Publications by authors named "Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effect of canola oil compared with sesame and sesame-canola oil on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: Design and research protocol of a randomized, triple-blind, three-way, crossover clinical trial.

ARYA Atheroscler 2019 Jul;15(4):168-178

Associate Professor, Nutrition and Food Security Research Center AND Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Both canola and sesame oils consumption have been associated with favorable effects on cardio-metabolic biomarkers. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has compared their effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of canola, sesame, and sesame-canola oils consumption on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: This study was a randomized, triple-blind, three-way, crossover clinical trial. The study participants included 102 individuals with T2DM. Their spouses were also included in the study. The participants were entered into a 4-week run-in period. After that, their regular dietary oil was replaced with canola, sesame, or sesame-canola oils (a blend of sesame and canola oils) in three 9-week phases, which were separated by two 4-week washout periods (sunflower oil was consumed during the run-in and the washout periods). Dietary, physical activity, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were assessed at the beginning, in the middle (week 4-5), and at the end of each treatment phase. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Serum, plasma, buffy coat, and whole blood samples were extracted and kept at -80 ºC for further analysis. Serum fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were selected as the primary outcomes.

Results: 102 participants with T2DM were randomly assigned to one of the 6 rolling methods. Through them, 93 individuals (91.2%) completely participated in all phases.

Conclusion: The present study will provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the effect of canola, sesame, and sesame-canola oil on cardio-metabolic markers in adults with and without T2DM. This trial will also provide a good medium for the investigation of gene-dietary oils interaction in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i4.1940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884729PMC
July 2019

Study of visible-light photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid in batch and circulated-mode photoreactors.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 13;17(1):233-245. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

3Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, 49195-1159 Iran.

Purpose: The consumption of pesticides and chemical fertilizers is one of the major environmental and health problems. In this report, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was chosen to evaluate the impact of photodegradation using LED (Light-emitting diode) (400 and 365 nm) sources in batch and programmable circulated-mode photoreactors respectively.

Methods: A β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) grafted titanium dioxide P25 (P25/β-CD) and complexation of 2,4-D and β-CD were synthesized via photoinduced and spray-drying methods, respectively. The structures were characterized. Moreover, we investigated the effects of the amount of catalyst, the β-CD amount on bed catalyst, irradiation time, kind of photoreactor on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency.

Results: Based on the results of experiments in batch reactor, the optimum amount of TiO, β-CD grafted by catalyst were 1 and 0.1 g/L, respectively. In batch-mode the photodegradation efficiency of 2,4-D after 5 h with P25, P25/β-CD as a photocatalyst and 2,4-D/β-CD complex with P25 photocatalyst were approximately 81, 85 and 95% respectively. After 8 h of irradiation in circulated-mode reactor, degradation yields with P25, P25/β-CD and 2,4-D/β-CD complex along with P25 were 89, 91 and 96% respectively. On the other hand, the circulated-mode photoreactor with high efficiency was appropriate to degradation of the high concentration of 2,4-D solution (200 mg/L). After 5 successive cycles with 25 h of irradiation, P25 and P25/β-CD maintained as high 2,4-D removal efficiency as 82.6, 84% respectively, with excellent stability and reusability.

Conclusion: The photodegradation method can be used as an effective and environmental friendly process in the degradation of organic compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00343-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582049PMC
June 2019

Designing and modeling of a novel electrolysis reactor using porous cathode to produce HO as an oxidant.

MethodsX 2019 1;6:1305-1312. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

The entry of toxic organic pollutants and resistant to biodegradation has increased the concern about human health. The use of advanced oxidation (AO) processes to degrade these pollutants has been developing. One of the AO processes is based on the use of hydrogen peroxide in removing resistant organic pollutants. This study aimed to develop a new reactor capable of producing HO in the solution. Therefore, a porous electrode made of stainless steel with the capability of air injection in the electrode center was used. The 30 cm rod graphite electrodes were also used as an anode electrode in a 4000 ml reactor. The effects of variables, including current density (30-40 mA/cm), time (10-30 min), and electrolyte concentration (12-17 mM/L) on the amount of HO production were evaluated by design under response surface methodology using software. The results of this study showed that HO can be produced at the electrode surface of porous cathode under optimal conditions of 36 mA/cm current density, 16 mM/l electrolyte concentration, in 23 min, and in the amount of 34 ppm. Using a porous cathode electrode causes the maximum contact among the solution, water, and air, and increases the production of HO. The release of resistant organic compounds to the waste water is a serious problem to the environment. By the application of the (EO)reactor with the ability to produce HO, this issue is resolved. Furthermore, this technique is applied for non-selective degradation of the toxic organic compounds. •The electro-oxidation process is a useful method for destruction of persistent organic matter from wastewater.•Due to use of porous cathode in this method, contact between the electrode and the sewage is at its maximum level which increases the efficiency and speed of sewage treatment.•This method can produce HO as a high potential oxidant that can reduce persistent organic properties of sewage and make the wastewater suitable for biological treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.05.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558086PMC
June 2019

