Publications by authors named "Mohammad Zarei"

158 Publications

Automated measurement of iris surface smoothness using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8505. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Fuchs uveitis (FU) is a chronic and often unilateral ocular inflammation and characteristic iris atrophic changes, other than heterochromia, are common in FU and are key to the correct diagnosis in many cases. With the advent of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), some investigators attempted to quantitatively study these atrophic changes; mostly by introducing various methods to measure iris thickness in AS-OCT images. We aimed to present an automated method in an observational case series to measure the smoothness index (SI) of the iris surface in AS-OCT images. The ratio of the length of the straight line connecting the most peripheral and central points of the anterior iris border (in nasal and temporal sides) to the actual length of this border on AS-OCT images, was defined as SI. In a uveitis referral center, twenty-two eyes of 11 patients with unilateral Fuchs uveitis (FU) (7 female) and 22 eyes of 11 healthy control subjects underwent AS-OCT imaging. Image J and a newly developed MATLAB algorithm were used for manual and automated SI measurements, respectively. Agreement between manual and automated measurements was evaluated with Bland-Altman analysis and interclass correlation coefficient. The inter-eye difference of SI was compared between the FU group and the control group. Automated mean overall SI was 0.868 ± 0.037 and 0.840 ± 0.039 in FU and healthy fellow eyes, respectively (estimated mean difference =  - 0.028, 95% CI [- 0.038, - 0.018], p < 0.001). Bland- Altman plots showed good agreement between two methods in both healthy and FU eyes. The interclass correlation coefficient between the manual and automated measurements in the FU and healthy fellow eyes was 0.958 and 0.964, respectively. The inter-eye difference of overall SI was 0.029 ± 0.015 and 0.012 ± 0.008 in FU group and control group, respectively (p = 0.01). We concluded that the automated algorithm can rapidly and conveniently measure SI with results comparable to the manual method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87954-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055699PMC
April 2021

Antiviral activity of fermented foods and their probiotics bacteria towards respiratory and alimentary tracts viruses.

Food Control 2021 Sep 11;127:108140. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450, Selangor, Malaysia.

The recent COVID-19, a viral outbreak calls for a high demand for non-conventional antiviral agents that can reduce the risk of infections and promote fast recovery. Fermented foods and their probiotics bacteria have recently received increasing interest due to the reported potential of high antiviral activity. Several probiotics strains demonstrated broad range of antiviral activities and different mechanisms of action. This article will review the diversity, health benefits, interaction with immune system and antiviral activity of fermented foods and their probiotics bacteria. In addition, the mechanisms of action will be reviewed to determine the broad range potential antiviral activity against the respiratory and alimentary tracts viruses. The probiotics bacteria and bioactive compounds in fermented foods demonstrated antiviral activities against respiratory and alimentary tracts viruses. The mechanism of action was reported to be due to the stimulation of the immune system function via enhancing natural killers cell toxicity, enhance the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the cytotoxic of T lymphocytes (CD3, CD16, CD56). However, further studies are highly recommended to determine the potential antiviral activity for traditional fermented foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036130PMC
September 2021

Posterior hemivertebra resection and short-segment fusion with lateral mass screws in congenital scoliosis: a novel strategy for the resource-limited setting.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Apr 17;16(1):271. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran, 1419733141, Iran.

Background: Posterior hemivertebra resection and short-segment fusion with pedicle screws are an established treatment in congenital scoliosis, which require pediatric-specific instrumentation. The purpose of this study was to report the results of utilizing cervical lateral mass screws instead of pedicle screws in the treatment of congenital scoliosis in children younger than 5 years old.

Methods: In an IRB-approved retrospective chart review study, patients <5 years old with congenital scoliosis who underwent posterior hemivertebra resection and fusion with lateral mass screws from 2013 to 2017 were included. Demographic information, pre- and post-operative radiographs, complications, and outcomes were extracted from the charts.

Results: Twenty-three patients were included in the final analysis with a mean age of 40 months, of which 14 were female. Patients were followed for a mean of 51.3±13.2 months. The mean blood loss was 210ml, and patients were hospitalized for a mean of 4 days post-operatively. The correction rate of the main coronal curve, compensatory cranial curve, compensatory caudal curve, and segmental sagittal curve was 74.8%, 68%, 65.2%, and 68.9%, respectively. Three complications were observed: one intra-operative pedicle fracture, one case of implant failure, and one deep surgical-site infection, all of which were successfully managed.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adult lateral mass screws can be used for transpedicular fixation of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in low-resource settings where pediatric-specific pedicle instruments are not readily available. The correction rate, outcomes, and complications are similar and comparable to pediatric-specific pedicle screws, in addition to being low-profile and less bulky compared to adult implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02419-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052735PMC
April 2021

Efficacy of Biosimilar Adalimumab in the Treatment of Behçet's Uveitis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Medical Department, Orchid Pharmed Company, Tehran, Iran.

