between ApoB Ins/Del and dietary intake of MUFA, SFA, n-3PUFA, carbohydrate and protein could modulate the serum levels of TG, LDL-C, leptin and ghrelin in T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1621-5DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring.

Iran J Med Sci 2017 Mar;42(2):161-169

School of Public Health, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring.

Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package.

Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5366364PMC
March 2017

Apolipoprotein A2 -265 T>C polymorphism interacts with dietary fatty acids intake to modulate inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Nutrition 2017 May 28;37:86-91. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: Several investigations have been conducted regarding the interaction between Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265 T>C polymorphism and dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on obesity in healthy individuals or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) patients. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of this interaction on inflammatory markers in T2 DM patients.

Methods: This is a comparative cross-sectional study on 180 T2 DM patients with known APOA2 genotype. Dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire and serum levels of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-18, pentraxin 3, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) were measured. The subjects were dichotomized into "high" and "low" categories, based on the median dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and SFAs. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance multivariate interaction model.

Results: In CC genotype, higher median intake of ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs was associated with decreased serum levels of IL-18 and hs-CRP (P = 0.014 and 0.008, respectively). In T-allele carriers, higher median intake of SFAs was associated with increased serum hs-CRP level (P < 0.001). There was a significant relationship between APOA2 polymorphism and ω-3 PUFA intake on serum IL-18 level (P interaction = 0.03). Moreover, the relationship between this polymorphism and SFA and MUFA intake on serum hs-CRP level was statistically significant (P interaction = 0.03 and 0.024, respectively).

Conclusions: In T2 DM patients, the dietary intake of antiinflammatory fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs, could reduce the inflammatory effects associated with the CC genotype. In addition, proinflammatory fatty acids, such as SFAs, could overcome the antiinflammatory effect of the T-allele. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.12.012DOI Listing
May 2017

Impact of olive oil-rich diet on serum omentin and adiponectin levels: a randomized cross-over clinical trial among overweight women.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2017 Aug 8;68(5):560-568. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

b Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science , Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil-rich diet on omentin and adiponectin concentrations. This cross-over randomized trial included 17 overweight women. Participants were assigned to consume either a usual (16% saturated fatty acids [SFA] and 8% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA]) or an olive oil-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 6 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. There was no significant difference in the changes of omentin between two dietary interventions. However, in the adjusted model for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat mass, usual diet tended to decrease omentin levels whilst olive oil-rich diet tended to increase (-56.1 ± 32.0 versus 40.6 ± 32.0 ng/mL; p = .056). Adiponectin levels increased during two periods, but changes were greater during olive oil-rich diet with a trend toward significance (4.8 ± 3.0 versus 13.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL; p = .06). Consumption of olive oil-rich diet tended to increase omentin and adiponectin in comparison with the usual diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2016.1261808DOI Listing
August 2017

Effect of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance and apoptosis in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2016 Nov;19(11):1159-1165

Department of Cellular- Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutrition Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Neuroprotective effect of creatine (Cr) against β-amyloid (Aβ) is reported in an in vitro study. This study investigated the effect of Cr supplementation on β-amyloid toxicity in vivo.

Materials And Methods: Thirty two, male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. During ten weeks of study, control group went through no surgical or dietary intervention. At the 4th week of study Sham group had a hippocampal normal saline injection, while Aβ and AβCr groups had an β-amyloid injection in the hippocampus. AβCr group were fed by Cr diet during the study. After 10 weeks, Morris water maze (MWM) test was administered to measure learning ability and memory retrieval. Animals were sacrificed for TUNEL anti apoptotic assay and staining of amyloid plaques by Thioflavin-T.

Results: There was a significant retention deficit among AβCr and Aβ group while the escape latency and the distance traveled to the platform were significantly higher in AβCr group compared to Aβ group. AβCr group had same percent of TUNEL positive neurons compared to Aβ group.

