Publications by authors named "Mohammad Saiful Islam"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Secure and Provenance Enhanced Internet of Health Things Framework: A Blockchain Managed Federated Learning Approach.

IEEE Access 2020 11;8:205071-205087. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Computer EngineeringCollege of Computer and Information SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadh11543Saudi Arabia.

Recent advancements in the Internet of Health Things (IoHT) have ushered in the wide adoption of IoT devices in our daily health management. For IoHT data to be acceptable by stakeholders, applications that incorporate the IoHT must have a provision for data provenance, in addition to the accuracy, security, integrity, and quality of data. To protect the privacy and security of IoHT data, federated learning (FL) and differential privacy (DP) have been proposed, where private IoHT data can be trained at the owner's premises. Recent advancements in hardware GPUs even allow the FL process within smartphone or edge devices having the IoHT attached to their edge nodes. Although some of the privacy concerns of IoHT data are addressed by FL, fully decentralized FL is still a challenge due to the lack of training capability at all federated nodes, the scarcity of high-quality training datasets, the provenance of training data, and the authentication required for each FL node. In this paper, we present a lightweight hybrid FL framework in which blockchain smart contracts manage the edge training plan, trust management, and authentication of participating federated nodes, the distribution of global or locally trained models, the reputation of edge nodes and their uploaded datasets or models. The framework also supports the full encryption of a dataset, the model training, and the inferencing process. Each federated edge node performs additive encryption, while the blockchain uses multiplicative encryption to aggregate the updated model parameters. To support the full privacy and anonymization of the IoHT data, the framework supports lightweight DP. This framework was tested with several deep learning applications designed for clinical trials with COVID-19 patients. We present here the detailed design, implementation, and test results, which demonstrate strong potential for wider adoption of IoHT-based health management in a secure way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3037474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043507PMC
November 2020

Hydrophilic and Functionalized Nanographene Oxide Incorporated Faster Dissolving Megestrol Acetate.

Molecules 2021 Mar 31;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

The aim of this work is to present an approach to enhance the dissolution of progestin medication, megestrol acetate (also known as MEGACE), for improving the dissolution rate and kinetic solubility by incorporating nano graphene oxide (nGO). An antisolvent precipitation process was investigated for nGO-drug composite preparation, where prepared composites showed crystalline properties that were similar to the pure drug but enhanced aqueous dispersibility and colloidal stability. To validate the efficient release profile of composite, in vitro dissolution testing was carried out using United States Pharmacopeia, USP-42 paddle method, with gastric pH (1.4) and intestinal pH (6.5) solutions to mimic in vivo conditions. Pure MA is practically insoluble (2 µg/mL at 37 °C). With the incorporation of nGO, it was possible to dissolve nearly 100% in the assay. With the incorporation of 1.0% of nGO, the time required to dissolve 50% and 80% of drug, namely T and T, decreased from 138.0 min to 27.0 min, and the drug did not dissolve for 97.0 min in gastric media, respectively. Additionally, studies done in intestinal media have revealed T did not dissolve for 92.0 min. This work shows promise in incorporating functionalized nanoparticles into the crystal lattice of poorly soluble drugs to improve dissolution rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036621PMC
March 2021

Antibiotic practices among household members and their domestic animals within rural communities in Cumilla district, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional survey.

BMC Public Health 2021 02 25;21(1):406. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to human health, and inappropriate use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widely considered to be a key driver of antibiotic resistant infections. Antibiotic use in humans and animals is growing rapidly in low- and, particularly, middle-income countries. However, there is little detailed understanding about practices related to the use of antibiotics in humans and animals within community settings in such countries. Here we aimed to understand the antibiotic practices of rural households across Cumilla district, Bangladesh, in relation to household members and their domestic animals.

Methods: In 2018 we conducted a cross-sectional survey using representative cluster sampling methods. We collected self-reported information from 682 female and 620 male household heads, with women also asked about their children's antibiotic practices.

Results: Only 48% (95% CI: 40, 56%) of women and men had heard of antibiotics, and among those women and men who were aware of antibiotics and the children of those women 70% (95% CI: 64, 76%) reported having previously taken antibiotics, while among these individuals who reported previously taking antibiotics 21% (95% CI: 18, 25%) said they had done so most recently within the last month. Risky/inappropriate antibiotic practices in humans and animals were often reported. For example, among women and men who were aware of antibiotics and the children of those women 52% (95% CI: 40, 63%) reported previously taking antibiotics for a "cough/cold", despite antibiotics being typically inappropriate for use against viral upper respiratory tract infections. Among poultry-owning respondents who were aware of antibiotics 11% (95% CI: 8, 15%) reported previously giving healthy poultry antibiotics, mainly for growth/prophylaxis, while among cattle-owning respondents who were aware of antibiotics and reported previously giving their cattle feed 20% (95% CI: 9, 37%) said the feed had contained antibiotics at least sometimes.

