Publications by authors named "Mohammad Sakr"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Ramadan fasting on Muslim recipients after living donor liver transplantation: A single center study.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 15;21(2):76-79. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation (ASCOT), Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Study Aims: Several factors affect the quality of life and personal well-being of transplant recipients, including Ramadan fasting for Muslims. This study aimed to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on the renal and liver functions of liver transplantation recipients and to propose a protocol for adapting an Immunosuppression regimen and follow-up schedule for patients wishing to fast after liver transplantation.

Patients And Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 45 recipients who wished to fast Ramadan from 17th May to 14th June 2018, at Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation, Cairo, Egypt.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.5 ± 7.2 (37-68) years, and 84.4% were males; the mean time from liver transplantation was 51.6 ± 28 months (14-117). Thirty-seven patients (82.2%) completed Ramadan fasting, three patients (6.6%) had interrupted fasting, and five patients (11.1%) had to stop fasting because of an unacceptable rise in renal function. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-fasting states in terms of the serum creatinine level (p = 0.004).However, the serum creatinine did not exceed the upper normal value in the patients who completed fasting.

Conclusion: Our data seem promising for Ramadan fasting with an adapted immunosuppression protocol and regular follow-up for recipients wishing to fast. Further multicentre studies on a larger number of patients are warranted.
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June 2020

Outcome of Colonoscopic Screening in Potential Liver Transplant Candidates.

Transplant Proc 2020 Jan - Feb;52(1):227-232

Ain Shams University, Department of Tropical Medicine Cairo, Abbasia, Egypt; and Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation, Cairo, Abbasia, Egypt.

Background: Screening for neoplastic lesions is mandatory as a part of the evaluation process of potential candidates for liver transplant (LT). This work aimed at identifying the main findings in screening colonoscopy and their risk factors.

Methods: Endoscopic and pathologic findings of the biopsied lesions of 311 potential candidates for living donor liver transplant were collected and analyzed.

Results: Colorectal polyps (8.7%) were the most common colonoscopic finding, of which 4.18% were diagnosed as adenomas. Other findings included hemorrhoids (7.7%), portal hypertensive colopathies (3.5%), angiomatous malformations (2.6%), rectal varices (1.6%), and diverticulosis (1.6%). The univariate analysis revealed that the prevalence of colonic adenoma was significant in patients 50 years and older (P = .03; odds ratio, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.016-1.365) and in patients who had hepatocellular carcinoma (P = .043; odds ratio, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.002-42.172). In the multivariate analysis, age was found to be the single best predictor of the presence of adenoma (P = .044; odds ratio, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.005-1.382).

Conclusion: We can conclude that a screening colonoscopy prior to liver donor liver transplant should be performed at least in every LT candidate 50 years or older. Colonic polyps were the most common findings on screening colonoscopy prior to LT.
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July 2020

Characteristics and outcome of primary Budd-Chiari syndrome due to Behçet's syndrome.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020 09 14;44(4):503-512. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Radiodiagnosis & Interventional Radiology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11341 Abbasia, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a known cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). We aimed at identifying the prevalence of BS in patients with BCS, analyzing different clinical presentations, treatment modalities and outcome of these patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, in which all medical records of patients who were presented to Tropical Medicine Department, Ain Shams University with a confirmed diagnosis of primary BCS from May 2005 to December 2016 were collected and analyzed.

Results: In total, 271 patients had a confirmed diagnosis of primary BCS, included Group I: 232 (85.6%) patients with BCS without BS and Group II: 39 patients (14.4%) with BCS due to BS. Male gender (P=0.000), oral ulcers, genital ulcers, Prominent abdominal veins, lower limb swellings, lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (P=0.000) and jaundice (P=0.003) were more frequent in group II patients. The presence of intrahepatic collaterals (P=0.004) and IVC thrombosis (P=0.000) was significant in group II. Medical treatment alone in the form of immunosuppressive drugs and anticoagulation (66.7% vs. 24.1%)±IVC stenting (23% vs. 1.3%) (P=0.000) were the main treatment modalities for BCS related to BS. The frequency of HCC in BS was significantly higher (10.26% vs. 2.59%) (P=0.013).

