Publications by authors named "Mohammad S Alzahrani"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Perception of Threat and Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Expatriates in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 21;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

In the first few months of the pandemic, Makkah region reported the highest number of COVID-19 cases among all regions in Saudi Arabia. More than 80% of these reported cases were non-Saudi residents. In this study, we evaluated the perceived threat from and psychological impact of COVID-19 among non-Saudi residents of Makkah region. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected using a standardized self-report questionnaire. A total of 292 expatriates were included in the study, the majority of whom were non-Arabic speakers. The prevalence of self-reported depression was nearly 40%, anxiety was 32%, and stress was 43%. The findings indicated variability in the prevalence of psychological symptoms among expatriates from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, work environment and perceived threat were strong predictors of psychological disorders. This suggested that the perceived threat from and psychological burden of COVID-19 among non-Saudis in Makkah region is substantial. Future research should investigate the reasons behind these variations in the psychological impact of the pandemic among different ethnic groups.
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June 2021

Reporting Quality of Cost-Effectiveness Analyses Conducted in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Sep 10;25:99-103. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Sakaka, Aljouf, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Pharmacoeconomics and health economics in general is a new field that is still developing and emerging, not only in Saudi Arabia but all over the world. The objective of this study is to collect all published cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) studies conducted based on Saudi settings and to evaluate their reporting quality.

Methods: We used PRISMA guidelines to search for all English-language CEAs conducted in Saudi Arabia in 3 databases: Medline, Embase, and Scopus. Keywords used in the search were: cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-utility, economic evaluation, Saudi Arabia. The data extracted were analyzed to assess reporting quality based on Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Guidelines (CHEERS) and the second panel recommendations.

Results: The 3 databases yielded 859 articles after removing duplicates. Only 7 articles included as final results following PRISMA guidelines. These 7 studies were published between 2015 and 2020. The CEA studies varied in their reporting quality; however, there were common missing required items among all of them, such as justifying choosing of a specific model and time horizon and reporting the ethical implications of the studied interventions.

Conclusion: Seven published CEA studies were conducted based on Saudi settings as revealed by this review. The included studies reported the more important aspects of CEA studies. However, there were missed reporting items based on the checklists we used to assess CEAs in this review. Although perfect and complete adherence to CHEERS or the second panel guidelines is a high standard, future CEAs should adhere to such standards. Transparency and good reporting are cornerstones in CEAs, and future CEAs should report their methods, findings, and results in a more transparent and efficient way.
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September 2021

Barriers to the Treatment of Hepatitis C among Predominantly African American Patients Seeking Care in an Urban Teaching Hospital in Washington, D.C.

J Natl Med Assoc 2021 Apr 28;113(2):147-157. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, Howard University College of Pharmacy, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In the United States, it is estimated that 2.4 million people are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In order to address HCV infection management in the U.S., several government entities collaborated to develop and release a multistep plan for the prevention, care, and treatment of viral hepatitis. Optimal health outcomes from the plan are contingent upon addressing each of the several steps in the HCV care cascade. Among the critical challenging steps is linkage to care and access to treatment. Of the nearly three million people in the U.S. infected with HCV, only 43% have been linked to care, 16% have received treatment, and 9% have had their infection resolved.

Objective: This retrospective study aims to identify predictors within the HCV treatment cascade that contribute to failures in care of HCV-infected patients in an urban hospital setting located in the District of Columbia.

Setting: The outpatient clinics of a tertiary-care urban teaching hospital.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using electronic medical records of persons 18 years and older who were HCV antibody positive and had at least one visit at any of the outpatient clinics from August 1, 2015 to August 1, 2016. Descriptive analysis of HCV positive persons was conducted, and predictors of HCV treatment were assessed.

Results: A total of 252 patients were included in the study. Overall, patients were predominantly male (63.1%), African American (97.6%), under the age of 65 (71.4%), covered by public insurance (89.3%), and were diagnosed with HCV after the year 2001 (53.2%). Additionally, majority of patients had not been treated for their HCV infection (58%). Multiple barriers resulted in HCV infected patients not obtaining access to treatment. Fibrosis stage (p < 0.001) and prior insurance denial (p < 0.05) were significant predictors of HCV treatment. Age, gender, insurance type, substance abuse, alcohol abuse, and year of HCV diagnosis were not associated with limited access of HCV treatment.

Conclusion: HCV infections remain a major public health concern among patients in the District of Columbia. This study identified fibrosis stage and prior insurance denial as primary barriers to access of HCV treatment. While there are many points in the hepatitis cascade of care in which patients can lose access to or fail treatment completion, the primary point of intervention in our patient population appears to be during the initiation of treatment and insurance prior authorization process.
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April 2021

Knowledge and attitude regarding child abuse among primary health care physician in Abha, Saudi Arabia, 2018.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Feb;8(2):706-710

Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Backgrounds: Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver. Child abuse may include any act or failure to act by a parent or other caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a child, and can occur in a child's home or in the organizations, schools, or communities the child interacts with. This study was conducted to assess the primary health care (PHC) centers' physicians' knowledge and attitude toward child abuse including its types, and child neglect with their behavior regarding reporting of abuse cases.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Abha which is the capital of Aseer Province, including all PHC physicians (about 475) working in PHC centers. Data regarding physicians' demographic characteristics, perception, and awareness regarding child abuse and neglect were collected by self-administrative questionnaire in the PHC center during their time between patients' consultation.

Results: The study included 300 PHC physicians whose ages ranged from 25 to 50 years old with mean age of 28 years. About 65% of the physicians were males and 69% of them were married with about 73% having at least one child. Overall, 96.3% of the physicians recorded good awareness level regarding types of child abuse and 97.3% recorded good awareness level regarding child neglect patterns. Underreporting of child abuse cases was recorded by about 64% of physicians.

Conclusion: Regarding child abuse and neglect, PHC physicians have good knowledge, optimal attitude, and positive perception. There was also the problem of underreporting of suspected child abuse cases among PHC physicians in Saudi Arabia, with many barriers to report, such as community traditions; unclear reporting strategy was identified.
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February 2019

Factors Associated with Prescribing Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics for Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Ambulatory Care Settings.

Clin Med Insights Pediatr 2018 2;12:1179556518784300. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA.

Objectives: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed for children with upper respiratory tract infections (URI). Excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics leads to the emergence of resistant bacteria. This study aimed to identify factors associated with prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics among children younger than 18 years presenting with URI in outpatient settings.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-Outpatient Departments (NHAMCS-OPD) between 2006 and 2010. Descriptive statistics of visits from children with URI were estimated. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing. We also completed a stratified analysis by age (⩽2 vs >2).

Results: A total of 4013 outpatient visits for children with URI from both NAMCS and NHAMCS-0PD data were examined. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed in 39% of the visits, accounting for an estimated 6.8 million visits annually. Multivariable analysis showed that visits in the South region (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-4.10) compared with the West region and visits with diagnoses of acute sinusitis (OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.65-4.63) and acute otitis media (OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.32-2.74) compared with those with acute pharyngitis were associated with greater odds of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.

Conclusions: The prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics is common for children with URI in ambulatory care settings. Diagnosis and management of URI remain a critical area for awareness campaigns promoting judicious use of antibiotics.
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July 2018