Conclusion: Cr supplementation before and after β-amyloid injection into the CA1 area of hippocampus deteriorates the learning and memory impairment of rats and it does not protect neuronal apoptosis caused by β-amyloid.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126215PMC
November 2016

APO A2 -265T/C Polymorphism Is Associated with Increased Inflammatory Responses in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes Metab J 2016 Jun;40(3):222-9

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Apolipoprotein A2 (APO A2) is the second most abundant structural apolipoprotein in high density lipoprotein. Several studies have examined the possible effect of APO A2 on atherosclerosis incidence. Due to the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, we aimed to determine the relationship between APO A2 -265T/C polymorphism and inflammation as a risk factor in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: In total, 180 T2DM patients, with known APO A2 -265T/C polymorphism, were recruited for this comparative study and were grouped equally based on their genotypes. Dietary intakes, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers (i.e., pentraxin 3 [PTX3], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], and interleukin 18) were measured. The data were analyzed using an independent t-test, a chi-square test, and the analysis of covariance.

Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, in the entire study population and in the patients with or without obesity, the patients with the CC genotype showed higher hs-CRP (P=0.001, P=0.008, and P=0.01, respectively) and lower PTX3 (P=0.01, P=0.03, and P=0.04, respectively) in comparison with the T allele carriers. In the patients with the CC genotype, no significant differences were observed in the inflammatory markers between the obese or non-obese patients. However, regarding the T allele carriers, the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly higher in the obese patients compared to the non-obese patients (P=0.01).

Conclusion: In the T2DM patients, the CC genotype could be considered as a risk factor and the T allele as a protective agent against inflammation, which the latter effect might be impaired by obesity. Our results confirmed the anti-atherogenic effect of APO A2, though more studies are required to establish this effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4929226PMC
June 2016

The interaction between ApoA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Eur J Nutr 2017 Aug 6;56(5):1931-1938. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, No: 44, Hojjat-dost Alley, Naderi St., Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model.

Results: Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and n-6 PUFA intake on 8-isoprostane F2α concentration as well as n-3 PUFA intake on serum SOD activity (p-interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively).

Conclusions: The current study shows the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1235-8DOI Listing
August 2017

Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake modulates impact of Insertion/Deletion polymorphism of ApoB gene on obesity risk in type 2 diabetic patients.

Nutrition 2016 Oct 25;32(10):1110-5. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: The goal of the study described here was to determine whether dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake modulates the association between ApoB Ins/Del polymorphism and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 700 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited in Tehran. Weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. ApoB genotyping was performed with 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Results: We observed a significant interaction between Ins/Del genotype and dietary ω-3 PUFA intake with respect to BMI, WC, and obesity risk in both unadjusted (P = 0.007, P = 0.001, and P = 0.021, respectively) and adjusted (P = 0.007, P = 0.04, and P = 0.002, respectively) samples. Thus, the carriers of the Del allele were only associated with lower BMI (P = 0.01) and WC (P = 0.002) among individuals with high ω-3 PUFA intake (≥0.6% of energy), but not in those with low ω-3 PUFA intake (<0.6%). Also, when dietary ω-3 PUFA was <0.6%, general obesity risk in carriers of the Del allele was about 1.6 times higher than that of Ins/Ins homozygotes (odds ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.52, P = 0.039). But with high ω-3 PUFA intake (≥0.6%), the risk was 0.46 times lower (odds ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.79, P = 0.003). Moreover, a similar interaction was observed in central obesity only in men after adjustment for confounder variables (P = 0.041).

Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that a diet high in ω-3 PUFA (≥0.6%) can decrease the obesity risk in carriers of the Del allele of ApoB gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.03.012DOI Listing
October 2016

Effects of creatine supplementation on learning, memory retrieval, and apoptosis in an experimental animal model of Alzheimer disease.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015 4;29:273. Epub 2015 Oct 4.

Assistant Professor, Department of Cellular, Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutrition Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer disease is the main cause of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people. Considering the improving effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance, this study aimed to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on learning, memory, and apoptosis in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease.

Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats each weighing 250±50 grams were divided into four groups. The AdCr+ (Aβ injection, creatine supplementation) and AdCr- groups (Aβ injection, no creatine supplementation) were injected bilaterally with amyloid beta (Aβ) (0.2μg in each CA1 area), and the sham group was injected with normal saline in the same area. After the injection, the AdCr+ group received a diet of 2% creatine for six weeks. The control group underwent no surgical or dietary intervention. After six weeks the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was administered, to measure learning and memory retrieval. After sacrificing the animals, TUNEL staining for an anti-apoptosis assay was performed for the sham, AdCr+, and AdCr- groups. All groups were compared by independent ttest using SPSS software.