: This study aimed to evaluate biosimilar adalimumab's efficacy and safety in patients with Behçet's uveitis in Iran.: We performed a study on patients who mostly (79.2%) had a failure on conventional treatment with the mean follow-up time of 19.24 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 16.52-21.96). All the enrolled patients were anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) naiive. The primary endpoint was best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improvement, and the secondary endpoints were changes in macular thickness, vitreous haze grade, anterior chamber (AC) cell grade, prednisolone dose, and the incidence of adverse reactions.: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. After adalimumab use, visual acuity improved significantly (-value˂.001); vitreous haze grade decreased (-value˂.001), and AC cell grade improved (-value = .002). Macular thickness decreased, but its change was not statistically significant (-value = .1). Moreover, adalimumab showed a corticosteroid-sparing effect (-value = .03).: Biosimilar adalimumab (CinnoRA®) is effective and well-tolerated in Behçet's uveitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2021.1900276DOI Listing
April 2021

Treatment of Inflammatory Macular Hole: Case Series and Review of Literature.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 7:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

: To present the success rate of nonsurgical management of full-thickness inflammatory macular hole (IMH): Retrospective case series of five patients with IMH.: Five eyes from five patients with IMH enrolled in the current case series. All five eyes had successful closure with corticosteroid in the form of topical, periocular, or intravitreal injections. Systemic immunomodulatory treatment was employed for two patients, in addition to local therapy. For local therapy, one patient received topical eye drops, subtenon injection of corticosteroid, and intravitreal injection of combination of corticosteroid and anti-VEGF was performed in two patients. The closed macular hole reopened in one patient after two years, which required pars plana vitrectomy and anatomical and visual success achieved.: Inflammatory macular holes can be closed with non-surgical interventions, although reopening may occur which requires surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2020.1867871DOI Listing
April 2021

Two rivals or colleagues in the liver? Hepatit B virus and Schistosoma mansoni co-infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 17;154:104828. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Evidence-based Phytotherapy and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Globally, hepatitis B and schistosomiasis (Mansoni) together affect about 300 million people; which cause hepatic disorders worldwide. Given that little is known about co-infections with hepatitis B and schistosoma mansoni, the present study investigates these two health problems alone and together and their possible correlation.

Methods: A search was conducted for reports published between January 1990 and October 2020 by using Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science databases; Out of a total of 20 studies, 14 cross-sectional studies (6329 people) and 6 case-control studies (2138 individual) were reviewed. The pooled prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), S.mansoni infections, and their co-infections; heterogeneity and the Odds Ratio (OR) were evaluated by Stata 11.2.

Findings: Among the included studies in the inclusion criteria, the pooled prevalence of hepatitis B, S. mansoni was 34% (95% CI, 0.23-0.46), 41% (95% CI, 0.24-0.59) and their co-infections was 18% (95% CI, 0.11-0.25) by regions. The hepatitis B and S. mansoni correlation was significant in populations with schistosoma compared to control group (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.36-3.30).

Commentary: Our results showed that in addition to the high global prevalence of hepatitis B- S. mansoni (co) infections in the included studies, there is a significant association between them, especially in people suffering from schistosoma. These results highlight the importance of integrated interventions measurements against coexistence of parasitic and viral diseases. We know that more research studies need to be done in this field and global monitoring should be considered for the co-infection of these two important complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104828DOI Listing
March 2021

Bupleurum falcatum L. alleviates nociceptive and neuropathic pain: Potential mechanisms of action.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 6;273:113990. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: In Iranian folkloric medicine, Bupleurum falcatum L. (Chinese Thoroughwax) has been used as a selective analgesic remedy for several centuries.

Objective: The current research was conducted to explore the anti-nociceptive and anti-allodynic action of Bupleurum falcatum L. roots essential oil (BFEO) in Swiss mice.

Materials And Methods: Formalin-induced paw licking (FIPL) model was applied for exploring of BFEO antinociceptive effects (neurogenic or inflammatory pain). The involvements of L-arginine-NO-cGMP-KATP channel pathway and several receptors such as opioid, peroxisome proliferator-activated (PPA), cannabinoid, transient receptor potential vanilloid, and adrenergic receptors were assesses to detect the anti-nociceptive activity of BFEO. Cervical spinal cord contusion (CSC) paradigm was employed for induction of neuropathic pain.

Results: BFEO (100 mg/kg), in the FIPL model, produced significant antinociception compared to the control mice (p < 0.01). Furthermore, L-arginine, methylene blue, glibenclamide, naloxonazine, GW9662, and SR141716A pre-treatments restored the BFEO anti-nociceptive effects (p < 0.05) in the FIPL (second phase) test (p < 0.05). Intraperitoneal administration of saikosaponin A (one of the main constituents of BFEO) partially alleviated (p < 0.05) pain in FIPL test. Likewise, in CSC mice, the von Frey assay exhibited that BFEO could alter mechanical allodynia.