Environmental and behavioral determinants affecting the association of airway macrophages carbon load with distance to major roads and traffic density.

Chemosphere 2019 Feb 8;217:680-685. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Biomarkers are promising indicators to evaluate human exposure to air pollutants and to predict the health outcomes. Area of Airway macrophages that is occupied by Black Carbon could be used as a biomarker of personal long term exposure to traffic related air pollution. Association of airway macrophages carbon load with weighted average distance and environmental and subject-specific behavior are considered in this study. Sputum samples were taken from 160 healthy adult women and airway macrophages carbon load (AMCL) were determined in 93 subjects, which represent a success rate of 62% in sputum induction. Nearest distance of the subjects to major roads and average weighted distance were calculated for each subject. A questionnaire was field according to general and behavioral characteristics of the participants. There was not any significant difference (P-value >0.05) between induced and non-induced subjects. Subjects with indoor kitchen without separation wall, passive smokers and those with longer presence time in high traffic streets showed higher carbon area. Weighted average distance had a better association (β = -0.186, 95%CI: -0.139, -0.230, P-value = 0.00) with AMCL than nearest distance to major roads (β = -0.155, 95%CI: -0.109, -0.201, P-value = 0.19). Association of Weighted average distance with AMCL was interrupted in subjects with a garage connected to house environment, those with IK kitchen, those with a hood above the stove and passive smokers. The findings indicated that more generation and distribution of indoor air pollutants can completely enhance the internal exposure and indoor pollution has the same importance as outdoor pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.049DOI Listing
February 2019

Optimization and economic evaluation of modified coagulation-flocculation process for enhanced treatment of ceramic-tile industry wastewater.

AMB Express 2018 Oct 17;8(1):172. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Management of Health Services, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Enhanced treatment of ceramic-tile industry wastewater was investigated by modified coagulation-flocculation process using combination of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) with anionic (A), cationic polymer (C) and nonionic polymers. The effects of pH, PAC coagulant dose alone and with polymers dose in various combinations was studied by jar tests. To compare the removal efficiencies of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color at different levels, we run multivariate analysis of variance. Regarding the economic evaluation, we applied the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. PAC had the best performance in pH 7 and in optimal dose of 400 mg/L; so that removal efficiency of wastewater turbidity, TSS, COD and color were 99.63%, 99.7%, 47.5% and 50.38%, respectively. The best removal efficiency for wastewater turbidity, TSS, COD and color were 99.87%, 99.89%, 87.5% and 93.02%, respectively which were obtained by combination of anionic polymer (1.5 mg/L) with PAC (300 mg/L). Furthermore, with combination of PAC + anionic + non-ionic polymers, the removal efficiency for wastewater turbidity, TSS, COD and color were 99.93%, 99.94%, 88% and 94.57%, respectively. The imposed cost for treating one cubic meter of ceramic-tile wastewater treatment by PAC + anionic and PAC + anionic and non-ionic polymers in comparison with PAC alone was reduced to 22.96% and therefore economically more affordable for the tile industry wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0702-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192943PMC
October 2018

Efficient photocatalytic oxidation of arsenite from contaminated water by FeO-MnO nanocomposite under UVA radiation and process optimization with experimental design.