Conclusions: Our results highlight the need for context-adapted interventions at both the community level and the health systems level to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use among humans and domestic animals in rural Bangladesh. Successfully reducing inappropriate use of antibiotics among humans and animals is a required and critical step in tackling antimicrobial resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10457-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908663PMC
February 2021

Carbofuran accelerates the cellular senescence and declines the life span of spns1 mutant zebrafish.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 01 4;25(2):1048-1059. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

S&J Kishi Research Corporation, Jupiter, FL, USA.

Carbofuran is a carbamate pesticide, widely used in agricultural practices to increase crop productivity. In mammals, carbofuran is known to cause several untoward effects, such as apoptosis in the hippocampal neuron, oxidative stress, loss of memory and chromosomal anomalies. Most of these effects are implicated with cellular senescence. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of carbofuran on cellular senescence and biological ageing. Spinster homolog 1 (Spns1) is a transmembrane transporter, regulates autolysosomal biogenesis and plays a role in cellular senescence and survival. Using senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, we found that carbofuran accelerates the cellular senescence in spns1 mutant zebrafish. The yolk opaqueness, a premature ageing phenotype in zebrafish embryos, was accelerated by carbofuran treatment. In the survival study, carbofuran shortened the life span of spns1 mutant zebrafish. Autophagy is the cellular lysosomal degradation, usually up-regulated in the senescent cells. To know the impact of carbofuran exposure on autophagy progress, we established a double-transgenic zebrafish line, harbouring EGFP-tagged LC3-II and mCherry-tagged Lamp1 on spns1 mutant background, whereas we found, carbofuran exposure synergistically accelerates autolysosome formation with insufficient lysosome-mediated degradation. Our data collectively suggest that carbofuran exposure synergistically accelerates the cellular senescence and affects biological ageing in spns1 defective animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812278PMC
January 2021

Reductive Degradation of CCl by Sulfidized Fe and Pd-Fe Nanoparticles: Kinetics, Longevity, and Morphology Aspects.

Chem Eng J 2020 Aug 8;394. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046.

In this study a systematic comparison in morphology, long-term degradation, regeneration and reuse were conducted between palladized and sulfidized nanoscale zero-valent iron (Pd-Fe and S-Fe). Pd-Fe and S-Fe were prepared, after the synthesis of precursor Fe nanoparticles (spherical, ~35 nm radius) for carbon tetrachloride (CTC) treatment. With HAADF-TEM-EDS characterization, dispersive Pd islets were found on the Fe core of Pd-Fe. However, the Fe core was covered by the FeS shell of S-Fe (FeS/FeS = 0.47). With an excessive Pd dose (10 mol%), the Pd-Fe were dramatically deformed to dendritic structures which significantly decreased reactivity. For CTC degradation, Pd-Fe (0.3 atomic% Pd) increased the degradation rate by 20-fold (k= 0.580 Lmmin) while S-Fe presented a greater life time. The major intermediate chloroform (CF) was further degraded and less than 5% CF was observed after 24 h using Pd-Fe or S-Fe while above 50% CF remained using Fe. During aging, the Fe core was converted to FeOOH and FeO/γ-FeO. The restoration of Fe was achieved using NaBH, which regenerated Fe and Pd-Fe. However, the formed FeS shell on S-Fe was disappeared. The results suggest that S-Fe extends longevity of Fe, but the loss of FeS after aging makes S-Fe eventually perform like Fe in terms of CTC degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.125013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654737PMC
August 2020

Ultra-high birefringent low loss suspended elliptical core photonic crystal fiber for terahertz applications.

Appl Opt 2020 Oct;59(30):9385-9392

This paper presents a low loss suspended core microstructured fiber with ultra-high birefringence for terahertz wave guidance. The finite element method (FEM) with a perfectly matched layer is applied to investigate different important properties including effective material loss (EML), birefringence, dispersion, confinement loss, and percentage of power flow through the core. The suspended elliptical core in the design creates asymmetry and results in an unprecedented value of birefringence. The simulated results using FEM at 1 THz show an extremely ultra-high birefringence (the highest, to the best of our knowledge) of 0.1116, a nominal EML of 0.04716, a negligible confinement loss of 2.65×10, a higher power fraction in the core air of 35%, and an effective modal area of 1.24×10µ. The advancement in technology makes the fabrication possible. The proposed fiber could be used satisfactorily in the terahertz regime for various polarization-preserving applications and coherent communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.402530DOI Listing
October 2020

Mercury Removal from Wastewater Using Cysteamine Functionalized Membranes.

ACS Omega 2020 Sep 27;5(35):22255-22267. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington Kentucky 40506, United States.

