Publications by authors named "Mohammad-Reza Noori-Daloii"

36 Publications

Investigating the association of polymorphisms of and with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in Iranian population.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Jan 24:1-6. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disability in which immune cells attack the myelin sheaths that protect nerve fibers. The pathogenesis of the disease involves both complex genetic effects as well as multifaceted gene-environment interactions. In the present study, we examined the association of two Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in (rs6859219) and (rs3748816) with MS in the Iranian population. is specifically expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4 + T cells, while MMEL1is involved in the degradation of both neuropeptides and β-amyloid.

Methods: In this case-control study, 110 patients with MS and 110 matched healthy controls were enrolled. The Participants were genotyped for and SNPs using PCR-RFLP and Real-Time TaqMan SNP Genotyping respectively. The results were finally analyzed using SPSS software version 22.

Results: Our results did not show significant differences in allelic frequencies of two SNPs among cases and controls (0.05). However, for (rs6859219), CA genotype was shown to have a protective effect ( = 0.035 and OR = 0.55), while CC genotype was a susceptive genotype to MS ( = 0.036 and OR = 1.8). There was no significant difference in genotypic frequencies of SNP rs3748816 in .

Conclusion: We could successfully replicate the association of (rs6859219) with susceptibility to MS in the Iranian population. Our result can provide an insight into better understanding the pathogenesis of MS and also improve the genetic counseling for patients affected with multiple sclerosis in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1860964DOI Listing
January 2021

Upregulation of MTOR, RPS6KB1, and EIF4EBP1 in the whole blood samples of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls.

Metab Brain Dis 2020 12 18;35(8):1309-1316. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina St., Tehran, 14155-6447, Iran.

Various genetic and epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play roles as the underlying pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Changes in different parts of the mTOR signaling pathway are among the potential suggested mechanisms based on the specific roles of this pathway in CNS. MTOR, RPS6KB1, and EIFEBP1 genes are among important genes in the mTOR pathway, responsible for the proper function of acting proteins in this signaling pathway. This study aimed to investigate the relative expression levels of these genes in the blood samples of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients compared to healthy controls. In this case-control study blood samples were collected from 30 newly diagnosed RRMS patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy controls. mRNA level of MTOR, RPS6KB1, and EIFEBP1 genes were assessed using Real-Time PCR. The expression of MTOR, RPS6KB1, and EIF4EBP1 genes was up regulated in MS patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001 for all mentioned genes). Considering gender differences, expression of the mentioned genes was increased among female patients (all P < 0.001). However, no statistically significant changes were observed among male patients. Based on the receiver operating characteristic, MTOR gene had the highest diagnostic value followed by EIF4EBP1 and RPS6KB1 genes in differentiating RRMS patients from controls. In conclusion, we found the simultaneous upregulation of MTOR, RPS6KB1, and EIF4EBP1 genes among RRMS patients. MTOR showed to have the highest diagnostic value compared to other 2 genes in differentiating RRMS patients. Further studies evaluating the importance of these findings from pharmacological and prognostic perspectives are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00590-7DOI Listing
December 2020

A Novel Cadherin 23 Variant for Hereditary Hearing Loss Reveals Additional Support for a DFNB12 Nonsyndromic Phenotype of CDH23.

Audiol Neurootol 2020 2;25(5):258-262. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran,

Background And Objectives: Identification of the pathogenic mutations underlying hereditary hearing loss (HL) is difficult, since causative mutations in 60 different genes have so far been reported.

Methods: A comprehensive clinical and pedigree examination was performed on a multiplex family suffering from HL. Direct sequencing of GJB2 and genetic linkage analysis of 5 other most common recessive nonsyndromic HL (ARNSHL) genes were accomplished. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was utilized to reveal the possible genetic etiology of the disease.

Results: NGS results showed a novel rare variant c.2977G>A (p.Asp993Asn) in the CDH23 gene. The variant, which is a missense in exon 26 of the CDH23 gene, fulfills the criteria of being categorized as pathogenic according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guideline. Electroretinography rejects the Usher syndrome in the family.

Conclusions: The present study shows that an accurate molecular diagnosis based on NGS technologies largely improves molecular-diagnostic outcome and thus genetic counseling, and helps to clarify the recurrence risk in deaf families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506500DOI Listing
June 2020

Correction to: Clinical and genetic analysis of two wolfram syndrome families with high occurrence of wolfram syndrome and diabetes type II: a case report.

BMC Med Genet 2020 03 20;21(1):58. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors flagged that the name of 'Asal Hojjat' was misspelled; the name had been spelled as 'Asal Hojat'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-0980-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082902PMC
March 2020

Clinical and genetic analysis of two wolfram syndrome families with high occurrence of wolfram syndrome and diabetes type II: a case report.

BMC Med Genet 2020 01 14;21(1):13. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Mutations of the WFS1 gene are responsible for most cases of Wolfram syndrome (WS), a rare, recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by juvenile-onset non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. Variants of WFS1 are also associated with non-syndromic hearing loss and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our study adds to literature significant associations between WS and T2DM.