Conclusion: Finally, it seems that, in male mice, BFEO has both anti-allodynic and anti-nociceptive effects. The present data also suggest activating the L-arginine-NO-cGMP-KATP channel pathway as well as interaction of opioid, PPA, and cannabinoid receptors in the BFEO anti-nociceptive activities. These results also propose that BFEO could effectively attenuate allodynia in CSC mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113990DOI Listing
June 2021

GDF-15: Diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic significance in glioblastoma multiforme.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Center for Mitochondrial and Epigenomic Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest primary malignant brain tumor and has a remarkably weak prognosis. According to the aggressive form of GBM, understanding the accurate molecular mechanism associated with GBM pathogenesis is essential. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) belongs to transforming growth factor-β superfamily with important roles to control biological processes. It affects cancer growth and progression, drug resistance, and metastasis. It also can promote stemness in many cancers, and also can stress reactions control, bone generation, hematopoietic growth, adipose tissue performance, and body growth, and contributes to cardiovascular disorders. The role GDF-15 to develop and progress cancer is complicated and remains unclear. GDF-15 possesses tumor suppressor properties, as well as an oncogenic effect. GDF-15 antitumorigenic and protumorigenic impacts on tumor development are linked to the cancer type and stage. However, the GDF-15 signaling and mechanism have not yet been completely identified because of no recognized cognate receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30289DOI Listing
February 2021

Complications of dual growing rod with all-pedicle screw instrumentation in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Feb 5;16(1):112. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran, 1419733141, Iran.

Background: Treatment of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is still a challenge to patients, families, and surgeons. Previous studies have indicated that EOS patients are at high risk for complications following growth-friendly surgery. This study was performed to evaluate the results and complications of all-pedicle screw dual growing rod instrumentation in the treatment of EOS.

Methods: In an IRB-approved retrospective study, we searched the electronic medical records of our institution for all patients who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation for scoliosis between March 2014 and March 2017. Patients under the age of 10 at the time of surgery who were treated with a growth-friendly technique were then selected. Patients with incomplete records and less than 2 years of follow-up were excluded. Charts, operative notes, clinic visits, and radiographs were extracted. Radiographs were reviewed, and the main curve Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, sacral slope, and proximal junctional angles were measured. We specifically looked for any intra-operative or post-operative complications. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the risk factors of complications.

Results: A total of 42 patients with a mean age of 4.8 ± 2.1 years (range, 1.5-8 years) were included in the final analysis. Patients were followed for a median of 34 months (range, 24-55). The major curve was corrected from a mean of 42.9° ± 10.7° to 28.8° ± 9.6° at the latest follow-up. Proximal junctional angles and thoracic kyphosis increased significantly during the follow-up period (both P values < 0.001). A total of 7 complications (17%) were observed. Four patients (10%) developed superficial surgical site infections, all of which resolved with antibiotics and one round of surgical debridement. Three cases (7%) of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) were encountered during the study period, none of which required revision surgery. Pre-operative thoracic kyphosis was the only significant risk factor for the development of PJK.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in settings without access to magnetically controlled growing rods, dual growing rods with all-pedicle screw instrumentation is still a viable treatment strategy with comparable results and complications. The most common complications are infection and PJK, with the latter being associated with a larger pre-operative thoracic kyphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02267-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863499PMC
February 2021

Chronic migraine caused a higher rate of tendency to cannabinoid agonist compared to morphine.

Acta Biomed 2020 12 21;91(4):e2020185. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Intracellular Recording Lab, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background And Aim: Opioid and cannabinoid systems have considerable roles in modulation of chronic pain as well as regulation reward circuit and addiction responses. This study investigated the effect of nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine attack on the acquisition of morphine and cannabinoid-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in male rats.

Methods: Adult male rats (230-250 gr) were used. Experimental groups were included (n=10): control, opioid receptor agonist morphine (10mg/kg), WIN55,212-2 (1mg/kg) as a cannabinoid receptor agonist, NTG + morphine (10mg/kg) and NTG + WIN55,212-2 (1mg/kg). Nitroglycerin (10 mg/kg) was used to induce migraine attack every other day for 9 days. After migraine induction, conditioning performance was assessed by CPP test. During conditioning days, morphine and WIN55,212-2 were injected subcutaneously and intraperitoneally, respectively. Anxiety and locomotor activity were evaluated using open field test (OFT).

Results: According to data, conditioning score for morphine-treated rats was significantly decreased following NTG-induced migraine. However, NTG-induced migraine was able to increase the conditioning score in WIN55,212-2 as compared to control group.  In OFT, there were no significant differences in locomotor activity and grooming behaviors between experimental groups. However, time spent in the center of OFT box was significantly decreased in NTG plus morphine-treated rats as compared to control. Moreover, rearing response in NTG-treated groups which received either morphine or WIN55,212-2 decreased as compared to control group.

Conclusion: NTG induced migraine prompts a decrease in morphine and an increase in cannabinoid performances. So, these compounds effects on drug dependency during migraine attack may occur at different mechanism or mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i4.8799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927472PMC
December 2020

Dysphonia, Stridor, and Dysphagia Caused By Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis: Case Report and Review of Literature.