Chemosphere 2018 Sep 18;207:303-312. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Electronic address:

The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation process in arsenite (As(III)) removal from contaminated water by a new FeO-MnO nanocomposite under UV radiation was investigated. The effect of nanocomposite dosage, pH and initial As(III) concentration on the photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) were studied by experimental design. The synthesized nanocomposite had a uniform and spherical morphological structure and contained 49.83% of FeO and 29.36% of MnO. Based on the experimental design model, in photocatalytic oxidation process, the effect of pH was higher than other parameters. At nanocomposite concentrations of more than 12 mg L, pH 4 to 6 and oxidation time of 30 min, photocatalytic oxidation efficiency was more than 95% for initial As(III) concentration of less than 500 μg L. By decreasing pH and increasing the nanocomposite concentration, the photocatalytic oxidation efficiency was increased. Furthermore, by increasing the oxidation time from 10 to 240 min, in addition to oxidation of As(III) to arsenate (As(V)), the residual As(V) was adsorbed on the FeO-MnO nanocomposite and total As concentration was decreased. Therefore, FeO-MnO nanocomposite as a bimetal oxide, at low doses and short time, can enhance and improve the efficiency of the photocatalytic oxidation and adsorption of As(III) from contaminated water resources. Furthermore, the energy and material costs of the UV/FeO-MnO system for photocatalytic oxidation of 1  mg L As(III) in the 1 L laboratory scale reactor was 0.0051 €.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.106DOI Listing
September 2018

Modeling photocatalytic degradation of diazinon from aqueous solutions and effluent toxicity risk assessment using Escherichia coli LMG 15862.

AMB Express 2018 Apr 18;8(1):59. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

In this study, modeling and degradation of diazinon from contaminated water by advanced oxidation process together with a new test for effluent bioassay using E. coli were investigated. The experiments were designed based on response surface methodology. Nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The shape characteristics and specifications of elements in the nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray, respectively. Diazinon was measured using high performance liquid chromatography device and by-products due to its decomposition were identified by gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS). In the present study, effluent bioassay tests were conducted by defining the rate of dehydrogenase enzyme reducing alamar blue method. According to statistical analyses (R = 0.986), the optimized values for pH, dose of NPs, and contact time were found to be 6.75, 775 mg/L, and 65 min, respectively. At these conditions, 96.06% of the diazinon was removed. Four main by-products, diazoxon, 7-methyl-3-octyne, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4pyrimidinol and diethyl phosphonate were detected. According to the alamar blue reducing (ABR) test, 50% effective concentration, no observed effect concentration, and 100% effective concentration (EC) for the mortality rate of E. coli were obtained as 2.275, 0.839, and 4.430 mg/L, respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that mentioned process was high efficiency in removing diazinon, and also a significant relationship between toxicity assessment tests were obtained (P < 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0589-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906421PMC
April 2018

Feasibility of applying the LED-UV-induced TiO/ZnO-supported HPMoO nanoparticles in photocatalytic degradation of aniline.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Mar 3;190(4):188. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

In the present study, TiO/ZnO-supported phosphomolybdic acid nanoparticles are investigated by the impregnation method, followed by analyzing their photocatalytic activity under UV-LED light and degradation kinetics degrading aniline as an organic pollutant model. Nanoparticle characteristics and the remaining Keggin structure in the nanocomposites were confirmed by means of FESEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses. Heterogenization of phosphomolybdic acid on TiO and ZnO nanoparticles resulted in the improved light absorption intensity and decreased band gap of nanocomposites. Photocatalytic degradation of aniline was also improved for composite nanoparticles and reached to 25.62, 43.48, and 38.25% for TiO/HPMo, ZnO/HPMo, and TiO/ZnO/HPMo, respectively. Overall, the results showed a good fit to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6565-yDOI Listing
March 2018

Biodegradation of atrazine from wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor under nitrate-reducing conditions: A kinetic study.

J Environ Manage 2018 Apr 22;212:506-513. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study employed an anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (AnMBBR) to evaluate the effects of hydraulic and toxic shocks on performance reactor. The results indicated a relatively good resistance of system against exercised shocks and its ability to return to steady-state conditions. In optimal conditions when there was the maximum rate of atrazine and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were 74.82% and 99.29% respectively. Also, atrazine biodegradation rapidly declines in AnMBBR from 74% ± 0.05 in the presence of nitrate to 9.12% only 3 days after the nitrate was eliding from the influent. Coefficients kinetics was studied and the maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by modified Stover & Kincannon model (U = 9.87 g/md). Results showed that AnMBBR is feasible, easy, affordable, so suitable process for efficiently biodegrading toxic chlorinated organic compounds such as atrazine. Also, its removal mechanism in this system is co-metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.043DOI Listing
April 2018

Evaluation of kenaf fibers as moving bed biofilm carriers in algal membrane photobioreactor.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 May 30;152:1-7. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Prevention and Epidemiology of Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