Case Presentation: In this study, we analyzed the clinical and genetic data of two families with high prevalence of WS and T2DM. Genetic linkage analysis and DNA sequencing were exploited to identify pathogenic variants. One novel pathogenic variant (c.2243-2244insC) and one known pathogenic (c.1232_1233delCT) (frameshift) variant were identified in exon eight of WFS1 gene.

Conclusions: The mutational and phenotypic spectrum of WS is broadened by our report of novel WFS1 mutation. Our results reveal the value of molecular analysis of WFS1 in the improvement of clinical diagnostics for WS. This study also confirms the role of WFS1 in T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-0950-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6961406PMC
January 2020

Screening of 10 DFNB Loci Causing Autosomal Recessive Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss in Two Iranian Populations Negative for Mutations.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Sep;48(9):1704-1713

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), one of the global public health concerns, is marked by a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. The role of as the most common cause of ARNSHL, is only <20% in the Iranian population. Here, we aimed to determine the relative contribution of several apparently most common loci in a cohort of ARNSHL Iranian families that were negative for the mutations.

Methods: Totally, 80 Iranian ARNSHL families with 3 or more affected individuals from Isfahan and Hamedan provinces, Iran were enrolled in 2017. After excluding mutations in the gene via Sanger sequencing, 60 negative samples (30 families from each province) were analyzed using homozygosity mapping for 10 ARNSHL loci.

Results: Fourteen families were found to be linked to five different known loci, including DFNB4 (5 families), DFNB2 (3 families), DFNB7/11 (1 family), DFNB9 (2 families) and DFNB3 (3 families).

Conclusion: Despite the high heterogeneity of ARNSHL, the genetic causes were determined in 23.5% of the studied families using homozygosity mapping. This data gives an overview of the ARNSHL etiology in the center and west of Iran, used to establish a diagnostic gene panel including most common loci for hearing loss diagnostics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825662PMC
September 2019

A Novel Pathogenic Variant in the CABP2 Gene Causes Severe Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss in a Consanguineous Iranian Family.

Audiol Neurootol 2019 29;24(5):258-263. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran,

Background And Objectives: Hereditary hearing loss (HL) can originate from mutations in one of many genes involved in the complex process of hearing. CABP2 mutations have been reported to cause moderate HL. Here, we report the whole exome sequencing (WES) of a proband presenting with prelingual, severe HL in an Iranian family.

Methods: A comprehensive family history was obtained, and clinical evaluations and pedigree analysis were performed in the family with 2 affected members. After excluding mutations in the GJB2 gene and 7 other most common autosomal recessive nonsyndromic HL (ARNSHL) genes via Sanger sequencing and genetic linkage analysis in the family, WES was utilized to find the possible etiology of the disease.

Results: WES results showed a novel rare variant (c.311G>A) in the CABP2gene.This missense variant in the exon 4 of the CABP2gene meets the criteria of being pathogenic according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) interpretation guidelines.

Conclusions: Up to now, 3 mutations have been reported for the CABP2gene to cause moderate ARNSHL in different populations. Our results show that CABP2variantsalso cause severe ARNSHL, adding CABP2to the growing list of genes that exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity. Expanding our understanding of the mutational spectrum of HL genes is an important step in providing the correct clinical molecular interpretation and diagnosis for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502251DOI Listing
May 2020

Clinical and molecular assessment of 13 Iranian families with Wolfram syndrome.

Endocrine 2019 11 16;66(2):185-191. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, 16 Azar St. Keshavarz BLVD, Tehran, 1417613151, Iran.

Purpose: Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder described by a pattern of clinical manifestations such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic nerve atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and psychiatric disorders. WFS1 and WFS2 loci are the main genetic loci associated with this disorder.

Methods: In the current study, we investigated associations between these loci and WS via STR markers and homozygosity mapping in 13 Iranian families with WS. All families were linked to WFS1 locus.

Results: Mutation analysis revealed four novel mutations (Q215X, E89X, S168Del, and E391Sfs*51) in the assessed families. Bioinformatics tools confirmed the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Other identified mutations were previously reported in other populations for their pathogenicity.

Conclusions: The current study adds to the mutation repository of WS and shows a panel of mutations in Iranian population. Such panel would facilitate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in families with WS cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-02004-wDOI Listing
November 2019

Homozygosity mapping and direct sequencing identify a novel pathogenic variant in the CISD2 gene in an Iranian Wolfram syndrome family.

Acta Diabetol 2020 Jan 15;57(1):81-87. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 81746-73461, Iran.

Aims: Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. Mortality and morbidity rate of the disease is high in adulthood due to neurological and respiratory defects. So far, two WS genes, WFS1 (more than 90% of cases) and CISD2, have been identified. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of WFS2 in a group of Iranian WS families.

Methods: We recruited 27 families with the clinical diagnosis of WS. Homozygosity mapping was implemented using short tandem repeat polymorphic markers and bi-directional sequencing of the CISD2 gene in families negative for WFS1 mutations. The candidate variant was checked among family members. In silico analysis and protein modeling were applied to assess the pathogenic effect of the variant. Tetra-primers ARMS PCR was set up for checking the variant in 50 ethnic-matched controls.

Results: One family showed homozygosity by descent at WFS2. A novel missense variant, c.310T > C (p.S104P), was found in exon 2 of the CISD2 gene. Computational predictions revealed its pathogenic effect on protein structure, function, and stability. Parents and his healthy brother were heterozygous for the variant. The variant was not observed in the control group.