Adv Biomed Res 2020 30;9:47. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) also known as Forestier disease is a noninflammatory, systemic skeletal disease of unknown etiology. DISH is usually asymptomatic but may compress the posterior wall of the aero digestive tract and lead to dysphagia, globus, hoarseness, stridor, dyspnea, and neurological problems. Although dysphagia is not uncommon among the presenting symptoms of DISH but dysphonia and stridor are rarely reported. We report a 68-year-old man who presented with a history of progressive dysphagia over 1 year and recent dysphonia and stridor secondary to cervical osteophytes. We discuss the symptoms, radiological features, and management of this uncommon case of DISH in conjunction with review of literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_50_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792880PMC
September 2020

Potential role of glycoprotein 340 in milder SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Jan 14:1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2021.1850263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814565PMC
January 2021

Task-specific modulation of PFC activity for matching-rule governed decision-making.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Mar 4;226(2):443-455. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

School of Cognitive Sciences (SCS), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran.

Storing information from incoming stimuli in working memory (WM) is essential for decision-making. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role to support this process. Previous studies have characterized different neuronal populations in the PFC for working memory judgements based on whether an originally presented stimulus matches a subsequently presented one (matching-rule decision-making). However, much remains to be understood about this mechanism at the population level of PFC neurons. Here, we hypothesized differences in processing of feature vs. spatial WM within the PFC during a matching-rule decision-making task. To test this hypothesis, the modulation of neural activity within the PFC during two types of decision-making tasks (spatial WM and feature WM) in comparison to a passive fixation task was determined. We discovered that neural population-level activity within the PFC is different for the match vs. non-match condition exclusively in the case of the feature-specific decision-making task. For this task, the non-match condition exhibited a greater firing rate and lower trial-to-trial variability in spike count compared to the feature-match condition. Furthermore, the feature-match condition exhibited lower variability compared to the spatial-match condition. This was accompanied by a faster behavioral response time for the feature-match compared to the spatial-match WM task. We attribute this lower across-trial spiking variability and behavioral response time to a higher task-relevant attentional level in the feature WM compared to the spatial WM task. The findings support our hypothesis for task-specific differences in the processing of feature vs. spatial WM within the PFC. This also confirms the general conclusion that PFC neurons play an important role during the process of matching-rule governed decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-020-02191-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059072PMC
March 2021

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 and comparison with control patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rev Med Virol 2021 Jan 2:e2208. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Center of Mitochondrial and Epigenomic Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

In a large-scale study, 128176 non-pregnant patients (228 studies) and 10000 pregnant patients (121 studies) confirmed COVID-19 cases included in this Meta-Analysis. The mean (confidence interval [CI]) of age and gestational age of admission (GA) in pregnant women was 33 (28-37) years old and 36 (34-37) weeks, respectively. Pregnant women show the same manifestations of COVID-19 as non-pregnant adult patients. Fever (pregnant: 75.5%; non-pregnant: 74%) and cough (pregnant: 48.5%; non-pregnant: 53.5%) are the most common symptoms in both groups followed by myalgia (26.5%) and chill (25%) in pregnant and dysgeusia (27%) and fatigue (26.5%) in non-pregnant patients. Pregnant women are less probable to show cough (odds ratio [OR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.67-0.75), fatigue (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.54-0.61), sore throat (OR: 0.66; CI: 0.61-0.7), headache (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.55-0.58) and diarrhea (OR: 0.46; CI: 0.4-0.51) than non-pregnant adult patients. The most common imaging found in pregnant women is ground-glass opacity (57%) and in non-pregnant patients is consolidation (76%). Pregnant women have higher proportion of leukocytosis (27% vs. 14%), thrombocytopenia (18% vs. 12.5%) and have lower proportion of raised C-reactive protein (52% vs. 81%) compared with non-pregnant patients. Leucopenia and lymphopenia are almost the same in both groups. The most common comorbidity in pregnant patients is diabetes (18%) and in non-pregnant patients is hypertension (21%). Case fatality rate (CFR) of non-pregnant hospitalized patients is 6.4% (4.4-8.5), and mortality due to all-cause for pregnant patients is 11.3% (9.6-13.3). Regarding the complications of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage (54.5% [7-94]), caesarean delivery (48% [42-54]), preterm labor (25% [4-74]) and preterm birth (21% [12-34]) are in turn the most prevalent complications. Comparing the pregnancy outcomes show that caesarean delivery (OR: 3; CI: 2-5), low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 9; CI: 2.4-30) and preterm birth (OR: 2.5; CI: 1.5-3.5) are more probable in pregnant woman with COVID-19 than pregnant women without COVID-19. The most prevalent neonatal complications are neonatal intensive care unit admission (43% [2-96]), fetal distress (30% [12-58]) and LBW (25% [16-37]). The rate of vertical transmission is 5.3% (1.3-16), and the rate of positive SARS-CoV-2 test for neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 is 8% (4-16). Overall, pregnant patients present with the similar clinical characteristics of COVID-19 when compared with the general population, but they may be more asymptomatic. Higher odds of caesarean delivery, LBW and preterm birth among pregnant patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible association between COVID-19 infection and pregnancy complications. Low risk of vertical transmission is present, and SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in all conception products, particularly placenta and breast milk. Interpretations of these results should be done cautiously due to the heterogeneity between studies; however, we believe our findings can guide the prenatal and postnatal considerations for COVID-19 pregnant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883245PMC
January 2021

Nitric oxide role in anxiety-like behavior, memory and cognitive impairments in animal model of chronic migraine.