In this lab-scale study, the feasibility of using kenaf fibers as moving bed biofilm carriers in hybrid microalgal membrane photobioreactors (HMPBR) in organic matter and atrazine elimination from real secondary effluent was evaluated. For evaluating the kinetics of biofilm substrate consumption, an experimental model was proposed. Inoculation of wastewater samples with free carriers resulted in the greater removal of target pollutants. Removal efficiency of atrazine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased to 27% and 16%, with respect to the control, respectively. The total biomass accumulation in HMPBR exceeded 5g/L, and the microalgae tended to aggregate and attached to biofilm carriers. The removal efficiency of HMPBR improved significantly via inoculation of kenaf fiber carriers with bioremediation microalgal strains (p < 0.01). A lower stabilization ratio (VSS/TSS) was also recorded. The biomass in HMPBR included more lipids and carbohydrates. The results revealed that kenaf fibers could improve and upgrade the biological activity of different wastewater treatment applications, considering the great potential of biofilm carriers and their effluent quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.01.024DOI Listing
May 2018

Simultaneous removal of atrazine and organic matter from wastewater using anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor: A performance analysis.

J Environ Manage 2018 Mar 8;209:515-524. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study, an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was designed to biodegrade atrazine under mesophilic (32 °C) condition and then it was evaluated for approximately 1 year. After biofilm formation, acclimation, and enrichment of microbial population within the bioreactor, the effect of various operation conditions such as changes in the concentration of influent atrazine and sucrose, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and salinity on the removal of atrazine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were studied. In optimum conditions, the maximum removal efficiency of atrazine and COD was 60.5% and 97.4%, respectively. Various models were developed to predict the performance of atrazine removal as a function of HRT during continuous digestion. Also, coefficients kinetics was studied and the maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by Stover - Kincannon model (r = 0.223 kg/md). Increasing salinity up to 20 g/L NaCl in influent flow could inhibit atrazine biodegradation process strongly in the AMBBR reactor; whereas, the reactor could tolerate the concentrations less than 20 g/L easily. Results showed that AMBBR is feasible, easy, affordable, so suitable process for efficiently biodegrading toxic chlorinated organic compounds such as atrazine. There was no accumulation of atrazine in the biofilm and the loss of atrazine in the control reactor was negligible; this shows that atrazine removal mechanism in this system was due to co-metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.12.081DOI Listing
March 2018

Studies on influence of process parameters on simultaneous biodegradation of atrazine and nutrients in aquatic environments by a membrane photobioreactor.

Environ Res 2018 02;161:599-608

Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4 Allée Emile Monso, F31432 Toulouse, France.

A Lab scale algal-bacterial membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) was designed and operated under 12-h light and 12-h dark conditions with a light intensity of 8000lx, in order to investigate the effects of initial concentrations of atrazine, carbon concentration, and hydraulic retention time on the ability of this photobioreactor in simultaneous removal of atrazine and nutrients in the continuous mode. The removal efficiencies of atrazine (ATZ), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus (PO-P) and nitrogen (NOx) in optimum condition was more than 95%, 99%, 98% and 97% when the maximum removal rates were 9.5 × 10, 99.231, 11.773 and 7.762mg/L-day, respectively. Results showed that the quality of the effluent was reduced by the increase of atrazine concentration. The outcomes on the hydraulic and toxic shocks indicated that the system has a relatively good resistance to the shocks and can return to the stable conditions. Microalgae showed a great deal of interest and capability in cultivating and attaching to the surface of the membrane and bioreactor, and the total biomass accumulated in the system was greater than 6g/L. The kinetic coefficients of atrazine removal were also studied using various kinetic models. The maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by the modified Stover-Kincannon model. The results approved the ability of the MPBR reactor in wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation and growth. The decline of atrazine concentration in this system could be attributed to the algal-bacterial symbiosis and co-metabolism process. Accordingly, the MPBR reactor is a practical, simple, economical and therefore suitable process for simultaneous biodegradation of chlorinated organic compounds and nutrients removal from aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.045DOI Listing
February 2018

Spatial analysis and health risk assessment of heavy metals concentration in drinking water resources.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Nov 15;24(32):24790-24802. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