Conclusions: This is the first study that elucidates the role of the CISD2 gene among Iranian WS families with a novel disease-causing missense variant. Next-generation sequencing could unravel disease-causing genes in remained families to expand genetic heterogeneity of WS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-019-01381-yDOI Listing
January 2020

A Comprehensive Genetic and Clinical Evaluation of Waardenburg Syndrome Type II in a Set of Iranian Patients.

Int J Mol Cell Med 2018 27;7(1):17-23. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, and considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. WS type II is the most common type of WS in many populations presenting with sensorineural hearing impairment, heterochromia iridis, hypoplastic blue eye, and pigmentary abnormalities of the hair and skin. To date, mutations of , , and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of WS2. Although different pathogenic mutations have been reported in many ethnic groups, the data on Iranian WS2 patients is insufficient. 31 WS2 patients, including 22 men and 9 women from 14 families were included. Waardenburg consortium guidelines were employed for WS2 diagnosis. WS2 patients underwent screening for , , and mutations using direct sequencing and MLPA analysis. Clinical evaluation revealed prominent phenotypic variability in Iranian WS2 patients. Sensorineural hearing impairment and heterochromia iridis were the most common features (67% and 45%, respectively), whereas anosmia was the least frequent phenotype. Molecular analysis revealed a heterozygous c.640C>T (p.R214X) in and a heterozygous gross deletion in the study population. Our data help illuminate the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of WS2 in an Iranian series of patients, and could have implications for the genetic counseling of WS in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/IJMCM.BUMS.7.1.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134422PMC
March 2018

Comparing the Efficiency of Three Protocols in Isolation of Cell Free Fetal DNA From Maternal Blood.

J Family Reprod Health 2017 Sep;11(3):146-151

Departement of Medical Genetics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Recent advances in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) through cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) has highlighted cffDNA purification as a critical initial step. Herein, we aimed to compare the efficiency of one proposed protocol with two commercial kits for isolation of cffDNA. cffDNA was isolated from whole blood of 50 normal pregnancies using one proposed manual protocol compared with QIAamp DNA Blood Mini and Bioneer Kits. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation real time polymerase chain reaction (MeDIP-Real time PCR) was performed to quantify three fetal specific sequences. Maximum cffDNA quantity was obtained by suggested protocol (248.79 ± 14.07 ng/µl) and the best quality was achieved by Bioneer Kit (OD ratio: 260/280 nm/nm: 1.69 ± 0.09, 260/230 nm/nm: 1.15 ± 0.13) (p < 0.001). Enrichment of fetal specific sequences was significantly higher when proposed protocol was used to isolate cffDNA (p = 0.01). Inhibitory effect of NaI on nucleases and double digestion of DNA associated proteins may be the main reasons behind the superiority of suggested protocol. Significantly higher amplification of fetal specific sequences in suggested protocol would be a strong evidence on recovery of small fetal fragments as demonstrated with its maximum total DNA quantity and amplification in different PCR reactions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045694PMC
September 2017

GJB2 mutations causing autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in two Iranian populations: Report of two novel variants.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Apr 31;107:121-126. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Pediatric Inherited Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Noncommunicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: Hereditary hearing loss (HL) is a noticeable concern in medicine all over the world. On average, 1 in 166 babies born are diagnosed with HL in Iran, which makes it a major public health issue. Autosomal recessive non-syndromic HL (ARNSHL) is the most prevalent form of HL. Although over 60 genes have been identified for ARNSHL, GJB2 mutations are the most prevalent causes of ARNSHL in many populations. Previous studies have estimated the average frequency of GJB2 mutations to be between 16 and 18% in Iran, but would vary among different ethnic groups. In the present study, we aimed to determine the frequency and mutation profile of 70 deaf patients from two different provinces (center and west) of Iran.

Methods: We enrolled 70 Iranian deaf patients with ARNSHL from Isfahan (40 family) and Hamedan (30 family) provinces. After extraction of genomic DNA, the entire coding region of GJB2 was directly sequenced in all patients. Multiplex PCR was used for detection of del(GJB6-D13S1830) and del(GJB6-D13S1854) in the GJB6 gene. In silico analyses were also performed by available software tools.

Results: A total of eleven different mutations were detected, nine of which were previously reported and the other two (c.130T > G and c.178T > G) were novel. Homozygous GJB2 mutations were observed in 22.5% and 20% of all the subjects from Isfahan and Hamedan provinces, respectively. c.35delG was the most frequent mutation. One compound heterozygous genotype (c.358_360delGAG/c.35delG) was observed for c.35delG. Screening for the two GJB6 deletions did not reveal any positive sample among heterozygous or GJB2 negative samples.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that mutations in the GJB2 gene specially c.35delG are important causes of ARNSHL in the center and west of Iran. Totally, 15% of the patients were heterozygous carriers. Further investigation is needed to detect the genetic cause of HL in the patients with monoallelic GJB2 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.01.012DOI Listing
April 2018

SOX10 mutation causes Waardenburg syndrome associated with distinctive phenotypic features in an Iranian family: A clue for phenotype-directed genetic analysis.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 May 16;96:122-126. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy characterized by hearing impairment and pigmentary disturbances in hair, eyes, and skin. WS is clinically heterogeneous and can be subdivided into four major types (WS1-WS4) where WS4 or Shah-Waardenburg is diagnosed when WS2 is accompanied by Hirschsprung disease (HD). Mutations of SOX10, EDN3/EDNRB have been identified in association with WS4. This study was aimed to determine the pathogenic variant in an Iranian pedigree affected with WS4.