Heliyon 2020 Dec 7;6(12):e05654. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Intracellular Recording Lab, Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The occurrence of cognitive dysfunctions and anxiety and mood disorders has been shown to be higher in migraine patients. Nitric Oxide (NO) is a significant neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of migraine, anxiety and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the role of NO system in migraine-induced memory impairment and anxiety like behaviors. Nitroglycerin (NTG) was administered to the animals as an animal model of migraine and pretreatment with L-Arginine, L-NAME and saline were implemented to evaluate the role of NO system in possible cognitive impairments in animal model of migraine. Avoidance learning and memory performance, object recognition memory, anxiety-like behavior and motor activity were assessed using a shuttle box apparatus, novel object recognition, elevated plus-maze, and open field tests respectively. The data showed that the injection of nitroglycerin disturbs learning and memory and elicit anxiety like behavior in the animals. L-NAME administration suppressed the observed effect of nitroglycerin on memory and anxiety. Overall, the results indicated that nitric oxide system is implicated in memory impairments and anxiety like behavior in an animal model of migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723798PMC
December 2020

Potentiality of Self-Cloned Taj-Apis362 for Enhancing GABA Production in Yogurt under Glucose Induction: Optimization and Its Cardiovascular Effect on Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats.

Foods 2020 Dec 9;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

The current study evaluated the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing ability from three novel strains of lactic acid bacteria ( Taj-Apis362, assigned as UPMC90, UPMC91, and UPMC1065) co-cultured with starter culture in a yogurt. A combination of UPMC90 + UPMC91 with starter culture symbiotically revealed the most prominent GABA-producing effect. Response surface methodology revealed the optimized fermentation conditions at 39.0 °C, 7.25 h, and 11.5 mM glutamate substrate concentration to produce GABA-rich yogurt (29.96 mg/100 g) with desirable pH (3.93) and water-holding capacity (63.06%). At 2% glucose to replace pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), a cofactor typically needed during GABA production, GABA content was further enhanced to 59.00 mg/100 g. In vivo study using this sample revealed a blood pressure-lowering efficacy at 0.1 mg/kg GABA dosage (equivalent to 30 mg/kg GABA-rich yogurt) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. An improved method to produce GABA-rich yogurt has been established, involving shorter fermentation time and lower glutamate concentration than previous work, along with glucose induction that omits the use of costly PLP, fostering the potential of developing a GABA-rich functional dairy product through natural fermentation with desirable product quality and antihypertensive property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764086PMC
December 2020

Effects of drying techniques on the physicochemical, functional, thermal, structural and rheological properties of mung bean (Vigna radiata) protein isolate powder.

Food Res Int 2020 12 15;138(Pt B):109783. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Mung bean is an inexpensive yet sustainable protein source. Current work compared the effects of freeze (FD), spray (SD) and oven drying (OD), on mung bean protein isolate (MBPI) produced on pilot scale. All samples showed no dissociation of protein subunits and were thermally stable (T = 157.90-158.07 °C). According to morphological studies, FD formed a porous protein while SD and OD formed wrinkled and compact crystals, respectively. FD and SD formed elastic gels with better gelling capacity than OD (aggregated gel). FD showed exceptional protein solubility, water and oil absorption capacity (4.23 g/g and 8.38 g/g, respectively). SD demonstrated the smallest particle size, excellent emulsion activity index (29.21 m/g) and stability (351.90 min) and the highest β-sheet amount (37.61%). FTIR spectra for all samples showed characteristic peaks which corresponded well to the secondary structure of legume proteins. Rheological analysis revealed that gelation temperature for all MBPI lied around 90 °C. Current work described the different final properties achieved for MBPI produced under different drying techniques that allowed tailoring for different food systems, whereby FD is ideal for meat extender, SD is suitable for meat emulsion while OD is suitable in general protein-based application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109783DOI Listing
December 2020

Structural and rheological changes of texturized mung bean protein induced by feed moisture during extrusion.

Food Chem 2021 May 16;344:128643. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Mung bean protein isolate was texturized at different feed moisture contents (30.0, 49.3, and 60.0%) at a constant temperature (144.57 °C) to evaluate the changes in protein profile, solubility, thermal, structural (at secondary and tertiary levels) and rheological properties. SDS-PAGE, surface hydrophobicity, circular dichroism, FTIR spectroscopy, and fluorescence analyses revealed protein unfolding, aggregation, and structural rearrangement as a function of feed moisture content. Extrusion at 49.3% feed moisture produced texturized mung bean protein (TMBP) with favourable partial denaturation, the formation of small aggregates, improved solubility, and digestibility with strong gel forming behaviour, whereas 30.0 and 60.0% moisture content resulted in complete protein denaturation, the undesirable formation of large aggregates and weak gels. In conclusion, protein denaturation and formation of aggregates can be controlled by manipulating feed moisture content during extrusion, with 49.3% feed moisture prompting favourable partial denaturation to produce TMBP with desirable qualities for use as a vegetarian-based meat extender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128643DOI Listing
May 2021

Artemisia biennis Willd.: Anti-Nociceptive effects and possible mechanisms of action.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 21;268:113604. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Artemisia biennis Willd. (Dermane in Persian) has been used as an antinociceptive remedy in Iranian folkloric medicine.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effects of Artemisia biennis Willd. aerial part essential oil (ABAEO) on male Swiss mice.