Conclusions: The prevalence of BS in Egyptian patients with BCS is considerably high. The clinical presentation of these patients was different from those without BS. Besides, the incidence of HCC was higher in patients with BS, whereas the mortality did not differ between the two groups.
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September 2020

Validation of prognostic indices in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients: A single-center study.

World J Gastroenterol 2017 Jan;23(4):629-637

Mohammad Sakr, Sara M Abdelhakam, Soheir A Elsayed, Enas H Allam, Amir M Farid, Waleed Abdelmoaty, Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To compare predictive ability of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) prognostic indices (PIs) for one-year survival and Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) patency.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 194 Egyptian patients with primary BCS who presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group of Ain Shams University Hospital. Calculation of the available PIs was performed using Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease scores, BCS-specific PIs (Clichy, New Clichy and Rotterdam) for all patients, and BCS-TIPS PI only for patients who underwent TIPS. The overall one-year survival rate and the one-year shunt patency rate for TIPS were reported.

Results: The overall one-year survival rate was 69.6%, and the New Clichy PI revealed the best validity for its prediction at a cut-off value of 3.75, with sensitivity and specificity of 78% and 73.3%, respectively [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.806]. The one-year survival rate post-TIPS was 89.7%, and the BCS-TIPS score demonstrated validity for its prediction at a cut-off value of 3.92 (sensitivity and specificity were 71.4% and 64.5%, respectively) (AUC = 0.715). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the New Clichy PI ( = 0.030), high serum total bilirubin ( = 0.047) and low albumin ( < 0.001) were independent factors for predicting mortality within one year. The one-year shunt patency rate in TIPS was 80.2%, and none of the PIs exhibited significant validity for its prediction.

Conclusion: The New Clichy score could independently predict the one-year survival in Egyptian BCS patients.
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January 2017

Living donor liver transplantation for high model for end-stage liver disease score: What have we learned?

World J Hepatol 2016 Aug;8(22):942-8

Hany Dabbous, Mohammad Sakr, Sara Abdelhakam, Iman Montasser, Department of Tropical Medicine, Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplant, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To assess the impact of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score on patient survival and morbidity post living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 80 adult patients who had LDLT from 2011-2013. Nine patients were excluded and 71 patients were divided into two groups; Group 1 included 38 patients with a MELD score < 20, and Group 2 included 33 patients with a MELD score > 20. Comparison between both groups was done regarding operative time, intra-operative blood requirement, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, infection, and patient survival.

Results: Eleven patients died (15.5%); 3/38 (7.9%) patients in Group 1 and 8/33 (24.2%) in Group 2 with significant difference (P = 0.02). Mean operative time, duration of hospital stay, and ICU stay were similar in both groups. Mean volume of blood transfusion and cell saver re-transfusion were 8 ± 4 units and 1668 ± 202 mL, respectively, in Group 1 in comparison to 10 ± 6 units and 1910 ± 679 mL, respectively, in Group 2 with no significant difference (P = 0.09 and 0.167, respectively). The rates of infection and systemic complications (renal, respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological complications) were similar in both groups.

Conclusion: A MELD score > 20 may predict mortality after LDLT.
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August 2016

Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients with primary Budd-Chiari syndrome.

Liver Int 2017 03 13;37(3):415-422. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background & Aim: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This work aimed at analyzing characteristics and factors associated with development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with primary BCS.

Methods: A total of 348 Egyptian BCS patients were included. They were presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group of Ain Shams University Hospital. BCS was confirmed using abdominal Doppler US. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR venography and/or multislice computed tomography (CT) were performed to confirm all diagnoses and to assess vascular anatomy. Hepatic focal lesions detected during the study period (2005-2011) were evaluated using serum alpha foetoprotein (AFP) level, imaging features and histopathological examination.