Method: A two-generation pedigree with three affected members and considerable phenotypic heterogeneity was recruited. The proband was a 15-year-old boy, with severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment, heterochromia iridis, hypoplastic blue eyes and Hirschprung disease. The other two also presented characteristics of WS2 and complained of chronic constipation with normal anorectal reflex. Sequencing of all exons and exon-intron boundaries of SOX10, EDN3/EDNRB revealed a heterozygous variant c.422T > C in exon 3 of SOX10 confirmed by a series of evidence to be pathogenic. It resulted in p.L141P at the protein level. Leucin 141 is located in Nuclear Export signal, HMG box of the protein.

Conclusion: This study is the first report of a WS4 family in the Iranian population. The mutation is associated with distinctive phenotypic profile (association of anosmia and chronic constipation with SOX10 mutations) and could further improve diagnosis and counseling of WS in the Iranian population and can contribute to phenotype-directed genetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.03.016DOI Listing
May 2017

Polymorphisms of RPS6KB1 and CD86 associates with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in Iranian population.

Neurol Res 2017 Mar 12;39(3):217-222. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

a Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Objective:  Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent disorder of nervous system inflammation which involves demyelination of spinal cord; this process depends on both environmental and genetic susceptibility factors. In the present study, we examined the association between two SNPs in RPS6KB1 (rs180515) and CD86 (rs9282641) with MS in Iranian population. RPS6KB1gene encodes p70S6K1 protein which plays a key role in mTOR signaling pathway, while CD86 gene codes a membrane protein type I which belongs to immunoglobulin super family act on co-stimulation signaling pathway.

Methods: In this case-control study 130 patients with MS and 128 matched healthy controls were enrolled, genomic DNA was isolated and genotyping was performed using mismatched PCR-RFLP. The results were finally analyzed using SPSS.

Results: Our results showed significant difference in allelic frequency of SNP rs180515 among cases and controls (P = 0.004). For this variation, AA genotype was shown to have protective effect (P = 0.016 and OR = 0.6), while GG genotype was a susceptive genotype to MS (P = 0.04 and OR = 2.2). Allelic frequency of SNP rs9282641 also showed significant difference between cases and controls (P = 0.006). For this SNP, AG genotype had predisposing effect (P = 0.04, OR = 2.3), and GG genotype showed protective (P = 0.01, OR = 0.411).

Conclusion: We successfully replicated the association of two novel SNPs introduced by a GWAS study, and MS in the Iranian population. This result can open ways for better understanding the mechanisms involved in MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2016.1278108DOI Listing
March 2017

In silico analysis of novel mutations in maple syrup urine disease patients from Iran.

Metab Brain Dis 2017 02 10;32(1):105-113. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. The disease is mainly caused by mutations either in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT or DLD genes encoding components of the E1α, E1β, E2 and E3 subunits of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), respectively. BCKDC is a mitochondrial enzyme which is responsible for the normal breakdown of BCAA. The rate of consanguineous marriage in Iran is 38.6 %, so the prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders is higher in comparison to other countries. Consanguinity increases the chance of the presence of pathogenic mutations in a homoallelic state. This phenomenon has made homozygosity mapping a powerful tool for finding the probable causative gene in heterogeneous disorders like IEM (Inborn Errors of Metabolism). In this study, two sets of multiplex polymorphic STR (Short Tandem Repeat) markers linked to the above-mentioned genes were selected to identify the probable pathogenic gene in the studied families. The families who showed a homozygous haplotype for the STR markers of the BCKDHB gene were subsequently sequenced. Four novel mutations including c.633 + 1G > A, c.988G > A, c.833_834insCAC, and a homozygous deletion of whole exon 3 c. (274 + 1_275-1) _(343 + 1_344-1), as well as one recently reported (c. 508G > T) mutation have been identified. Interestingly, three families shared a common haplotype structure along with the c. 508G > T mutation. Also, four other families revealed another similar haplotype with c.988G > A mutation. Founder effect can be a suggestive mechanism for the disease. Additionally, structural models of MSUD mutations have been performed to predict the pathogenesis of the newly identified variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-016-9867-1DOI Listing
February 2017

Identification of six novel mutations in Iranian patients with maple syrup urine disease and their in silico analysis.