Materials And Methods: Nociceptive pain techniques including acetic acid-induced writhing (AAIW), formalin-induced paw licking (FPL), glutamate-induced paw licking (GPL), and tail-flick (TF) models were applied. We assessed opioid and L-arginine-NO-cGMP-KATP pathways to detect the possible anti-nociceptive properties of ABAEO. In addition, neuropathic pain was induced by the cervical spinal cord contusion model.

Results: ABAEO (120 mg/kg) had a significant anti-nociceptive activities in comparison to the control animals (p < 0.05) in the AAIW, TF, GPL, and FPL assays. The selective opioid antagonist (naloxonazine) administration in the AAIW test alleviated the anti-nociceptive effect of ABAEO (p < 0.05). L-arginine, methylene blue, and glibenclamide treatment prevented the ABAEO anti-nociceptive effects (p < 0.05); however, sodium nitroprusside could profoundly potentiate the ABAEO-associated antinociception in the FPL (phase II) test (p < 0.05). In nociceptive pain models, Cr (one of the main constituents of ABAEO) showed significant anti-nociceptive effects (p < 0.05). Moreover, the von Frey results indicated that ABAEO could attenuate mechanical allodynia in mice.

Conclusion: Our observation revealed the anti-nociceptive effects of ABAEO in male mice. These effects could include, at least in part, modulating glutamatergic mechanisms via opioid systems. Our data output also indicates activating the L-arginine-NO-cGMP-KATP system in ABAEO anti-nociceptive activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113604DOI Listing
March 2021

Potential role of interferons in treating COVID-19 patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 3;90:107171. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Recombinant Proteins Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran 1517964311, Iran. Electronic address:

The recently public health crises in the world is emerged by spreading the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also named COVID-19. The virus is originated in bats and transported to humans via undefined intermediate animals. This virus can produce from weak to severe respiratory diseases including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), pneumonia and even death in patients. The COVID-19 disease is distributed by inhalation via contaminated droplets or contact with infected environment. The incubation time is from 2 to 14 day and the symptoms are typically fever, sore throat, cough, malaise, fatigue, breathlessness among others. It needs to be considered that many infected people are asymptomatic. Developing various immunological and virological methods to diagnose this disease is supported by several laboratories. Treatment is principally supportive; however, there are several agents that are using in treating of COVID-19 patients. Interferons (IFNs) have shown to be crucial in fighting with COVID-19 disease and can be a suitable candidate in treatment of these patients. Combination therapy can be more effective than monotherapy to cure this disease. Prevention necessitates to be performed by isolation of suspected people and home quarantine as well as taking care to infected people with mild or strict disease at hospitals. As the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has accelerated, developing effective therapy is an urgent requirement to battle the virus and prevent further pandemic. In this manuscript we reviewed available information about SARS-CoV-2 and probable therapies for COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608019PMC
January 2021

Contamination and Decontamination of Autologous Bone in the Operating Room: A Systematic Review.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 02;35(2):65-70

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the rate of contamination of autologous bone fragments inadvertently dropped on the operating room floor, the microbial profile (contaminating organism), and the outcome of intraoperative decontamination techniques in terms of effectiveness and cellular toxicity.

Data Sources: PubMed, Medline, and Embase were searched for English literature published from 1990 through 2020 using terms such as "bone graft contamination," "dropped osteoarticular fragments," "autogenous bone decontamination," and similar interchangeable words.

Study Selection: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Inclusion criteria consisted of all studies on contamination of host bone fragments, means and/or rate of autologous bone contamination in operating rooms, microbial analysis of contaminated bone autograft, outcome of decontamination, and cellular viability after decontamination.

Data Extraction: All potentially eligible studies underwent a full-text review and cross-referencing after title and abstract screening. Data on authors, publication year, study type, means and rate of contamination, microbial profile, decontamination technique, and effectiveness and cellular toxicity outcomes were extracted.

Data Synthesis: Analysis and synthesis of data were performed on Microsoft Excel 2016.

Conclusion: The rate of contamination for dropped osteoarticular or osteochondral host fragment approached 40%. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common organism contaminating the bone graft when dropped on the operating room floor. A 5-minute bath in 10% povidone-iodine solution followed by 1-minute bulb syringe lavage with normal saline has proved successful in decontamination and maintenance of cellular viability.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000001908DOI Listing
February 2021

Circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 level in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Oct 12:1-6. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Center for Mitochondrial and Epigenomic Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA.

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut-derived incretin hormone, plays a pivotal role in glucose-induced insulin secretion. Currently, the role of incretin hormones in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis is not clearly defined. This study aimed to investigate circulating levels of GLP-1 in liver cirrhosis and its association with the severity of liver disease.

Methods: A total of 80 participants including 39 patients with a definite diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and 41 healthy controls recruited in this cross-sectional study. Circulating levels of GLP-1 were determined using the ELISA method. The severity of liver cirrhosis was assessed according to the Child-Pugh, MELD (i), MELD-Na, MELD New, and UK end-stage liver disease score (UKELD) criteria.