This study demonstrates a three-step process consisting of primary pre-filtration followed by ultrafiltration (UF) and adsorption with thiol-functionalized microfiltration membranes (thiol membranes) to effectively remove mercury sulfide nanoparticles (HgS NPs) and dissolved mercury (Hg) from wastewater. Thiol membranes were synthesized by incorporating either cysteine (Cys) or cysteamine (CysM) precursors onto polyacrylic acid (PAA)-functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. Carbodiimide chemistry was used to cross-link thiol (-SH) groups on membranes for metal adsorption. The thiol membranes and intermediates of the synthesis were tested for permeability and long-term mercury removal using synthetic waters and industrial wastewater spiked with HgS NPs and a Hg salt. Results show that treatment of the spiked wastewater with a UF membrane removed HgS NPs to below the method detection level (<2 ppb) for up to 12.5 h of operation. Flux reductions that occurred during the experiment were reversible by washing with water, suggesting negligible permanent fouling. Dissolved Hg species were removed to non-detection levels by passing the UF-treated wastewater through a CysM thiol membrane. The adsorption efficiency in this long-term study (>20 h) was approximately 97%. Addition of Ca cations reduced the adsorption efficiencies to 82% for the CysM membrane and to 40% for the Cys membrane. The inferior performance of Cys membranes may be explained by the presence of a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group in Cys, which may interfere in the adsorption process in the presence of multiple cations because of multication absorption. CysM membranes may therefore be more effective for treatment of wastewater than Cys membranes. Focused ion beam characterization of a CysM membrane cross section demonstrates that the adsorption of heavy metals is not limited to the membrane surface but takes place across the entire pore length. Experimental results for adsorptions of selected heavy metals on thiol membranes over a wide range of operating conditions could be predicted with modeling. These results show promising potential industrial applications of thiol-functionalized membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482228PMC
September 2020

Antisolvent precipitative immobilization of micro and nanostructured griseofulvin on laboratory cultured diatom frustules for enhanced aqueous dissolution.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2020 Dec 7;196:111308. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, United States. Electronic address:

We report for the first time an antisolvent synthesis of nanostructured hydrophobic drug formulation onto a natural diatom. The jewel of the sea, a marine diatom, which is enriched in silicon, was cultured and grown in the laboratory. Its frustules were isolated and purified. The polar functional group on its surface provided unique physical and chemical properties. Griseofulvin (GF), an antifungal drug was used as a model compound was precipitated onto and adsorbed onto hydrophilic diatom surface, while stabilizer hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) was used for restricting particle growth during the composite synthesis. This work demonstrates that the fine drug crystals incorporated onto the diatom silica surface. The structural and morphological properties of the drug was characterized by various techniques. The drug loading of the formulation was estimated to be 41 % by weight. The incorporation of micro/nano crystals on the diatom surface dramatically enhanced the dissolution rate, and lowered the time required for 50 % dissolution for pure drug from 240-58 min for the drug composite, and the time required for 80 % dissolution or T was found to be 180 min for the composite while the pure drug reached a maximum of 65 % in 300 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708425PMC
December 2020

Perceptions and experiences with district health information system software to collect and utilize health data in Bangladesh: a qualitative exploratory study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 26;20(1):465. Epub 2020 May 26.

Health system and population studies division (HSPSD), icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Accurate and high-quality data are important for improving program effectiveness and informing policy. In 2009 Bangladesh's health management information system (HMIS) adopted the District Health Information Software, Version 2 (DHIS2) to capture real-time health service utilization data. However, routinely collected data are being underused because of poor data quality and reporting. We aimed to understand the facilitators and barriers to implementing DHIS2 as a way to retrieve meaningful and accurate data for reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (RMNCAH) services.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two districts of Bangladesh from September 2017 to 2018. Data collection included key informant interviews (n = 11), in-depth interviews (n = 23), and focus group discussions (n = 2). The study participants were involved with DHIS2 implementation from the community level to the national level. The data were analyzed thematically.

Results: DHIS2 could improve the timeliness and completeness of data reporting over time. The reported facilitating factors were strong government commitment, extensive donor support, and positive attitudes toward technology among staff. Quality checks and feedback loops at multiple levels of data gathering points are helpful for minimizing data errors. Introducing a dashboard makes DHIS2 compatible to use as a monitoring tool. Barriers to effective DHIS2 implementation were lack of human resources, slow Internet connectivity, frequent changes to DHIS2 versions, and maintaining both manual and electronic system side-by-side. The data in DHIS2 remains incomplete because it does not capture data from private health facilities. Having two parallel HMIS reporting the same RMNCAH indicators threatens data quality and increases the reporting workload.