The heavy metals available in drinking water can be considered as a threat to human health. Oncogenic risk of such metals is proven in several studies. Present study aimed to investigate concentration of the heavy metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 39 water supply wells and 5 water reservoirs within the cities Ardakan, Meibod, Abarkouh, Bafgh, and Bahabad. The spatial distribution of the concentration was carried out by the software ArcGIS. Such simulations as non-carcinogenic hazard and lifetime cancer risk were conducted for lead and nickel using Monte Carlo technique. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the most important and effective parameters on risk assessment. The results indicated that concentration of all metals in 39 wells (except iron in 3 cases) reached the levels mentioned in EPA, World Health Organization, and Pollution Control Department standards. Based on the spatial distribution results at all studied regions, the highest concentrations of metals were derived, respectively, for iron and zinc. Calculated HQ values for non-carcinogenic hazard indicated a reasonable risk. Average lifetime cancer risks for the lead in Ardakan and nickel in Meibod and Bahabad were shown to be 1.09 × 10, 1.67 × 10, and 2 × 10, respectively, demonstrating high carcinogenic risk compared to similar standards and studies. The sensitivity analysis suggests high impact of concentration and BW in carcinogenic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0102-3DOI Listing
November 2017

Optimization of photochemical decomposition acetamiprid pesticide from aqueous solutions and effluent toxicity assessment by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCRC using response surface methodology.

AMB Express 2017 Dec 4;7(1):159. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Science, Yazd, Iran.

Contamination of water resources by acetamiprid pesticide is considered one of the main environmental problems. The aim of this study was the optimization of acetamiprid removal from aqueous solutions by TiO/FeO/SiO nanocomposite using the response surface methodology (RSM) with toxicity assessment by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCRC. To obtain the optimum condition for acetamiprid degradation using RSM and central composite design (CCD). The magnetic TiO/FeO/SiO nanocomposite was synthesized using co-precipitation and sol-gel methods. The surface morphology of the nanocomposite and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized FeO nanoparticles were characterised by scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. In this study, toxicity assessment tests have been carried out by determining the activity of dehydrogenase enzyme reducing Resazurin (RR) and colony forming unit (CFU) methods. According to CCD, quadratic optimal model with R = 0.99 was used. By analysis of variance, the most effective values of each factor were determined in each experiment. According to the results, the most optimal conditions for removal efficiency of acetamiprid (pH = 7.5, contact time = 65 min, and dose of nanoparticle 550 mg/L) was obtained at 76.55%. Effect concentration (EC) for RR and CFU test were 1.950 and 2.050 mg/L, respectively. Based on the results obtained from the model, predicted response values showed high congruence with actual response values. And, the model was suitable for the experiment's design conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-017-0455-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544660PMC
December 2017

Application of novel Modified Biological Aerated Filter (MBAF) as a promising post-treatment for water reuse: Modification in configuration and backwashing process.

J Environ Manage 2017 Dec 4;203(Pt 1):191-199. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Environment Science and Responsible for Process of Wastewater Treatment Plant, Iazd, Iran.

Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) reactors due to their plentiful biomass, high shockability, high efficiency, good filtration, availability and lack of need for large land areas, are enjoying from great importance in advanced wastewater treatment. Therefore, in this study, Polystyrene Coated by Sand (PCS) was produced as a novel media and its application in a modified down-flow BAF structure for advanced wastewater treatment was assessed in two steps. In step one, the backwash effluent did not return to the system, while in step two backwash effluent returned to increase the water reuse efficiency. The backwash process was also studied through three methods of Top Backwashing (TB), Bottom Backwashing (BB), as well as Top and Bottom Backwashing Simultaneously (TBBS). The results showed that return of backwash effluent had no significant effect on the BAF effluent quality. In the second step similar to the first one with slight differences, the residual average concentrations of TSS, BOD, and COD at the effluent were about 2.5, 8.2, and 25.5 mg/L, respectively. Additionally, in step two, the mean volume of disposal sludge/volume of treated water (v/v) decreased a large extent to about 0.088%. In other words, the water reuse has increased to more than 99.91%. The backwash time in methods of TB and BB were 65 and 35 min, respectively; however, it decreased in TBBS methods to 25 min. The concentrations of most effluent parameters in this system are in concordance with the 2012 EPA Agriculture Standards, even for irrigation of Non-processed agricultural crops and livestock water consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.07.062DOI Listing
December 2017

A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

Environ Res 2017 10 7;158:462-469. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Environmental and Food Hygiene Laboratories (LIAA), Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, Italy.