Results: The mean age of patients and healthy subjects was 42.51 ± 12.80 and 42.07 ± 10.92 years, respectively ( value = .869). The mean MELD (i), MELD-Na, MELD New, UKELD, and Child-Pugh scores were 14.36 ± 4.26, 15.26 ± 4.81, 14.74 ± 4.66, 52.33 ± 3.82, and 7.28 ± 1.50, respectively. In this study, circulating levels of GLP-1 were statistically lower in cirrhotic patients compared with healthy controls (95.26 ± 17.15 vs 111.84 ± 38.14 pg/mL; value = .017).

Conclusion: Larger prospective studies are needed to explore the incretin effect in cirrhosis patients compared with healthy individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1828479DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparison of influenza type A and B with COVID-19: A global systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical, laboratory and radiographic findings.

Rev Med Virol 2020 Oct 9:e2179. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

We compared clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, radiographic signs and outcomes of COVID-19 and influenza to identify unique features. Depending on the heterogeneity test, we used either random or fixed-effect models to analyse the appropriateness of the pooled results. Overall, 540 articles included in this study; 75,164 cases of COVID-19 (157 studies), 113,818 influenza type A (251 studies) and 9266 influenza type B patients (47 studies) were included. Runny nose, dyspnoea, sore throat and rhinorrhoea were less frequent symptoms in COVID-19 cases (14%, 15%, 11.5% and 9.5%, respectively) in comparison to influenza type A (70%, 45.5%, 49% and 44.5%, respectively) and type B (74%, 33%, 38% and 49%, respectively). Most of the patients with COVID-19 had abnormal chest radiology (84%, p < 0.001) in comparison to influenza type A (57%, p < 0.001) and B (33%, p < 0.001). The incubation period in COVID-19 (6.4 days estimated) was longer than influenza type A (3.4 days). Likewise, the duration of hospitalization in COVID-19 patients (14 days) was longer than influenza type A (6.5 days) and influenza type B (6.7 days). Case fatality rate of hospitalized patients in COVID-19 (6.5%, p < 0.001), influenza type A (6%, p < 0.001) and influenza type B was 3%(p < 0.001). The results showed that COVID-19 and influenza had many differences in clinical manifestations and radiographic findings. Due to the lack of effective medication or vaccine for COVID-19, timely detection of this viral infection and distinguishing from influenza are very important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646051PMC
October 2020

Texturized mung bean protein as a sustainable food source: techno-functionality, anti-nutrient properties, protein quality and toxicity.

Food Funct 2020 Oct;11(10):8918-8930

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Mung bean is gaining attention as a sustainable and economic source of plant protein. The current study evaluates the techno-functionality, anti-nutrient properties, in vivo protein quality and toxicity of texturized mung bean protein (TMBP) produced under optimized conditions. Our work successfully produces TMBP with improved techno-functionalities that are crucial for meat-based food applications, credited to retained juiciness and fat-binding ability. Alkaline extraction and extrusion significantly reduce trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and tannin content in TMBP. An in vivo study using Sprague-Dawley rats reveals the good protein quality of TMBP, with a true protein digestibility of 99.26% resembling casein (99.36%, control protein), a net protein utilization of 63.99% and a biological value of 64.46%. The good protein quality, increased lean muscle mass along with reduced cholesterol and triglyceride secures TMBP's potential as a Protein meal replacer and dietary suplement. Non-toxicity of TMBP is confirmed by normal serum biochemical parameters and healthy organs, ascertaining the safety of alkaline extraction. The current study elucidates the production of TMBP with improved techno-functionalities (for meat-based food applications), reduced anti-nutritional factors and high quality (for weight-watchers and malnourished individuals).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01463jDOI Listing
October 2020

Quantitative Analysis of the Iris Surface Smoothness by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Fuchs Uveitis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 Sep 23:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Retina Service, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To demonstrate the value of "smoothness index (SI)" as a novel tool for quantitative analysis of iris surface findings in unilateral Fuchs' uveitis (FU).

Methods: Both phakic eyes from patients with unilateral FU as well as healthy control subjects underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The ImageJ software was used for calculating the SI.

Results: Forty eyes from 20 patients with unilateral FU and 40 eyes from 20 healthy subjects were enrolled. In FU eyes, mean overall SI (0.876 ± 0.030) was significantly higher than fellow control eyes (0.841 ± 0.041) ( = .001). Mean inter-eye difference for overall SI in the FU patients (0.037 ± 0.030) was significantly larger than the healthy control subjects (0.018 ± 0.014) ( = .033).

Conclusion: Iris "smoothness index" can be used to quantitatively assess iris surface smoothness and may facilitate the diagnosis of subtle iris atrophic changes in eyes affected by FU especially in the absence of heterochromia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2020.1823424DOI Listing
September 2020

Magnetic particle targeting for diagnosis and therapy of lung cancers.