Conclusion: The overall insights from this study are expected to contribute to the development of effective strategies for successful DHIS2 implementation and building a responsive HMIS. Focused strategic direction is needed to sustain the achievements of digital data culture. Periodic refresher trainings, incentives for increased performance, and an automated single reporting system for multiple stakeholders could make the system more user-friendly. A national electronic health strategy and implementation framework can facilitate creating a culture of DHIS2 use for planning, setting priorities, and decision making among stakeholder groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05322-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249629PMC
May 2020

Direct incorporation of nano graphene oxide (nGO) into hydrophobic drug crystals for enhanced aqueous dissolution.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2020 May 1;189:110827. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA. Electronic address:

This paper reports the development of a successful anti-solvent method that incorporates colloidal nano scale graphene oxide (nGO) directly into hydrophobic drug crystals. The nGO dispersed in solution acted as nucleating sites for crystallization and were embedded into the drug crystals without altering its structure or physical properties such as melting point. Several composites of drugs Sulfamethoxazole and Griseofulvin were synthesized with nGO concentration ranging between 0.2 and 1.0 %. The presence of nGO dramatically enhanced the dissolution rate. The time needed to reach a 50 % release (T) reduced from 42-14 min with the integration of 0.8 % nGO in SMZ, while in GF the reduction was from 44-27 min with 0.5 % nGO. Increased release rates are attributed to the presence of the hydrophilic nGO which hydrogen bond more so with the aqueous mediums. Therefore, the incorporation of nGO into poorly soluble drugs is an effective approach towards drug delivery and bioavailability improvement and opens a new approach to high performance drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.110827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160045PMC
May 2020

Functional analysis of monocarboxylate transporter 8 mutations in Japanese Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome patients.

Endocr J 2019 Jan 25;66(1):19-29. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) facilitates T3 uptake into cells. Mutations in MCT8 lead to Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), which is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation and abnormal thyroid hormone profile. Nine uncharacterized MCT8 mutations in Japanese patients with severe neurocognitive impairment and elevated serum T3 levels were studied regarding the transport of T3. Human MCT8 (hMCT8) function was studied in wild-type (WT) or mutant hMCT8-transfected human placental choriocarcinoma cells (JEG3) by visualizing the locations of the proteins in the cells, detecting specific proteins, and measuring T3 uptake. We identified 6 missense (p.Arg445Ser, p.Asp498Asn, p.Gly276Arg, p.Gly196Glu, p.Gly401Arg, and p.Gly312Arg), 2 frameshift (p.Arg355Profs*64 and p.Tyr550Serfs*17), and 1 deletion (p.Pro561del) mutation(s) in the hMCT8 gene. All patients exhibited clinical characteristics of AHDS with high free T3, low-normal free T4, and normal-elevated TSH levels. All tested mutants were expressed at the protein level, except p.Arg355Profs*64 and p.Tyr550Serfs*17, which were truncated, and were inactive in T3 uptake, excluding p.Arg445Ser and p.Pro561del mutants, compared with WT-hMCT8. Immunocytochemistry revealed plasma membrane localization of p.Arg445Ser and p.Pro561del mutants similar with WT-hMCT8. The other mutants failed to localize in significant amount(s) in the plasma membrane and instead localized in the cytoplasm. These data indicate that p.Arg445Ser and p.Pro561del mutants preserve residual function, whereas p.Asp498Asn, p.Gly276Arg, p.Gly196Glu, p.Gly401Arg, p.Gly312Arg, p.Arg355Profs*64, and p.Tyr550Serfs*17 mutants lack function. These findings suggest that the mutations in MCT8 cause loss of function by reducing protein expression, impairing trafficking of protein to plasma membrane, and disrupting substrate channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0251DOI Listing
January 2019

Impact of Subolesin and Cystatin Knockdown by RNA Interference in Adult Female Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) on Blood Engorgement and Reproduction.

Insects 2018 Apr 2;9(2). Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Centre, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea.

Currently, multi-antigenic vaccine use is the method of choice for the strategic control of ticks. Therefore, determining the efficacy of combined antigens is a promising avenue of research in the development of anti-tick vaccines. The antigen responsible for blood intake and reproduction has proven suitable as a vaccine antigen. It has been shown to silence salivary cystatin (HlSC-1) and subolesin by RNA interference. Adult unfed female ticks were injected with double-stranded RNA of (A) subolesin, (B) cystatin, (C) subolesin plus cystatin, and (D) injection buffer, then fed alongside normal unfed males up to spontaneous drop-down. The percentage of knockdowns was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Sixty-three percent and 53% knockdown rates were observed in subolesin and cystatin double-stranded RNA-injected ticks respectively, while 32 and 26% knockdown rates of subolesin and cystatin transcript were observed in subolesin plus cystatin double-stranded RNA-injected ticks. Subolesin and/or cystatin knockdown causes a significant ( < 0.05) reduction in tick engorgement, egg mass weight, and egg conversion ratio. Most importantly, combined silencing did not act synergistically, but caused a similarly significant ( < 0.05) reduction in tick engorgement, egg mass weight, and egg conversion ratio. Therefore, the elucidation of multiple antigens may be helpful in the future of vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects9020039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023342PMC
April 2018

Expression Patterns of Host Inflammatory Cytokine Genes during Infestation with , a Zoonotic Vector, in Blood Sucking Periods.

Korean J Parasitol 2018 Feb 28;56(1):53-59. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research Centre, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea.