Mutat Res 2016 Apr 25;786:34-40. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; Dr. Zeinali's Medical Genetics Laboratory, Kawsar Human Genetics Research Center, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The disease prevalence is higher in populations with elevated rate of consanguineous marriages such as Iran. Different types of disease causing mutations have been previously reported in BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes known to be responsible for MSUD phenotype. In this study, two sets of multiplex polymorphic STR (Short Tandem Repeat) markers linked to the above genes were used to aid in homozygosity mapping in order to find probable pathogenic change(s) in the studied families. The families who showed homozygote haplotype for the BCKDHA gene were subsequently sequenced. Our findings showed that exons 2, 4 and 6 contain most of the mutations which are novel. The changes include two single nucleotide deletion (i.e. c. 143delT and c.702delT), one gross deletion covering the whole exon four c.(375+1_376-1)_(8849+1_885-1), two splice site changes (c.1167+1G>T, c. 288+1G>A), and one point mutation (c.731G>A). Computational approaches were used to analyze these two novel mutations in terms of their impact on protein structure. Computational structural modeling indicated that these mutations might affect structural stability and multimeric assembly of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2016.01.005DOI Listing
April 2016

Misclassification Adjustment of Family History of Breast Cancer in a Case-Control Study: a Bayesian Approach.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(18):8221-6

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail :

Background: Misreporting self-reported family history may lead to biased estimations. We used Bayesian methods to adjust for exposure misclassification.

Materials And Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was used to identify breast cancer risk factors among Iranian women. Three models were jointly considered; an outcome, an exposure and a measurement model. All models were fitted using Bayesian methods, run to achieve convergence.

Results: Bayesian analysis in the model without misclassification showed that the odds ratios for the relationship between breast cancer and a family history in different prior distributions were 2.98 (95% CRI: 2.41, 3.71), 2.57 (95% CRI: 1.95, 3.41) and 2.53 (95% CRI: 1.93, 3.31). In the misclassified model, adjusted odds ratios for misclassification in the different situations were 2.64 (95% CRI: 2.02, 3.47), 2.64 (95% CRI: 2.02, 3.46), 1.60 (95% CRI: 1.07, 2.38), 1.61 (95% CRI: 1.07, 2.40), 1.57 (95% CRI: 1.05, 2.35), 1.58 (95% CRI: 1.06, 2.34) and 1.57 (95% CRI: 1.06, 2.33).

Conclusions: It was concluded that self-reported family history may be misclassified in different scenarios. Due to the lack of validation studies in Iran, more attention to this matter in future research is suggested, especially while obtaining results in accordance with sensitivity and specificity values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.18.8221DOI Listing
October 2016

Frequency of PTEN alterations, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and their association in prostate cancer.

Gene 2016 Jan 28;575(2 Pt 3):755-60. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Department of Urology, Hasheminejad kidney Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene aberration and trans membrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) fusion are the most prevalent genomic events in prostate cancer. In this study we aimed to evaluate the frequency of PTEN alteration and TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and possible link between these two biomarkers in Iranian men.

Methods: We assessed 42 fresh frozen tissue samples of prostate cancer (PCA) obtained by radical prostatectomy, interrogating the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene along with PTEN gene status using Real Time PCR and FISH methods.

Results: Using Real Time PCR we identified the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in 64% (27/42) of tumor samples, which was confirmed by FISH technique, giving 21 positive samples with deletion, suggesting the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene. By contrast, PTEN deletion was detected in 52% (11/21) of PCA samples, which all showed low expression in Real Time. Concomitance of PTEN deletion or low expression and TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was present in PCA samples (P=0.005). All of the PTEN deletion samples showed TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, (11/11, 100%) while not all of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive samples showed PTEN deletion. None of 29 cases of BPH and 8 cases of normal zone of tumor tissue showed TMPRSS2-ERG fusion.

Conclusions: These results indicate that PTEN loss occurs in cooperation with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in PCA. While the majority of PCA samples harbor TMPRSS2-ERG fusion as well as PTEN gene deletion, normal tissues do not show these molecular aberrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.09.068DOI Listing
January 2016

A novel mutation in the PAX3 gene causes Waardenburg syndrome type I in an Iranian family.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Oct 3;79(10):1736-40. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) is one of the most frequent congenital defects, with a prevalence of 1 in 500 among neonates. Although there are over 400 syndromes involving HI, most cases of HI are nonsyndromic (70%), 20% of which follow autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Waardenburg syndrome (WS) ranks first among autosomal dominant syndromic forms of HI. WS is characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment, pigmentation abnormalities of hair and skin and hypoplastic blue eyes or heterochromia iridis. WS is subdivided into four major types, WS1-WS4. WS1 is diagnosed by the presence of dystopia canthorum and PAX3 is the only gene involved. This study aims to determine the pathogenic mutation in a large Iranian pedigree affected with WS1 in order to further confirm the clinical diagnosis.

Methods: In the present study, a family segregating HI was ascertained in a genetic counseling center. Upon clinical inspection, white forelock, dystopia canthorum, broad high nasal root and synophrys, characteristic of WS1 were evident. In order to clarify the genetic etiology and confirm the clinical data, primers were designed to amplify exons and exon-intron boundaries of the responsible gene, PAX3 with 10 exons, followed by the Sanger DNA sequencing method.

Results: Genetic analysis of PAX3 revealed a novel mutation in PAX3 (c.1024_1040 del AGCACGATTCCTTCCAA). Our data provide genotype-phenotype correlation for the mutation in PAX3 and WS1 in the studied family, with implications for genetic counseling, which necessitates detailed clinical inspection of HI patients to distinguish syndromic HI from the more common non-syndromic cases.