J Control Release 2020 12 11;328:776-791. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada; Center for Bioengineering Research and Education, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. Electronic address:

Over the past decade, the growing interest in targeted lung cancer therapy has guided researchers toward the cutting edge of controlled drug delivery, particularly magnetic particle targeting. Targeting of tissues by magnetic particles has tackled several limitations of traditional drug delivery methods for both cancer detection (e.g., using magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy. Delivery of magnetic particles offers the key advantage of high efficiency in the local deposition of drugs in the target tissue with the least harmful effect on other healthy tissues. This review first overviews clinical aspects of lung morphology and pathogenesis as well as clinical features of lung cancer. It is followed by reviewing the advances in using magnetic particles for diagnosis and therapy of lung cancers: (i) a combination of magnetic particle targeting with MRI imaging for diagnosis and screening of lung cancers, (ii) magnetic drug targeting (MDT) through either intravenous injection and pulmonary delivery for lung cancer therapy, and (iii) computational simulations that models new and effective approaches for magnetic particle drug delivery to the lung, all supporting improved lung cancer treatment. The review further discusses future opportunities to improve the clinical performance of MDT for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer and highlights clinical therapy application of the MDT as a new horizon to cure with minimal side effects a wide variety of lung diseases and possibly other acute respiratory syndromes (COVID-19, MERS, and SARS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.09.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484624PMC
December 2020

SIRT3 deficiency exacerbates fatty liver by attenuating the HIF1α-LIPIN 1 pathway and increasing CD36 through Nrf2.

Cell Commun Signal 2020 09 10;18(1):147. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Deficiency of mitochondrial sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that maintains redox status and lipid homeostasis, contributes to hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated additional mechanisms that might play a role in aggravating hepatic steatosis in Sirt3-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD).

Methods: Studies were conducted in wild-type (WT) and Sirt3 mice fed a standard diet or a HFD and in SIRT3-knockdown human Huh-7 hepatoma cells.

Results: Sirt3 mice fed a HFD presented exacerbated hepatic steatosis that was accompanied by decreased expression and DNA-binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and of several of its target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, compared to WT mice fed the HFD. Interestingly, Sirt3 deficiency in liver and its knockdown in Huh-7 cells resulted in upregulation of the nuclear levels of LIPIN1, a PPARα co-activator, and of the protein that controls its levels and localization, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). These changes were prevented by lipid exposure through a mechanism that might involve a decrease in succinate levels. Finally, Sirt3 mice fed the HFD showed increased levels of some proteins involved in lipid uptake, such as CD36 and the VLDL receptor. The upregulation in CD36 was confirmed in Huh-7 cells treated with a SIRT3 inhibitor or transfected with SIRT3 siRNA and incubated with palmitate, an effect that was prevented by the Nrf2 inhibitor ML385.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate new mechanisms by which Sirt3 deficiency contributes to hepatic steatosis. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-020-00640-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488148PMC
September 2020

Adaptation Modulates Spike-Phase Coupling Tuning Curve in the Rat Primary Auditory Cortex.

Front Syst Neurosci 2020 3;14:55. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

School of Cognitive Sciences (SCS), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran.

Adaptation is an important mechanism that causes a decrease in the neural response both in terms of local field potentials (LFP) and spiking activity. We previously showed this reduction effect in the tuning curve of the primary auditory cortex. Moreover, we revealed that a repeated stimulus reduces the neural response in terms of spike-phase coupling (SPC). In the current study, we examined the effect of adaptation on the SPC tuning curve. To this end, employing the phase-locking value (PLV) method, we estimated the spike-LFP coupling. The data was obtained by a simultaneous recording from four single-electrodes in the primary auditory cortex of 15 rats. We first investigated whether the neural system may use spike-LFP phase coupling in the primary auditory cortex to encode sensory information. Secondly, we investigated the effect of adaptation on this potential SPC tuning. Our data showed that the coupling between spikes' times and the LFP phase in beta oscillations represents sensory information (different stimulus frequencies), with an inverted bell-shaped tuning curve. Furthermore, we showed that adaptation to a specific frequency modulates SPC tuning curve of the adapter and its neighboring frequencies. These findings could be useful for interpretation of feature representation in terms of SPC and the underlying neural mechanism of adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2020.00055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416672PMC
August 2020

Revealing the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Metabolism 2021 01 15;114:154342. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain; Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Diseases (CIBERDEM)-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Research Institute-Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a form of chronic liver disease that occurs in individuals with no significant alcohol abuse, has become an increasing concern for global health. NAFLD is defined as the presence of lipid deposits in hepatocytes and it ranges from hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) to steatohepatitis. Emerging data from both preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ plays an important role in the control of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver, and its activation might hinder the progression of NAFLD. Here, we review the latest information on the effects of PPARβ/δ on NAFLD, including its capacity to reduce lipogenesis, to alleviate inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, to ameliorate insulin resistance, and to attenuate liver injury. Because of these effects, activation of hepatic PPARβ/δ through synthetic or natural ligands provides a promising therapeutic option for the management of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154342DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of pediatric COVID-19 and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Med Virol 2021 02 28;93(2):658-660. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Mitochondrial and Epigenomic Medicine, and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436861PMC
February 2021