Results: RESULTS of MWM show that rats in sham and control groups performed better than those in the AdCr- and AdCr+ groups. Compared to sham group, AdCr+ and AdCr- groups had more TUNEL positive neurons count. RESULTS indicated no differences between the AdCr+ and AdCrgroups in learning, memory retrieval, and percentage of TUNEL positive neurons.

Conclusion: After Aβ injection, creatine supplementation had no effect on learning, memory retrieval, or neuron apoptosis in male Wistar rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4715403PMC
January 2016

Comparison of Serum LP-PLA2 Level and some Nutritional Factors between Well-Controlled and Poorly-Controlled Diabetic Patients.

Acta Med Iran 2015 Nov;53(11):690-6

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is produced by inflammatory cells, bound to LDL and other lipoproteins, and hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids in LDL. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes some investigations show the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity with the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations with high prevalences of insulin resistance and diabetes. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study on 80 individuals with diabetes referring to the Tehran Diabetes Association. Patients divided into two groups (well-controlled and poorly controlled) based on their HbA1C. Personal information, anthropometric assessments (including height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference) and semi-quantitative 147 items FFQ was used and vein blood samples were taken. After plasma separation, blood sample used for FBS, HbA1c and LP-PLA2 measurement. The independent sample T test was used for comparing means. Data analyses showed a significant difference between weight and WHR (waist to hip ratio) means in two studied groups, also there was a statistically significant difference in food intake (Energy, carbohydrate, protein, micronutrients percent and some of the micronutrients). FBS, HbA1C and LP-PLA2 means showed statistically significant difference (P<0/001) between two groups. This study showed LP-PLA2 is elevated in poorly-controlled patients compared to well-controlled diabetic patients, which may suggest some nutritional factors contributing to the regulation of this enzyme.
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November 2015

Effect of spinach aqueous extract on wound healing in experimental model diabetic rats with streptozotocin.

J Sci Food Agric 2016 May 8;96(7):2337-43. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Department of Cellular-Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutrition, Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Chronic ulcer is still a serious issue for diabetic patients. Diabetes is a prevalent cause of ulcer regeneration delay and (or) disruption. Since Spinacia oleracea extract contains compounds with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, this may be effective in accelerating the healing process of ulcers, especially diabetic ulcers. Hence, this study examined the effect of Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract on ulcer regeneration in an experimental animal model.

Results: Macroscopic examination of the wounds of the control group and spinach aqueous extract group between 7 and 21 days compared with diabetic group, significant changes were observed (P < 0.05). On microscopic examination, epithelial tissue formation, formation of granulation tissue and new blood vessels in the spinach aqueous extract group and non-diabetic group compared to the diabetic group showed significant improvements (P < 0.05). Also, significant differences in vascular endothelial growth factor were observed between groups on days 3 and 7 (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract can be effective in regenerating diabetic ulcers. It affects the speed and structure of the ulcer. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7349DOI Listing
May 2016

Association between ApoA-II -265T/C polymorphism and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Diabetes Complications 2015 Sep-Oct;29(7):908-12. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) constitutes approximately 20% of the total HDL protein content. The results of various studies on the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the plasma ApoA-II level are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ApoA-II polymorphism and oxidative stress (OS) as a risk factor for CVD.

Methods: The present comparative study was carried out on 180 obese and non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes, with equal numbers of CC, TC, and TT genotypes of ApoA-II -265T/C gene. The ApoA-II genotype was determined by the TaqMan assay method. The anthropometric measurements and serum levels of lipid profile, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and 8-isoprostaneF2α were measured.

Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, in the total study population and in obese and non-obese groups, the subjects with CC genotype had a lower mean serum SOD activity (p=0.002, p=0.007 and p=0.005, respectively) and higher mean 8-isoprostaneF2α concentration (p<0.001, p=0.003 and p=0.004, respectively) than the T-allele carriers. In the TT/TC group, the mean 8-isoprostanF2α concentration was significantly higher in the obese subjects than the non-obese subjects (p=0.009). In the CC group, no significant differences were found in the OS factors between obese and non-obese groups.