Conclusion: Our results reveal the value of phenotype-directed genetic analysis and could further expand the spectrum of PAX3 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.07.039DOI Listing
October 2015

Molecular and clinical characterization of Waardenburg syndrome type I in an Iranian cohort with two novel PAX3 mutations.

Gene 2015 Dec 11;574(2):302-7. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a disease of abnormal neural-crest derived melanocyte development characterized by hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances in hair, eyes and skin. WS is subdivided into four major types, WS1-WS4, where WS1 is recognized by the presence of dystopia canthorum, with PAX3 being the only known gene involved. This study aimed at investigating PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics of WS1 in a group of Iranian patients. A total of 12 WS1 patients from four unrelated Iranian families were enrolled. Waardenburg consortium guidelines were used for WS1 diagnosis. A detailed family history was traced and a thorough clinical examination was performed for all participants. Furthermore, WS1 patients underwent screening for PAX3 mutations using PCR-sequencing. Dystopia canthorum, broad high nasal root and synophrys were observed in all patients. Early graying, hair discoloration, hypoplastic blue eyes (characteristic brilliant blue iris) and hearing loss were the most common features observed, while heterochromia iridis was the least frequently observed sign among the studied Iranian WS1 patients. Genetic analysis of PAX3 revealed four mutations including c.667C>T, c.784C>T, c.951delT and c.451+3A>C. Two of the four mutations reported here (c.951delT and c.451+3A>C) are being reported for the first time in this study. Our data provide insight into genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS1 in an Iranian series of patients. Our results expand the spectrum of PAX3 mutations and may have implications for the genetic counseling of WS in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.023DOI Listing
December 2015

Significant expressivity of Wolfram syndrome: phenotypic assessment of two known and one novel mutation in the WFS1 gene in three Iranian families.

Mol Biol Rep 2014 Nov 31;41(11):7499-505. Epub 2014 Aug 31.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, 16 Azar St. Keshavarz BLVD, 1417613151, Tehran, Iran.

Wolfram syndrome also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness) is a rare neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorder. There is evidence of variable expressivity both in patients and heterozygous carriers. In this study, we describe three Persian Wolfram syndrome families with differences in the age of onset, signs and symptoms of the disease. We clinically evaluated affected families for verifying WS clinical diagnosis. After linkage analysis via 5 STR markers, molecular analysis for WFS1 was performed by direct sequencing for patients and available family members. Three homozygous mutations were identified including c.1885 C>T, c.2205C>A both in exon 8 and c.460+1G>A in intron 4. The mutation c.2205C>A was found to be novel. We report interesting phenotype-genotype correlations: homozygous c.1885C>T and c.2205C>A variants were correlated with quite different disease severity and onset in the siblings. We report a rare case of WS with homozygous c.1885C>T who is married and has a healthy child. c.460+1G>A showed a possible partial dominant inheritance put forth by a heterozygous parent showing partial WS symptoms while her daughter displayed typical WS symptoms. Due to variable expressivity, detailed clinical examination and molecular diagnostics should be used to confirm WS and a more exact recurrence risk data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-014-3642-3DOI Listing
November 2014

The multidrug resistance pumps are inhibited by silibinin and apoptosis induced in K562 and KCL22 leukemia cell lines.

Leuk Res 2014 May 5;38(5):575-80. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Silibinin have been introduced for several years as a potent antioxidant in the field of nutraceuticals. Based on wide persuasive effects of this drug, we have decided to investigate the effects of silibinin on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in vitro models, K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay) and real-time PCR were employed to evaluate the effects of silibinin on cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and expression of various multidrug resistance genes in these cell lines, respectively. Our results have shown that presence of silibinin has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Also, our data indicated that silibinin, in a dose-dependent manner with applying no cytotoxic effects, inhibited cell proliferation and reduced mRNA expression levels of some transporter genes e.g. MDR1, MRP3, MRP2, MRP1, MRP5, MRP4, ABCG2, ABCB11, MRP6 and MRP7. The multifarious in vitro inhibitory effects of silibinin are in agreement with growing body of evidence that silibinin would be an efficient anticancer agent in order to be used in multi-target therapy to prevail the therapeutic hold backs against CML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2013.10.028DOI Listing
May 2014

Differential expression of human homeodomain TGIFLX in brain tumor cell lines.

Acta Med Iran 2013 ;51(12):834-41

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Glioblastoma is the most common and the most lethal primary brain cancer. This malignancy is highly locally invasive, rarely metastatic and resistant to current therapies. Little is known about the distinct molecular biology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in terms of initiation and progression. So far, several molecular mechanisms have been suggested to implicate in GBM development. Homeodomain (HD) transcription factors play central roles in the expression of genomic information in all known eukaryotes. The TGIFX homeobox gene was originally discovered in human adult testes. Our previous study showed implications of TGIFLX in prostate cancer and azoospermia, although the molecular mechanism by which TGIFLX acts is unknown. Moreover, studies reported that HD proteins are involved in normal and abnormal brain developments. We examined the expression pattern of TGIFLX in different human brain tumor cell lines including U87MG, A172, Daoy and 1321N1. Interestingly, real time RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed a high level of TGIFLX expression in A172 cells but not in the other cell lines. We subsequently cloned the entire coding sequence of TGIFLX gene into the pEGFP-N1 vector, eukaryotic expression vector encoding eGFP, and transfected into the U-87 MG cell line. The TGIFLX-GFP expression was confirmed by real time RT-PCR and UV-microscopic analysis. Upon transfection into U87 cells, fusion protein TGIFLX-GFP was found to locate mainly in the nucleus. This is the first report to determine the nuclear localization of TGIFLX and evaluation of its expression level between different brain tumor cell lines. Our data also suggest that TGIFLX gene dysregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of some human brain tumors.
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September 2014

Molecular characterization of WFS1 in an Iranian family with Wolfram syndrome reveals a novel frameshift mutation associated with early symptoms.