Tick saliva is critically important for continuous attachment to the host, blood feeding for days, and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. To characterize the patterns of inflammatory cytokine gene expression during its attachment and blood sucking time, peripheral blood samples of rabbits infested with ticks were collected at different intervals. Blood histamine concentration was evaluated as well as gene encoding IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were compared with non-infested rabbits. Blood histamine concentration of tick-infested rabbits during fast feeding time was significantly higher than that of non-infested rabbits. In both nymph and adult tick infested rabbits, expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ genes were decreased significantly (<0.05), while expression of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were increased 1.3 to 7 folds in adult infested rabbits with the exception of IL-6 that was significantly (<0.05) decreased in nymph infested rabbits. IL-2 was not expressed in either nymph or adult infestation. saliva is capable of modulate host responses through a complex correlation with histamine and Th1, Th2 mediated cytokines that suppress the inflammatory responses directed toward inflammatory mediators introduced into the host during tick feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2018.56.1.53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5858668PMC
February 2018

Screening for obstructive sleep apnoea using the STOPBANG questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness score in patients admitted on the unselected acute medical take in a UK hospital.

Clin Med (Lond) 2017 Dec;17(6):499-503

Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital, Basildon, UK.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is often overlooked in patients presenting to primary and secondary care, is an increasingly common comorbidity. The prevalence of OSA has not been studied in the unselected acute medical take. The aim of this study was to screen for the prevalence of undiagnosed OSA using the STOPBANG Questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) score in an unselected acute medical take. This was a cross-sectional study in a busy UK general hospital. Patient demographics, comorbidities, ESS and STOPBANG scores on unselected acute medical takes were reviewed and analysed to assess the prevalence of OSA. Of 93 patients screened, more than 50% were obese. The STOPBANG score was ≥3 in 73%. The ESS was significantly increased (≥11) in 20%. On multivariate analysis, ESS continued to remain independently associated with the STOPBANG score with a p-value of 0.04. The routine use of the STOPBANG questionnaire followed by an ESS score in those with a score of ≥3 may focus evaluation for undetected OSA in the acute medical care setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.17-6-499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297704PMC
December 2017

Drug Induced Sialorrhea and Microfluidic-Chip-Electrophoretic Analysis of Engorged Adult Female Tick Saliva of (Acari: Ixodidae).

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Mar 14;11(1):10-18. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research Centre, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Background: The aim of the present study was to induce salivation in longicornis to increase saliva production and to characterize the collection of proteins present in the collected saliva using on-chip-electrophoresis.

Methods: Saliva of adult female engorged was collected by treatment with 0.2% dopamine hydrochloride. All protein samples were characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis using a microfluidic High Sensitivity Protein Assay 250 kit by 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, USA) under non-reducing conditions.

Results: The average salivary protein concentration was 0.169 μg/μl/tick and saliva secretion decreased with increased time of tick detachment from the host. Saliva secretion volume increased to 3.56 μl in the group of ticks with a body weight between 301-350 mg as compared to higher and lower body weight groups. On-chip-electrophoresis results show 13 distinct bands ranging from 9.9 to 294 kDa.

Conclusion: Based on molecular weight, the putative salivary proteins are comprised of proline-rich proteins, triabin, apyrase members of the 12-kDa protein family, platelet inhibitors and anti-inflammatory proteins as tick saliva contains anti-inflammatory components.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629291PMC
March 2017

The Antioxidative Fraction of White Mulberry Induces Apoptosis through Regulation of p53 and NFκB in EAC Cells.

PLoS One 2016 9;11(12):e0167536. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

In this study, the antioxidative fraction of white mulberry (Morus alba) was found to have an apotogenic effect on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell-induced mice (EAC mice) that correlate with upregulated p53 and downregulated NFκB signaling. The antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of various mulberry fractions were evaluated by spectrophotometry and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) was selected for further analysis. Strikingly, the EAF caused 70.20% tumor growth inhibition with S-phase cell cycle arrest, normalized blood parameters including red/white blood cell counts and suppressed the tumor weight of EAC mice compared with untreated controls. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of EAF-treated EAC cells revealed DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, and plasma membrane blebbing. These characteristic morphological features of apoptosis influenced us to further investigate pro- and anti-apoptotic signals in EAF-treated EAC mice. Interestingly, apoptosis correlated with the upregulation of p53 and its target genes PARP-1 and Bax, and also with the down-regulation of NFκB and its target genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Our results suggest that the tumor- suppressive effect of the antioxidative fraction of white mulberry is likely due to apoptosis mediated by p53 and NFκB signaling.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167536PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5147903PMC
July 2017

Biochemical and molecular responses underlying differential arsenic tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2016 Jul 1;104:266-77. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