Conclusion: The T allele in patients with type 2 diabetes is a protective factor against OS; obesity inhibits this protective effect. The results of this study represent the anti-atherogenic properties of ApoA-II. However, further studies are needed in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.05.024DOI Listing
May 2016

Effects of Iron Supplementation With and Without Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Based on Paraoxonase-1, hs-CRP, and ApoB/ApoA-I Ratio in Women with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2016 Jan 17;169(1):34-40. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Department of Nutrition, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that tissue deposition of iron following prolonged high dose of oral supplementation for treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) leads to body iron overload and oxidative stress, which starts the process of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of iron supplementation in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cardiovascular disease risk based on paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in women with IDA. In this randomized controlled trial, 76 women with IDA, aged 15-45 years, were included. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg of DHA supplement or placebo with an iron tablet, once daily for 12 weeks. The participants were assessed by measurement of the serum iron, ferritin, PON-1, hs-CRP levels, and the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio at the beginning and end of study. Serum hs-CRP decreased in the DHA-supplemented group (p = 0.036), and ApoA-I decreased in the placebo group (p = 0.013). No significant difference was detected for the serum PON-1 concentration and the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in two groups. Iron supplementation combined with DHA may have favorable effects on serum hs-CRP in women with IDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-015-0383-7DOI Listing
January 2016

Identification and prioritization of food insecurity and vulnerability indices in iran.

Iran J Public Health 2015 Feb;44(2):244-53

Dept. of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Food security is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize major indices for determining food insecurity in Iran.

Methods: Descriptive study using the Delphi method was conducted through an email-delivered questionnaire. Forty-three senior experts at national or provincial level were selected based on their work experience and educational background through study panel consultation and snowballing from Tehran and other cities of Iran. During two rounds of Delphi, participants were asked to identify priority indicators for food security at provincial level in Iran.

Results: Sixty five percent of Delphi panel participated in the first round and eighty-nine percent of them participated in the second round of Delphi. Initially, 243 indices were identified through review of literature; after excluding indictors, which was not available or measurable at provincial level in Iran, 103 indictors remained. The results of study showed that experts identified "percentage of individuals receiving less than 70% of daily energy requirement" with a median score of 90, as the most influential index for determining food insecurity. "Food expenses as a proportion of the overall expenses of the family", "per capita of dietary energy supply", and "provision of micro-nutrient supply requirement per capita" with median of 80 were in the second rank of food security priority indicators.

Conclusion: Out of 243 identified indicators for food security, 38 indicators were selected as the most priority indicators for food security at provincial level in Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401883PMC
February 2015

Triclabendazole (Anthelmintic Drug) Effects on the Excretory- Secretory Proteome of Fasciola hepatica in Two Dimension Electrophoresis Gel.

Iran J Parasitol 2014 Apr-Jun;9(2):202-8

Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein spots of excretory - secretory products of Fasciola hepatica using two dimension electrophoresis method in the presence and absence of triclabendazole drug which can be considered to detect the target protein of the drug.

Methods: F. hepatica parasites were collected from infected cattle livers, divided in two groups and cultivated in RPMI 1640 medium. First group was treated with triclabendazole (TCBZ) and second group considered as control. The excretory-secretory (ES) products of each group were separated and total protein determined by Bradford method. To provide proteome spots, the ES proteins were precipitated and two dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) gel prepared. Protein amounts of two groups were compared using the statistical t-test and protein spots from 2-DE in test and control groups were also statistically analyzed. The protein spots of gels were identified by using protein database.

Results: The t-test showed a significant increase of total proteins in treated group (P<0.5). The protein spots count in the control group was less than test group however statistically not significant (p>0.05). Cathepsin L- protein (MW 36.7 pH 5.34), 14-3-3 epsilon 2 isoform (MW 28.2 pH 5.36), Cathepsin L1D (MW 36.5 pH 5.8) and Cathepsin L1D (MW 36.6 pH 6.26) were identified in test group.

Conclusion: It seems that, these results can be considered to determine the proteins which the drug acts as a target on them.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4386040PMC
April 2015

The association of family food security and depression in mothers having primary school children in Ray-Iran.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2014 28;13:65. Epub 2014 May 28.

School of Nutrition Science and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: As a major public health problem, food insecurity has adverse social and psychological effects, in addition to the impact on public health. This study aimed to determine the association of household food security and depression in mothers with primary school children in Ray County.