Gene 2013 Oct 8;528(2):309-13. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that represents a likely source of childhood diabetes especially among countries in the consanguinity belt. The main responsible gene is WFS1 for which over one hundred mutations have been reported from different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of WS and to perform a possible genotype-phenotype correlation in Iranian kindred. An Iranian family with two patients was clinically studied and WS was suspected. Genetic linkage analysis via 5 STR markers was carried out. For identification of mutations, DNA sequencing of WFS1 including all the exons, exon-intron boundaries and the promoter was performed. Linkage analysis indicated linkage to the WFS1 region. After DNA sequencing of WFS1, one novel pathogenic mutation, which causes frameshift alteration c.2177_2178insTCTTC (or c.2173_2177dupTCTTC) in exon eight, was found. The genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggests that the presence of the homozygous mutation may be associated with early onset of disease symptoms. This study stresses the necessity of considering the molecular analysis of WFS1 in childhood diabetes with some symptoms of WS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.06.040DOI Listing
October 2013

Cytokine gene polymorphism and graft-versus-host disease: a survey in Iranian bone marrow transplanted patients.

Mol Biol Rep 2013 Aug 6;40(8):4861-7. Epub 2013 May 6.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, 16 Azar St. Keshavarz BLVD, 1417613151, Tehran, Iran.

Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Numerous studies have shown the potential role of cytokine genotypes in the occurrence of GVHD. In this retrospective, case-control study we aimed to investigate the association between 13 cytokine genes and acute GVHD (aGVHD) after HLA-identical sibling BMT in 91 Iranian subjects. Negative association was found between aGVHD and donor IL-10/GCC haplotype or donor IL-4Ra-A allele in the population study. When compared within the leukemia subgroup, we observed positive association between recipient IL-1α -889/C allele and aGVHD. Also there were negative association between recipient IL-10/CAA haplotype and donor IL-4Ra/A allele and development of aGVHD. Among the different genotypes only donor IL-4Ra and donor IL-12 showed significant association. We conclude that several cytokine polymorphisms are positively and negatively associated with aGVHD in Iranian HLA matched siblings, of which IL-4Ra and IL-12 may play important roles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-013-2585-4DOI Listing
August 2013

Digenic inheritance in autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss cases carrying GJB2 heterozygote mutations: assessment of GJB4, GJA1, and GJC3.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Feb 8;77(2):189-93. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) can be caused by many genes. However, mutations in the GJB2 gene, which encodes the gap-junction (GJ) protein connexin (Cx) 26, constitute a considerable proportion differing among population. Between 10 and 42 percent of patients with recessive GJB2 mutations carry only one mutant allele. Mutations in GJB4, GJA1, and GJC3 encoding Cx30.3, Cx43, and Cx29, respectively, can lead to HL. Combination of different connexins in heteromeric and heterotypic GJ assemblies is possible. This study aims to determine whether variations in any of the genes GJB4, GJA1 or GJC3 can be the second mutant allele causing the disease in the digenic mode of inheritance in the studied GJB2 heterozygous cases.

Methods: We examined 34 unrelated GJB2 heterozygous ARNSHL subjects from different geographic and ethnic areas in Iran, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct DNA sequencing to identify any sequence variations in these genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays were performed on 400 normal hearing individuals.

Results: Sequence analysis of GJB4 showed five heterozygous variations including c.451C>A, c.219C>T, c.507C>G, c.155_158delTCTG and c.542C>T, with only the latter variation not being detected in any of control samples. There were three heterozygous variations including c.758C>T, c.717G>A and c.3*dupA in GJA1 in four cases. We found no variations in GJC3 gene sequence.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that GJB4 c.542C>T variant and less likely some variations of GJB4 and GJA1, but not possibly GJC3, can be assigned to ARNSHL in GJB2 heterozygous mutation carriers providing clues of the digenic pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.10.015DOI Listing
February 2013

Association of P1635 and P1655 polymorphisms in dysbindin (DTNBP1) gene with schizophrenia.

Acta Neuropsychiatr 2012 Jun;24(3):155-9

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1% in most of the populations studied. SCZ is multifactorial with the contribution of multiple susceptibility genes that could act in conjunction with epigenetic processes and environmental factors. There is some evidence supporting the association between genetic variants in dysbindin (DTNBP1) gene and SCZ in populations. In this study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms P1635 and P1655 in dysbindin gene with SCZ.

Methods: Totally, 115 unrelated patients with SCZ and 117 unrelated healthy volunteers were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood. Genotyping was done with the PCR-RFLP method. The allele and genotype associations were analysed with X 2 test. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was used to correct p values for multiple comparisons.