The arsenic (As) is a toxic element causing major health concern worldwide. Arsenate stress caused no significant reduction in growth parameters and shoot electrolyte leakage but showed increased root arsenate reductase activity along with relatively lower root As content and shoot translocation rate in As-tolerant BRRI 33 than in As-sensitive BRRI 51. It indicates that As inhibition and tolerance mechanisms are driven by root responses. Interestingly, As stress showed consistent decrease in phosphate content and expression of phosphate transporters (OsPT8, OsPT4, OsPHO1;2) under both high and low phosphate conditions in roots of BRRI 33, suggesting that limiting phosphate transport mainly mediated by OsPHO1;2 directs less As accumulation in BRRI 33. Further, BRRI 33 showed simultaneous increase in OsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) expression and phytochelatins (PCs) content in roots under As exposure supporting the hypothesis that root As sequestration acts as 'firewall system' in limiting As translocation in shoots. Furthermore, increased CAT, POD, SOD, GR, along with elevated glutathione, methionine, cysteine and proline suggests that strong antioxidant defense plays integral part to As tolerance in BRRI 33. Again, BRRI 33 self-grafts and plants having BRRI 33 rootstock combined with BRRI 51 scion had no adverse effect on morphological parameters but showed reduced As translocation rate, increased root arsenate reductase activity, shoot PC synthesis and root OsPHO1;2 expression due to As stress. It confirms that signal driving As tolerance mechanisms is generated in the roots. These findings can be implemented for As detoxification and As-free transgenic rice production for health safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.03.034DOI Listing
July 2016

A case of anastrazole-related drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2014 Oct 22;7(5):414-7. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals, London, UK,

An otherwise asymptomatic 66-year-old British Caucasian female with a history of breast cancer was referred by the oncologists due to progressively abnormal liver function tests (LFTs). After undergoing wide local excision and axillary dissection she was started on the anti-oestrogen drug Arimidex (anastrozole) as the tumour cells were oestrogen receptor positive. With a background of normal LFTs, an absence of risk factors for chronic liver disease and otherwise good health, 6 months after starting Arimidex the oncology team noted deranged LFTs. Her hepatitis screening including hepatitis A-C, HSV, HIV, CMV and EBV serology and metabolic screening was negative. Liver ultrasound was essentially normal.The autoimmune screening was positive for ANA (1:160) and weakly positive for anti-smooth muscle antibody (1:80). A liver biopsy demonstrated heavy portal tract inflammation, associated interface hepatitis, and numerous necroinflammatory foci throughout the liver parenchyma. There was also a moderate to marked mixed inflammatory infiltrate of mainly plasma cells and lymphocytes with scattered eosinophils and neutrophils, which best reflects drug-induced liver injury (DILI), although potentially could also correspond with autoimmune hepatitis.The exact mechanism of liver injury from anastrazole is not very clear, but metabolic and immune-mediated damage and individual susceptibility are likely involved in what are often idiosyncratic reactions. The type of cellular immune recruitment (e.g., T-helper cells) reflects the chronicity of injury, with the potential to prolonged liver derangement months or years beyond the period of drug exposure such that DILI may mimic and/or cause drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12328-014-0512-4DOI Listing
October 2014

Saliva from nymph and adult females of Haemaphysalis longicornis: a proteomic study.

Parasit Vectors 2015 Jun 24;8:338. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Background: Haemaphysalis longicornis is a major vector of Theileria spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp. and Coxiella burnetti in East Asian countries. All life stages of ixodid ticks have a destructive pool-feeding style in which they create a pool-feeding site by lacerating host tissue and secreting a variety of biologically active compounds that allows the tick to evade host responses, enabling the uptake of a blood meal. The identification and functional characterization of tick saliva proteins can be useful to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in tick development and to conceive new anti-tick control methods.

Methods: H. longicornis tick saliva was collected from fully engorged nymphs and fully engorged adults induced by dopamine or pilocarpine, respectively. Saliva was digested with trypsin for LC-MS/MS sequencing and peptides were searched against tick and rabbit sequences.

Results: A total of 275 proteins were identified, of which 135 were tick and 100 were rabbit proteins. Of the tick proteins, 30 proteins were identified exclusively in fully engorged nymph saliva, 74 in fully engorged adult females, and 31 were detected in both stages. The identified tick proteins include heme/iron metabolism-related proteins, oxidation/detoxification proteins, enzymes, proteinase inhibitors, tick-specific protein families, and cytoskeletal proteins. Proteins involved in signal transduction, transport and metabolism of carbohydrate, energy, nucleotide, amino acids and lipids were also detected. Of the rabbit proteins, 13 were present in nymph saliva, 48 in adult saliva, and 30 were present in both. The host proteins include immunoglobulins, complement system proteins, antimicrobial proteins, serum albumin, peroxiredoxin, serotransferrin, apolipoprotein, hemopexin, proteinase inhibitors, and hemoglobin/red blood cells-related products.