Methods: This descriptive, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 430 mothers with primary school children in the spring 2010. During a two-stage cluster sampling, an 18-items food security questionnaire (USDA) and the Beck depression inventory were completed via interviewing mothers. Chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, simple regression and stepwise multiple regression were used to describe and analyze data, and to identify related factors using SPSS-16 software.

Results: The prevalence of food insecurity and depression in mothers were 50.2% and 51.4% respectively. Also 34.6% of mothers in the "food secure" group were depressed and 77.8% in "food insecure with hunger" group were depressed and this difference was statistically significant. Twelve out of the 20 examined variables (age, family size, number of children, economic status, home ownership, employment households, educational level of the mother and also the head of household, height, energy intake, and carbohydrate and protein intakes) were significantly associated with food security and depression. Food insecurity and depression in mothers with primary school children in Ray County showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of household food insecurity and depression in the studied population were high. Since there is a significant relationship between food insecurity and depression, more attention must be paid to this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-13-65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4060763PMC
June 2014

Vitamin A supplementation and serum Th1- and Th2-associated cytokine response in women.

J Am Coll Nutr 2013 ;32(4):280-5

a Department of Community Nutrition.

Aims And Background: T helper (Th)1/Th2 immune response has been linked to obesity-related immune disorders. It has been proven that retinoid active derivates improve immunity via regulating Th1/Th2 balance. However, there is not a well-identified report of direct effect of vitamin A on Th1/Th2 balance in obesity. The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of vitamin A on serum Th1/Th2 response in obese women.

Materials And Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 84 obese (n = 56; body mass index [BMI] 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) and nonobese (n = 28; BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) women. Obese women were randomly allocated to receive either vitamin A (retinyl palmitate 25,000 IU/d) or placebo. Nonobese women also received 25,000 IU/d retinyl palmitate. Anthropometric variables were assessed and serum interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, and IL-13 were analyzed before and 4 months after intervention.

Results: Vitamin A treatment significantly reduced serum concentrations of IL-1β in obese vitamin A-treated subjects (from 3.58 ± 0.36 to 2.45 ± 0.23 pg/ml, p < 0.006). Serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 were also reduced in obese and nonobese vitamin A-treated subjects (p < 0.05). A significant reduction in IL-1β/IL-4 ratio in the obese vitamin A-treated group was also observed (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Decline in serum concentrations of IL-1β and IL-1β/IL-4 ratio in obese women suggests that vitamin A is capable of regulating the immune system and possibly reducing the risk of autoimmune disease in this group. Further studies are needed to explore the possible underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2013.816616DOI Listing
April 2014

Expression, Purification and Characterization of Three Overlapping Immunodominant Recombinant Fragments from Bordetella pertussis Filamentous Hemagglutinin.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2013 Jan;5(1):20-8

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is one of the most important immunoprotective antigens of Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) and a major component of the acellular pertussis vaccine. In the present study, three overlapping recombinant fragments from the immunodominant region of FHA were produced and their immunogenicity was investigated.

Methods: Three overlapping coding sequences of FHA antigen were amplified from B. pertussis genomic DNA by PCR. Amplified fragments were expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) strain and purified through His-tag using Nickel-based chromatography. Purified fragments were characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. In vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation and IFN-γ production were assessed in a limited number of healthy adults vaccinated with a commercial acellular pertussis vaccine in response to all purified FHA fragments by H3-Thymidine incorporation and ELISA, respectively.

Results: Recombinant FHA segments were successfully cloned and produced at high levels in E. coli BL21(DE3). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses confirmed their purity and reactivity. All three recombinant fragments together with a commercial native FHA were able to induce in vitro PBMC proliferation and IFN-γ production.

Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that these overlapping recombinant FHA fragments are immunogenic and may prove to be immuno-protective.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3572703PMC
January 2013

White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.

J Health Popul Nutr 2013 Mar;31(1):58-64

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3702359PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jhpn.v31i1.14749DOI Listing
March 2013

The effect of vitamin A supplementation on thyroid function in premenopausal women.

J Am Coll Nutr 2012 Aug;31(4):268-74

Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: Vitamin A and its retinoid derivates play an important role in regulation of normal growth and development. Vitamin A has been shown to regulate thyroid hormone metabolism and inhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion via down regulation of TSH-β gene expression; however, the effect of vitamin A on thyroid function in obese individuals who are at higher risk of subclinical hypothyroidism is still unclear. In the present study we investigate the impact of vitamin A supplementation on thyroid function in obese women.