In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p < 0.01). It also produced less sludge and recorded a lower stabilization ratio (VSS/TSS). The findings show that the Stover-Kincannon model was the best fit (R > 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.003DOI Listing
October 2017

Effect of Organic Loading Rates on biodegradation of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, oil and grease in greywater by Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS).

J Environ Manage 2017 May 23;193:312-317. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Faculty Members of Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, performance of Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system in treatment of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS), and oil & grease in synthetic greywater and effect of Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) on removal efficiency within a period of 105 days were investigated. Present study was carried out in a pilot scale under such conditions as temperature of 30 ± 1 °C, dissolved oxygen of 2.32 ± 0.91 mg/l, pH of 8.01 ± 0.95 and OLRs of 0.11-1.3gCOD/L.d. Also, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were employed to specify rate of the biofilm formed on the media inside the reactor IFAS. The best removal efficiency for COD, LAS and oil and grease were respectively obtained as 92.52%, 94.24% and 90.07% in OLR 0.44gCOD/L.d. The assessment of loading rate indicated that with increased OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, removal efficiency of COD, oil and grease was increased while with increased OLR, removal efficiency was decreased. In doing so, based on the statistical test ANOVA, such a difference between removal efficiencies in diverse OLRs was significant for COD (p = 0.003), oil and grease (p = 0.01). However, in terms of LAS, with increased value of OLR to 0.44gCOD/L.d, the removal efficiency was increased and then with higher OLRs, removal efficiency was slightly decreased that is insignificant (p = 0.35) based on the statistical test ANOVA. The SEM images also showed that the biofilm formed on the media inside IFAS reactor plays a considerable role in adsorption and biodegradation of LAS, and oil & grease in greywater. The linear relation between inlet COD values and rate of removed LAS indicated that the ratio of inlet COD (mg/L) to removed LAS (mg/L) was 0.4. Therefore, use of IFAS system for biodegradation of LAS, oil and grease in greywater can be an applicable option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.02.038DOI Listing
May 2017

Cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality attributed to PM2.5 in Mashhad, Iran.

Environ Monit Assess 2016 Oct 17;188(10):570. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran.

Poor air quality is one of the most important environmental problems in many large cities of the world, which can cause a wide range of acute and chronic health effects, including partial physiological disorders and cardiac death due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. According to the latest edition of the national standard for air quality, maximum contamination level is 15 μg/m(3) per year and 35 μg/m(3) per day. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality attributed to PM2.5 in the city of Mashhad during 2013. To this end, the Air Q model was used to assess health impacts of PM2.5 and human exposure to it. In this model, the attributable proportion of health outcome, annual number of excess cases of mortality for all causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were estimated. The results showed that the number of excess cases of mortality for all causes and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributable to PM2.5 was 32, 263, and 332 μg/m(3), respectively. Moreover, the annual average of PM2.5 in Mashhad was obtained to be 37.85 μg/m(3). This study demonstrated that a high percentage of mortality resulting from this pollutant could be due to the high average concentration of PM2.5 in the city during 2013. In this case, using the particle control methods, such as optimal use of fuel, management of air quality in urban areas, technical inspection of vehicles, faster development of public transport, and use of industrial technology can be effective in reducing air pollution in cities and turning existing situations into preferred ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5574-yDOI Listing
October 2016

Assessment of sick building syndrome and its associating factors among nurses in the educational hospitals of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Glob J Health Sci 2014 Nov 16;7(2):247-53. Epub 2014 Nov 16.

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Background: Sick Building Syndrome is a diseases associated with indoor air quality accompanied with symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, coughing and sneezing, irritation of eyes, throat and nose mucous membrane, and skin itching and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the symptoms of the syndrome and its related factors among nurses in teaching hospitals of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Methods: The study was conducted amongst nurses of three teaching hospitals of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, in Yazd. In this study the MM040EA questionnaire of sick building syndrome and indoor air quality was used and data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed using the chi-square test and t-test.