Conclusions: This study allows the identification of H. longicornis saliva proteins. In spontaneously detached tick saliva various proteins were identified, although results obtained with saliva of fully engorged ticks need to be carefully interpreted. However, it is interesting to note that proteins identified in this study were also described in other tick saliva proteomes using partially engorged tick saliva, including hemelipoprotein, proteases, protease inhibitors, proteins related to structural functions, transporter activity, metabolic processes, and others. In conclusion, these data can provide a deeper understanding to the biology of H. longicornis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0918-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4484640PMC
June 2015

Estrogen receptor-alpha polymorphism in patients with and without degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint.

Cranio 2015 Apr 1;33(2):129-33. Epub 2014 Sep 1.

Aims: The genetic aspect of degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the temporomandibular joint is poorly understood. The prevalence of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) gene polymorphism in patients with and without DJD using xbal and pvull restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) was studied.

Methodology: DNA samples from 42 DJD⁺ and 36 DJD⁻ subjects were amplified. A 346-base pair long ER-alpha gene fragment containing the two sites of polymorphism in intron 1 was analyzed for xbal and pvull RFLP. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher's exact test and two-group t-test.

Results: Five different ER-alpha genotypes were found in both groups. These were PXPX, pxpx, pxPX, PxPX, and pxPx.

Discussion: There was a higher number of pxpx and pxPX genotypes in the DJD⁺ samples compared to the DJD⁻ group, which suggests the presence of polymorphism possibly modulates the ER-alpha activity in bone and contributes to the degenerative process in the joint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2151090314Y.0000000013DOI Listing
April 2015

A case report of developmentally missing mental foramen.

Northwest Dent 2013 Nov-Dec;92(6):15-6

Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The inferior alveolar nerve is the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Studies have documented variations in the course and branching pattern of the nerve. Here the author reports a case of developmentally missing mental foramen in an individual with normal sensory function. Identification of variations in the nerve pathway is essential for treatment planning in the area.
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April 2014

Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2014 Feb 4;14:45. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmacy, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.

Background: Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark.

Methods: Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents).

Results: Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly correlated with the antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9268 and 0.8515 in DPPH test for leaves and bark, respectively).

Conclusion: The results of the study show that leaves of C. cujete possesses significant free radical scavenging properties compared with stem bark and a clear correlation exists between the antioxidant activity and phenolic content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3937116PMC
February 2014

The influence of therapeutic radiation on the patterns of bone remodeling in ovary-intact and ovariectomized mice.

Calcif Tissue Int 2013 Apr 12;92(4):372-84. Epub 2013 Jan 12.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mayo Mail Code 494, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Our purpose was to characterize changes in bone remodeling associated with localized radiation that models therapeutic cancer treatment in ovary-intact (I) and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and to evaluate the influence of radiation on the pattern of bone mineral remodeling. Young adult, female BALB/c mice, I and OVX, were used (n = 71). All mice were intravenously injected with 15 μCi (45)Ca. Thirty days post-(45)Ca administration, the hind limbs of 17 mice were exposed to a single dose of 16 Gy radiation (R). The time course of (45)Ca excretion, serum CTx and osteocalcin markers, and cancellous bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) of the distal femur were assayed. Cellular activity and dynamic histomorphometry were performed. Irradiation resulted in rapid increases in fecal (45)Ca excretion compared to control groups, indicating increased bone remodeling. CTx increased rapidly after irradiation, followed by an increase in osteocalcin concentration. BV/TV decreased in the I mice following irradiation. Ct.Th increased in the OVX groups following irradiation. I+R mice exhibited diminished osteoblast surface, osteoclast number, and mineral apposition. Our murine model showed the systemic effects (via (45)Ca excretion) and local effects (via bone microarchitecture and surface activity) of clinically relevant, therapeutic radiation exposure. The I and OVX murine models have similar (45)Ca excretion but different bone microarchitectural responses. The (45)Ca assay effectively indicates the onset and rate of systemic bone mineral remodeling, providing real-time assessment of changes in bone histomorphometric parameters. Monitoring bone health via a bone mineral marker may help to identify the appropriate time for clinical intervention to preserve skeletal integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-012-9688-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3595353PMC
April 2013

Change in VEGF expression in mouse mammary gland during reproductive cycle.

J Vet Med Sci 2010 Sep 20;72(9):1159-63. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

During pregnancy, the mammary epithelium and its supporting vasculature undergo extensive growth and proliferation in preparation for lactation, which is thought to be dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the expression of VEGF, using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, in the mouse mammary gland during the reproductive cycle. Immunohistochemical studies localized VEGF protein predominantly in the cytoplasm of the mammary epithelium and revealed it to be strongly expressed in late pregnancy and early lactation. In addition, immunoblot analysis revealed a 45-kD VEGF band, corresponding to the homodimer of the VEGF-A₁₆₄ isoform, with increased expression towards the end of pregnancy but no additional increase with the onset of lactation. As the post-lactation period advanced, a dramatic decrease in VEGF was observed in the regressed mammary epithelium. The expression of VEGF suggests that mammary epithelium-derived VEGF may be involved in pregnancy-associated mammary growth and differentiation and angiogenesis, and regulate vascular permeability during lactation in an autocrine or paracrine manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.10-0086DOI Listing
September 2010

Use of human embryonic stem cells to understand hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell niche.