Method: A 4-month randomized, double blind controlled trial was conducted among 84 healthy women aged 17-50 years old: 56 were obese (body mass index [BMI] 30-35 kg/m(2)) and 28 were nonobese (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Obese women were randomly allocated to receive either vitamin A (25,000 IU/d retinyl palmitate) or placebo. Nonobese women received vitamin A. At baseline and 4 months after intervention, serum concentrations of TSH, total thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and transthyretin (TTR) were measured.

Results: Baseline concentrations of thyroid hormones, RBP and TTR were not significantly different between groups. Vitamin A caused a significant reduction in serum TSH concentrations in obese (p = 0.004) and nonobese (p = 0.001) groups. Serum T3 concentrations also increased in both obese and nonobese vitamin A-treated groups (p < 0.001). Serum T4 decreased in all 3 groups after treatment. The results showed a significant reduction in serum RBP in the obese group after vitamin A supplementation (p = 0.007), but no significant change was seen in serum TTR.

Conclusions: Serum TSH concentrations in vitamin A-treated subjects were significantly reduced; therefore, vitamin A supplementation might reduce the risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2012.10720431DOI Listing
August 2012

Vitamin A supplementation, serum lipids, liver enzymes and C-reactive protein concentrations in obese women of reproductive age.

Ann Clin Biochem 2013 Jan 12;50(Pt 1):25-30. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 51666-14711 Tabriz, Iran.

Background: High-dose vitamin A influences glucose and lipid profile; however, the possible effects of moderate doses (25,000 IU/d) are conflicting. We aimed to compare the effect of vitamin A supplementation on several anthropometric and biochemical variables between obese and non-obese women.

Methods: This study was performed on 84 women among whom 56 were obese (body mass index [BMI] 30-35 kg/m(2)) and 28 were non-obese (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Obese women were randomly divided into two groups: one group received 25,000 IU/d retinyl palmitate and another group received placebo. The third group was age-matched non-obese women who received 25,000 IU/d retinyl palmitate. At baseline and four months after intervention, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP) and liver enzymes were evaluated.

Results: Baseline concentrations of serum FBG and triglyceride in the obese vitamin A-treated group were significantly higher compared with the other groups (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively). A significant increase in serum FBG (P = 0.026), total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.004) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.016) in the non-obese group and a significant decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P = 0.001) in the obese group was observed. Serum CRP increased significantly in the obese vitamin A-treated group (P = 0.03) and serum aspartate transaminase increased significantly in the obese and non-obese groups after vitamin A supplementation (P = 0.008 and 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: Treatment with 25,000 IU/d vitamin A induced a mild elevation in serum lipids, CRP and liver enzymes in obese and non-obese women. Considering the other information about possible side-effects of excess vitamin A, use of vitamin A in this dose and duration should be considered with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/acb.2012.012096DOI Listing
January 2013

Relationship between breastfeeding and obesity in childhood.

J Health Popul Nutr 2012 Sep;30(3):303-10

Nutrition Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the weight status and the relationship of infant-feeding variables, birthweight and birth order with BMI in a group of Iranian children. Five hundred and eleven students of both sexes at the first grade in elementary schools (aged 7 years) were recruited randomly from all 19 educational districts of Tehran. Weights and heights of children and their mothers were measured. Data on breastfeeding (BF), formula-feeding, the timing of introduction of complementary foods (CF), birthweight, and birth order were collected from the mothers. The 2007 WHO reference value was used for determining child's weight status. Regression analysis in single and a 2-level linear regression models was used for examining the independent relationships of infant-feeding variables, birthweight and birth order with childhood BMI. The prevalence of underweight and overweight in this group of children was 7.6% and 19.7%, respectively. Total time of BF and duration of exclusive BF were not associated with childhood BMI. The timing of introduction of CF was inversely related to childhood BMI after controlling for other variables (beta:-0.34; 95% CI:-0.58,-0.10). Children with an early introduction of CF had significantly higher mean BMI (p for linear trend=0.012). Birth order and birthweight were related to childhood BMI significantly. These data suggest that overweight and obesity are nutritional problems among 7 years old Teharani children. The timing of introduction of CF, birth order, and birthweight were independent predictors of childhood BMI. Neither total time of BF nor duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with adiposity in children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3489946PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jhpn.v30i3.12293DOI Listing
September 2012

Pre-pregnancy body size dissatisfaction and excessive gestational weight gain.