Results: The prevalence of sick building syndrome was 86.4%. The prevalence of the syndrome was in no association with age, gender, employment history and type of shift work .The most common symptoms reported by nurses included headache, fatigue and dry hands. Lack of sense of airflow, unpleasant odor in workplace (P<0.05( and also the amount of workload )P<0.001( were in relation with sick building syndrome.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of sick building syndrome symptoms in the nursing environment was associated with factors of unpleasant odor and high workload of environment. So improvement of environmental conditions such as increasing the efficiency of the HVAC system, increasing fresh air flow in the sector, reducing the nurses workload as well as enhancing the quality of working life, will motivate the nurses and increase productivity in the workplace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n2p247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4796380PMC
November 2014

Humic acid degradation by the synthesized flower-like Ag/ZnO nanostructure as an efficient photocatalyst.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 9;12(1):138. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

Department of Chemistry, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

Nano-sized flower-like Ag/ZnO was synthesized by a simple method using zinc acetate and silver acetate under hydrothermal condition. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the synthesized powder. Nano flower-like Ag/ZnO was used as a photocatalyst for degradation of humic acid in aqueous solution. The disappearance of HA was analyzed by measuring the absorbance of sample at special wavelength (254 nm). The effects of various parameters such as amount of photocatalyst, pH, initial humic acid concentration and irradiation time on degradation rate were systematically investigated. Photodegradation efficiency was small when the photolysis was carried out in the absence of Ag/ZnO and it was also negligible in the absence of light. Approximately 70% of humic acid (50 mg/L) has been eliminated after 40 minutes in the presences of catalyst (catalyst dose o.6 g/L and pH =7) and UVA irradiation. While, 100% of humic acid has been eliminated with solar irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-014-0138-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267435PMC
December 2014

Equilibrium and kinetics of phosphorous adsorption onto bone charcoal from aqueous solution.

Environ Technol 2014 Mar-Apr;35(5-8):882-90

Pyrolysis of fresh sheep bone led to the formation of bone charcoal (BC). The structural characteristics of BC and surface area were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). N2 gas adsorption-desorption was analysed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm model. The prepared BC was used as an effective sorbent for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions. The effect of major parameters, including initial phosphorous concentration, sorbent dosage, pH and temperature, was investigated in this study. Furthermore, adsorption isotherms and kinetics were evaluated. BC was an effective sorbent in phosphate removal from aqueous solution especially in phosphate concentration between 2 and 100 mg/L. The maximum amount of sorption capacity was 30.21 mg/g, which was obtained with 100 mg/L as the initial phosphate concentration and 0.2 g as the sorbent dosage. Best reported pH in this study is 4; in higher pH, adsorption rate decreased dramatically. By increasing the temperature from 20 to 40 degrees C sorption capacity increased; this phenomenon described that adsorption is endothermic. Equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Pseudo first- and second-order and Elovich models were used to determine the kinetics of adsorption in this study. Collected data highly fitted with Freundlich isotherms and pseudo second-order kinetics. Achieved results have shown well the potentiality for the BC to be utilized as a natural sorbent to remove phosphorous from water and wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.854838DOI Listing
April 2014

Removal of cadmium (II) from simulated wastewater by ion flotation technique.

Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 2013 7;10(1):16. Epub 2013 Feb 7.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

A separation technique which has recently received a sharp increase in research activities is "ion flotation". This technique has four important advantages for treating wastewaters: low energy consumption, small space requirements, small volume of sludge and acting selectively. The present study aims to optimize parameters of ion flotation for cadmium removal in simulated wastewater at laboratory scale. It was obtained on the reaction between Cd(2+) and sodium dodecylesulfate (SDS) collector followed by flotation with ethanol as frother. Test solution was prepared by combining the required amount of cadmium ion, SDS and necessary frother or sodium sulfate solution. All experiments were carried out in a flotation column at laboratory temperature (27°C), adjusted pH = 4 and 120 minutes. The different parameters (namely: flow rate, cadmium, SDS and frother concentrations and ionic strength) influencing the flotation process were examined. The best removal efficiency obtained at a collector-metal ratio of 3:1 in 60 min with flow rate of 150 mL/min was 84%. The maximum cadmium removal was 92.1% where ethanol was introduced at a concentration 0.4% to flotation column with above conditions. The obtained results were promising, as both cadmium and collector were effectively removed from wastewater. Hence, the application of ion flotation for metal ions removal from effluents seems to be efficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1735-2746-10-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3691621PMC
May 2014

Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

Health Promot Perspect 2012 28;2(2):136-44. Epub 2012 Dec 28.

Dept. of Environment Health, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory.

Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression.

Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention.

Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5681/hpp.2012.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963631PMC
April 2014