Results: Diagnosis of HCC was confirmed in 15/348 patients (4.3%). Imaging studies showed that 60% had multiple hepatic focal lesions ranging from 2 to 6.3 cm in size. The median level of serum AFP in BCS with HCC was 300 ng/mL vs 11 ng/mL in those without HCC (P<.001). A cut-off level >24.5 ng/mL for serum AFP showed sensitivity 80%, specificity 97.9%, positive predictive value 93.18% and negative predictive value 99.1% for detection of HCC in BCS patients. Male gender, older age, cigarette smoking, serum AFP (>24.5 ng/mL) and shrunken liver by ultrasonography were independent factors associated with HCC development.

Conclusion: Male gender, older age and cigarette smoking are independent risk factors for development of HCC in BCS. Serum AFP is a good screening test in BCS.
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March 2017

On-Chip Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Fourier Transform Infrared (MEMS FT-IR) Spectrometer-Based Gas Sensing.

Appl Spectrosc 2016 05 4;70(5):897-904. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt Si-Ware Systems, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt.

In this work, we study the detection of acetylene (C2H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) gases in the near-infrared (NIR) range using an on-chip silicon micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer in the wavelength range 1300-2500 nm (4000-7692 cm(-1)). The spectrometer core engine is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using a deep-etching technology producing self-aligned components. The light is free-space propagating in-plane with respect to the silicon chip substrate. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator corresponding to about 30 cm(-1) resolution. Multi-mode optical fibers are used to connect light between the wideband light source, the interferometer, the 10 cm gas cell, and the optical detector. A wide dynamic range of gas concentration down to 2000 parts per million (ppm) in only 10 cm length gas cell is demonstrated. Extending the wavelength range to the mid-infrared (MIR) range up to 4200 nm (2380 cm(-1)) is also experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, using a bulk micro-machined on-chip MEMS FT-IR spectrometer. The obtained results open the door for an on-chip optical gas sensor for many applications including environmental sensing and industrial process control in the NIR/MIR spectral ranges.
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May 2016

Donor rejection before living donor liver transplantation: causes and cost effective analysis in an egyptian transplant center.

Hepat Mon 2014 Jan 2;14(1):e13703. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplant (ASCOT), Cairo, Egypt.

Background: In the living donor liver transplant setting, the preoperative assessment of potential donors is important to ensure the donor safety.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify causes and costs of living liver-donors rejection in the donation process.

Materials And Methods: From June 2010 to June 2012, all potential living liver donors for 66 liver transplant candidates were screened at the Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation. Potential donors were evaluated in 3 phases, and their data were reviewed to determine the causes and at which phase the donors were rejected.

Results: One hundred and ninety two potential living liver donors, including 157 (81.7%) males, were screened for 66 potential recipients. Of these, 126 (65.6%) were disqualified for the donation. The causes of rejection were classified as surgical (9.5 %) or medical (90.5 %). Five donors (3.9 %) were rejected due to multiple causes. Factor V Leiden mutation was detected in 29 (23 %) rejected donors (P = 0.001), 25 (19.8 %) donors had positive results for hepatitis serology (P = 0.005), and 16 (12.7 %) tested positive for drug abuse. Portal vein trifurcation (n = 9, 7.1%) and small size liver graft estimated by CT volumetric analysis (n = 6, 4.8 %) were the main surgical causes which precluded the donation.

Conclusions: Among potential Egyptian living liver donors, Factor V Leiden mutation was a significant cause for live donor rejection. A stepwise approach to donor assessment was found to be cost-effective.
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January 2014

Epidemiological aspects of Budd-Chiari in Egyptian patients: a single-center study.

World J Gastroenterol 2011 Nov;17(42):4704-10

Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To describe the socio-demographic features, etiology, and risk factors for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) in Egyptian patients.