Results: The results showed no significant difference between patients and controls in allelic frequencies or genotypic distributions of SNP P1635 (p = 0.809), but a significant difference between the case and control groups for SNP P1655 (p = 0.009) was found. We could also find a significant positive association between A-C haplotype and SCZ (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.18-2.42; p = 0.004, p c = 0.02) and a protective effect for A-G haplotype (p = 0.003, OR = 0.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.42; p = 0.003, p c = 0.02).

Conclusion: This study may provide further support for the association between SNP polymorphisms in DTNBP1 and SCZ in the Iranian population. Studies with more markers and subjects for various populations will be necessary to understand the genetic contribution of the gene to the development of SCZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5215.2011.00598.xDOI Listing
June 2012

Mutation analysis of VSX1 and SOD1 in Iranian patients with keratoconus.

Mol Vis 2011 30;17:3128-36. Epub 2011 Nov 30.

Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To evaluate mutations in the visual system homeobox gene 1 (VSX1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) genes with keratoconus (KTCN), direct sequencing was performed in an Iranian population.

Methods: One hundred and twelve autosomal dominant KTCN patients and fifty-two unaffected individuals from twenty-six Iranian families, as well as one hundred healthy people as controls were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood sample. Then to study the possible linkage between KTCN and six known loci linkage analysis was performed using 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Also, the entire coding region and intron-exon boundaries of VSX1 and SOD1 were amplified by the PCR technique in each proband. Subsequently, PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. Co-segregation analysis of the identified mutation was conducted in the family members. An Amplification Refractory Mutation System PCR (ARMS-PCR) was additionally employed for detection of the identified mutation in healthy controls.

Results: Linkage analysis of aforementioned loci did not detect evidence for linkage to KTCN. Direct PCR sequencing revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; g.1502T>G and g.9683C>T), as well as two missense mutations that have been previously reported (R166W and H244R) in VSX1. We also found three undescribed SNPs (g.4886G>A, g.4990C>G, and g.9061T>A) in SOD1. The R166W and H244R mutations were co-segregated in affected family members but not in those that were unaffected. Moreover, the ARMS-PCR strategy did not detect the identified mutations in controls.

Conclusions: Our data suggest a significant association between KTCN patients and VSX1 genetic alterations (p.R166W and p.H244R). Although our findings support VSX1 as a plausible candidate gene responsible for keratoconus, other chromosomal loci and genes could be involved in KTCN development. Taken together, our results suggest that p.R166W and p.H244R could have possible pathogenic influences on KTCN.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3235532PMC
April 2012

Use of siRNA in knocking down of dopamine receptors, a possible therapeutic option in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Mol Biol Rep 2012 Feb 3;39(2):2003-10. Epub 2011 Jun 3.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, P.O.Box 14155-6447, Tehran, Iran.

Heightened dopaminergic activity has been shown to be implicated in some major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Use of dopaminergic antagonists was limited by some serious side effects related to unspecific blocking of dopamine receptors. Thus a target specific dopamine receptor gene silencing method such as using small interfering RNA (siRNA) might be useful. In this study recombinant plasmids expressing siRNA against dopamine receptors (D1-D5DRs) were produced, and their efficiency in knocking down of receptors in were assessed in rat neuroblastoma cell line (B65), using Real-time PCR method. Furthermore, D2DR siRNA expressing plasmid was injected into the rat nucleus accumbens bilaterally to investigate whether it can prevent the hyperactivity induced by apomorphine. Locomotion was measured in 10 min intervals, 50 min before and 60 min after apomorphine injection (0.5 mg/kg, S.C). Our results indicated that the mRNA level of dopamine receptors were reduced between 25 and 75% in B65 cells treated with the plasmids in vitro. In behavioral tests, locomotion was lower at least in the second 10 min after apomorphine injection in rats treated with plasmid expressing D2DR siRNA compare to control group [F (4,24) = 2.77, (P < 0.05)]. The spontaneous activity of treated rats was normal. In conclusion, dopamine receptors can be downregulated by use of siRNA expressing plasmids in nucleus accumbens. Although our work may have some possible clinical applications; the potentially therapeutic application of siRNA in knocking down of dopamine receptors needs further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-011-0947-3DOI Listing
February 2012

CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms (-318C/T, +49A/G, +6230A/G) in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010 Dec;9(4):219-23

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multiple regions of demyelination and inflammation along axons with a T cell-mediated autoimmune etiology. While the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene seems to be a strong candidate gene in autoimmune diseases, we investigated its association with a group of patients with MS. One hundred and thirty five patients with relapsing-remitting form of MS and 135 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-318C/T, +49A/G, +6230A/G) of the CTLA-4 gene were assessed using PCR-RFLP method. The genotypes -318 CC (82.9% in patients vs. 76.2% in controls) and +49 AA (31.1% in patients vs. 28.1% in controls) were overrepresented in the patient group; however, these differences were not statistically significant. In spite of some previous reports, this study did not confirm any significant association with alleles and genotypes of SNPs of the CTLA4 in Iranian MS patients. Such disparity could be due to genetic background, ethnicity and different forms of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/09.04/ijaai.219223DOI Listing
December 2010