Matern Child Health J 2013 May;17(4):699-707

Department of Nutrition & Biochemistry, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Avenue, Tehran 14155-6446, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Body size dissatisfaction has been documented as a risk factor for obesity, but little is known about the effect of body size dissatisfaction on excessive gestational weight gain. The objective of the study was to determine the association of pre-pregnancy body size dissatisfaction with excessive gestational weight gain in Iranian pregnant women. This case-control study compared pre-gravid body satisfaction status in 182 women with excessive gestational weight gain and 180 women who gained weight within the guidelines of the Institute of Medicine. All the participants of the study were 35-41 weeks gestational age and received prenatal care in Shahid Akbarabadi Hospital. The women were asked to think back to their pre-pregnant state and report their body size satisfaction status measured by the Body Image Assessment for Obesity (BIA-O). According to this measurement, the women were divided into three categories: dissatisfied women with a thinner body size preference, dissatisfied women with a heavier body size preference and satisfied women. Among women with excessive gestational weight gain, 56.6% preferred a thinner body size, while 53.9% of those with adequate gestational weight gain were satisfied with their pre-gravid body sizes. After adjusting for cofounders, those with a thinner body size preference were more likely to gain weight excessively during pregnancy when compared to satisfied women (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.17-4.02). Our result showed that thinner body size preference was associated with excessive gestational weight gain. Further studies are needed to investigate whether changes in women's feelings about their body sizes will decrease the proportion of women with excessive gestational weight gain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-012-1051-6DOI Listing
May 2013

Molecular epidemiology of dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran, a clinical and microbial survey.

Med Mycol 2013 Feb 15;51(2):203-7. Epub 2012 May 15.

Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

In the framework of a survey on dermatophytoses, 14,619 clinical specimens taken from outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea and referred to a Medical Mycology laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. In total, 777 dermatophyte strains recovered in culture were randomly identified by a formerly established RFLP analysis method based on the rDNA ITS regions. For confirmation of species identification, 160 isolates representing the likely entire species spectrum were subjected to ITS-sequencing. Infection was confirmed in 5,175 collected samples (35.4%) by direct microscopy and/or culture. Tinea pedis was the most prevalent type of infection (43.4%), followed by tinea unguium (21.3%), tinea cruris (20.7%), tinea corporis (9.4%), tinea manuum (4.2%), tinea capitis (0.8%) and tinea faciei (0.2%). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (40.5%) followed by T. rubrum (34.75%), Epidermophyton floccosum (15.6%), Microsporum canis (3.9%), T. tonsurans (3.5 %) and M. gypseum (0.5%). Other species included M. ferrugineum, T. erinacei, T. violaceum, T. schoenleinii, and a very rare species T. eriotrephon (each one 0.25%). The two strains of T. eriotrephon isolated from tinea manuum and tinea faciei are the second and third reported cases worldwide. Application of DNA-based methods is an important aid in monitoring trends in dermatophytosis in the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13693786.2012.686124DOI Listing
February 2013

Effect of substituting saturated with monounsaturated fatty acids on serum visfatin levels and insulin resistance in overweight women: a randomized cross-over clinical trial.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012 Nov 1;63(7):772-81. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of a monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-rich diet on serum visfatin, interleukin-6 and insulin levels among overweight women.

Design: In this randomized cross-over clinical trial, 17 premenopausal overweight women were included. Participants were randomly assigned to consume either a hypocaloric, saturated fatty acids (SFA)-rich diet (16% SFA and 8% MUFA) or a hypocaloric, MUFA-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 12 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. Percentages of energy from other macronutrients were similar between the two diets. Biochemical and anthropometric assessments were done at the first and at the end of each period. Statistical analyses were done using paired t-test. In all statistical analysis, p < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: The participant's mean body mass index was 27.6 kg/m². Mean percentages of MUFA intake were 13% during MUFA-rich diet and 7% during SFA-rich diet. The corresponding values for SFA intake were 8.5% and 14%, respectively. We failed to find any significant differences between two intervention diets in terms of their effect on the serum levels of IL-6, visfatin and insulin. However, serum visfatin and IL-6 levels increased during the SFA-rich diet (0.4 ± 0.4 ng/ml and 0.19 ± 0.3 pg/ml, respectively) and decreased during the MUFA-rich diet (-0.7 ± 0.5 ng/ml and -0.17 ± 0.3 pg/ml, respectively). In spite of a slight reduction in both periods, changes in serum insulin levels did not reach significant levels comparing the two periods.