Methods: Ninety-four Egyptian patients with confirmed primary Budd-Chiari syndrome were presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group (BCSG) and admitted to the Tropical Medicine Department of Ain Shams University Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Complete clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations, including a thrombophilia workup and full radiological assessment, were performed to determine underlying disease etiologies.

Results: BCS was chronic in 79.8% of patients, acute or subacute in 19.1%, and fulminant in 1.1%. Factor V Leiden mutation (FVLM) was the most common etiological cause of disease (53.1%), followed by mutation of the gene encoding methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (51.6%). Current or recent hormonal treatment was documented in 15.5% of females, and BCS associated with pregnancy was present in 17.2% of females. Etiology could not be determined in 8.5% of patients. Males had significantly higher rates of MTHFR gene mutation and Behçet's disease, and females had significantly higher rates of secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. A highly significant positive relationship was evident between the presence of Behçet's disease and inferior vena caval occlusion, either alone or combined with occlusion of the hepatic veins (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: FVLM is the most common disease etiology and MTHFR the second most common in Egyptian BCS patients. BCS etiology tends to vary with geographic region.
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November 2011

Outcome of non surgical hepatic decompression procedures in Egyptian patients with Budd-Chiari.

World J Gastroenterol 2011 Feb;17(7):906-13

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To evaluate outcome of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome after balloon angioplasty ± stenting or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).

Methods: Twenty five patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome admitted to Ain Shams University Hospitals, Tropical Medicine Department were included. Twelve patients (48%) with short segment occlusion were candidates for angioplasty; with stenting in ten cases and without stenting in two. Thirteen patients (52%) had Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt. Patients were followed up for 12-32 mo.

Results: Patency rate in patients who underwent angioplasty ± stenting was 83.3% at one year and at end of follow up. The need of revision was 41.6% with one year survival of 100%, dropped to 91.6% at end of follow up. In patients who had Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt, patency rate was 92.3% at one year, dropped to 84.6% at end of follow up. The need of revision was 38.4% with one year and end of follow up survival of 100%. Patients with patent shunts showed marked improvement compared to those with occluded shunts.

Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality following angioplasty ± stenting and TIPS are low with satisfactory outcome. Proper patient selection and management of shunt dysfunction are crucial in improvement.
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February 2011

Necrolytic acral erythema in Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus infection.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006 Jul;21(7):1200-6

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Necrolytic acral erythema (NAE) is a distinctive skin lesion that was first described in 1996 with only few cases being reported, mostly from Egypt. It is unique in its acral distribution and exclusive association with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Methods: Twenty-three patients (mean age 41.7 +/- 11.5 years; M:F 10:13) with clinical features consistent with NAE were enrolled in a 3-year period. Five of those were known HCV-infected individuals and 18 were referred by the dermatologist for evaluation and HCV screening. Liver function tests, serum zinc, hepatitis B markers, HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA were tested. All patients were subjected to skin biopsy examination; five lesional biopsies were selected for electron microscopic examination and capillary endothelium was scanned for hepatitis C viral particles. An additional five patients were subjected to detection of HCV-RNA in their skin biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. All patients received oral zinc sulfate supplementation while interferon-alpha therapy combined with ribavirin was available for four patients.

Results: Most NAE patients were adults (91.3%) and the skin lesions were predominantly chronic (78.3%), with affection of the dorsa of toes and/or feet in all cases. Skin biopsies showed hyperkeratosis, psoriasiform epidermis and upper epidermal necrosis. Electron microscope examination demonstrated clumped tonofilaments in the keratinocytes, yet HCV-RNA could not be detected in the skin lesions of examined cases. Interferon-alpha combined with ribavirin caused regression of skin lesions in three patients and complete clearance in one patient. Some improvement was induced by oral zinc administration.

Conclusion: Necrolytic acral erythema is considered to be a cutaneous marker for HCV infection. The majority of patients are diagnosed by dermatologists. Therefore, improved awareness of this cutaneous lesion should prompt early diagnosis and treatment of HCV, which should in turn cure the lesion and prevent progression of liver disease.
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July 2006