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2010 Sep;5(3):245-50

Department of Diagnostic & Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Intensive research of hematopoiesis using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) as a unique starting cell population has enabled differentiation and isolation of diverse hematopoietic cell lineages. However, there has been only limited success in derivation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) capable of long-term, multi-lineage engraftment when transplanted into xenogeneic models. Better understanding of the HSC developmental niche, the home for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, will aid to advance strategies to derive and assay putative HSCs from hESCs. This review discusses recent status of hematopoietic development from the hESCs and highlights the possibility of developing HSC niche using hESC-derived niche components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157488810791824467DOI Listing
September 2010

Promoting effects of Chinese pangolin and wild pink medicines on the mammary gland development in immature mice.

J Vet Med Sci 2009 Oct;71(10):1325-30

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agriculture University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China.

The effects of the mixture of crude aqueous extracts from Chinese pangolin and wild pink (C+P), traditional Chinese medicine, on the proliferation and differentiation of mammary gland epithelium in intact and ovariectomized immature mice were investigated by light and electron microscopy and BrdU immunohistochemistry. Although there were no significant differences in mammary gland fat pad and parenchyma areas between the intact experimental groups, the numbers of duct branchings and buds were significantly larger in the C+W treated mice than in the control mice. The ratio of BrdU immunopositive cells to total epithelial cells was higher in C+W treated intact mice. Ultrastructurally, epithelial cells of the mammary buds and ducts possessed an oval and lucent nucleus, and ribosomes increased in number or developed to a greater degree in C+W treated intact mice than in the control mice. Conversely, there were no significant differences in any measurements of mammary gland between the experimental groups of ovariectomized mice. BrdU immunoreactive cells were never seen and the ultrastructure of mammary epihelial cells indicated the inactive cell phase in both ovariectomied mice. In comparison between the intact and overiectomized mice, the mammary fat pad area was larger in the ovariectomized mice than in the intact mice, although another four measurements were larger in the intact groups. These observations suggest that administration with C+W could promote the development of mammary glands via ovary in immature mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.001325DOI Listing
October 2009

Expression of dehydration responsive element-binding protein-3 (DREB3) under different abiotic stresses in tomato.

BMB Rep 2009 Sep;42(9):611-6

Department of Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

We investigated the expression pattern of dehydration responsive element-binding protein-3 in tomato under different abiotic stresses. Full length LeDREB3 cDNA was isolated from tomato plant, followed by phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequences that revealed significant sequence similarity to DREB proteins belonging to diverse families of plant species. Southern blot analysis showed duplicate copies of LeDREB3 in the tomato genome while organ-specific expression profiling indicated constitutive expression of LeDREB3 in all tested organs, which was particularly strong in flower. LeDREB3 expression was significantly induced by Nacl, drought, low temperature and H(2)O(2). Moreover, LeDREB3 was slightly regulated by treatment with ABA and MV. These observations suggest that the LeDREB3 gene may be involved in the response of the tomato plant to stress. [BMB reports 2009; 42(9): 611-616].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/bmbrep.2009.42.9.611DOI Listing
September 2009

Tiger bite: an unapprehended injury.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2009 Sep;19(9):595-7

Department of Surgery, Khulna Medical College, Khulna, Bangladesh.

This short communication describes the various modes of presentation, complications and management of tiger bite. All patients presenting to the emergency department with a history of tiger bite were included in the study. A total of 6 patients were admitted at the Department of Surgery, Khulna Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, from 2003 to 2006. Injury involved different parts of the body; predominantly, the upper part. All patients needed emergency surgery including wound toileting, debridement and even reconstructive surgery. One patient died due to infective complications. Tiger bite is a major public health problem in the greater Sundarban area of Bangladesh. Timely hospitalization and effective management can save valuable human lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/09.2009/JCPSP.595597DOI Listing
September 2009

Immunohistochemical localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in mouse mammary gland during reproductive cycle.

J Vet Med Sci 2009 Jul;71(7):945-9

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a mediator of postnatal mammary gland development. We investigated the immunohistochemical localization of three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), in the mouse mammary gland during reproductive cycle. The NOS isoforms detected in normal mouse mammary glands were the constitutive forms of NOS (nNOS and eNOS). nNOS was localized to the alveoli, myoepithelia, lactiferous ducts and blood vessel endothelia, while eNOS was localized in the alveoli, lactiferous ducts and blood vessel endothelia. The strongest immunoreactivity for both constitutive NOS isoforms was observed in pregnant mice. The differential staining intensity of NOS enzymes in the mammary gland led us to conclude that nitric oxide in the mouse mammary gland is mainly synthesized by constitutive NOS isoforms, and suggest that NO has functional roles in post-pubertal growth and differentiation of the mammary gland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.71.945DOI Listing
July 2009
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