Conclusions: Our findings did not support any significant effect of a MUFA-rich intake on serum IL-6 and insulin levels as compared with a SFA-rich diet; however, it has the potential to favourably affect serum visfatin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2012.665044DOI Listing
November 2012

The association between depression, socio-economic factors and dietary intake in mothers having primary school children living in Rey, South of Tehran, Iran.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2012 12 22;11(1):29. Epub 2012 Dec 22.

School of Public Health & Institute of Public Health Researches, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: According to the WHO report released in 2000, about 121 million people worldwide suffer from depression. The present study aimed to explore factors influencing depression in mothers from Rey, South of Tehran, Iran; who had elementary school children.

Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted in spring 2010. Four hundred thirty mothers, who had elementary school children, were selected through a two stage cluster sampling. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression in the mothers and a 24-hour food recall was used to collect information regarding their dietary intake. General information regarding economic condition and socio-economic status were also gathered using a questionnaire. The data was analyzed using chi-square, one-way analysis of variance and simple regression tests.

Results: In our study, 51.4% of the mothers suffered from depression. There was an inverse correlation between the educational level of the mothers and the heads of household, their occupational status, their marital status, their socio-economic condition and depression. Conversely, any increase in the family size worsened the depression. The daily intake of different macronutrients, except for fat, was lower in individuals of depressed group.

Conclusion: The present study emphasized the fact that more attention should be paid to the educational level and economic condition of the family in order to reduce maternal depression. Family size also plays an important role in this regard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-11-29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3598215PMC
December 2012

The association between depression, socio-economic factors and dietary intake in mothers having primary school children living in Rey, south of Tehran, Iran.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2012 Dec 12;11(1):26. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

School of Public Health & Institute of Public Health Researches, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: According to the WHO report released in 2000, about 121 million people worldwide suffer from depression. The present study aimed to explore factors influencing depression in mothers from Rey, South of Tehran, Iran; who had elementary school children.

Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted in spring 2010. Four hundred thirty mothers who had elementary school children, were selected through a two stage cluster sampling. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression in the mothers and a 24-hour food recall was used to collect information regarding their dietary intake. General information regarding economic condition and socio-economic status were also gathered using a questionnaire. The data was analyzed using chi-square, one-way analysis of variance and simple regression tests.

Results: In our study, 51.4% of the mothers suffered from depression. There was an inverse correlation between the educational level of the mothers and the heads of household, their occupational status, their marital status, their socio-economic condition and depression. Conversely, any increase in the family size worsened the depression. The daily intake of different macronutrients, except for fat, was lower in individuals of depressed group.

Conclusion: The present study emphasized the fact that more attention should be paid to the educational level and economic condition of the family in order to reduce maternal depression. Family size also plays an important role in this regard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-11-26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3598164PMC
December 2012

Morphometric differentiation between camel and sheep strains of Echinococcus granulosus using computer image analysis system (CIAS).

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012 Jan;5(1):58-61

Department of Medical Parasitology & Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To find importance of morphometric criterion of larval rostellar hook of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and the easy and reliable method for distinguish sheep and camel strains in epidemiologic studies.

Methods: Larval rostellar hooks (n=1860) of 31 camel and sheep isolates in Iran, which already had been characterized by PCR, were carefully processed by computerized imagime analysis system (CIAS) and acquired data about rostellar hooks were analyzed using software SPSS.

Results: Measurement analysis of rostellar hooks [mean length (24.23±3.12) μ m] indicated that length of the large hook was a remarkable parameter for strain differentiation. Data analysis demonstrated that CIAS could be used as a reliable tool to distinguish camel from sheep strains with high sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (91.5%).

Conclusions: CIAS as a specific, sensitive, economic, fast, and reliable means might be used for differentiation of E. granulosus strains. Although perimeter and area were measured by digital technology, they were not shown as discriminative criterion as total hook length did.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60246-0DOI Listing
January 2012