Publications by authors named "Mohammad Reza Salahshoor"

48 Publications

Evaluation of biomarkers in liver following green calyx administration in diabetic rats.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 15;19(2):1115-1127. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: green calyx (SMGC) has antioxidant properties. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases oxidative stress and causes cellular damages in liver. This study attempts to show the protective effects of SMGC against morphometric, inflammatory, oxidative, and apoptotic changes in liver following DM induction.

Methods: For DM induction, the streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. After the preparation of the SMGC extract, phytochemical content was analyzed. Sixty-four rats were categorized into 8 groups ( = 8); control, , SMGC, and diabetic + SMGC. SMGC administration was applied orally with doses of 100, 300, 500 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The assays of nitrite oxide, lipid peroxidation (LP), and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) were conducted for sample analysis. , and genes expression, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and morphological features were measured. Apoptotic cell index, body weight, and levels of glucose and insulin were also analyzed. A one-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis.

Result: According to the phytochemical analysis, the SMGC is rich in Tannins and Saponins. Antioxidant values, p53 and Bax genes expression, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, body weight, serum glucose, and morphometrical features were increased significantly (except insulin and FRAP levels and Bcl2 gene expression which were decreased) in diabetic group compared to the control group ( < 0.05). Also, evaluated parameters were reduced significantly (except insulin and FRAP levels and Bcl2 gene expression which were increased) in SMGC and diabetic + SMGC groups in comparison with the diabetic group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: These findings revealed that the SMGC attenuates blood glucose levels in diabetic animals and also eliminates destructive effects of DM on liver through antioxidant features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00613-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843661PMC
December 2020

The effect of different concentrations of cerium oxide during pregnancy on ovarian follicle development in neonatal mice.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Mar 30;113(4):349-358. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Medical Technology Research Center, Institute of Health Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: Cerium is a member of the rare metals group and widely used in drug delivery, gene therapy, molecular imaging and medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of different doses of Cerium (IV) oxide (CeO ) during pregnancy on neonatal mice ovaries, as well as its effect on blood biochemical parameters.

Methods: Thirty pregnant NMRI mice were divided into five groups: Control and 4 groups treated with CeO (10, 25, 80, 250 mg/kg.bw i.p) at the GD7 and GD14. The ovarian histological of neonatal (2 and 6 day-olds), as well as blood serum of neonates at 15-dpp were analyzed.

Results: Count of ovarian primordial follicles in neonates at 2 dpp showed a significant decrease in the groups treated with 80 and 250 mg/kg.bw doses of CeO . There was also a significant decrease in ovarian primordial and primary follicles in neonates at 6-dpp at 250 mg/kg.bw doses of CeO in the control (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity between the experimental and control groups.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the effects of CeO on the ovarian tissue of neonatal mice during pregnancy may be dose-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1844DOI Listing
March 2021

Nurses' Work-Related Quality of Life and Its Influencing Demographic Factors at a Public Hospital in Western Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2020 Nov 17:272684X20972838. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The quality of life as a concept beyond physical health stands one of the protuberant indexes, and various health-based studies required distinct measurements, which deemed necessary for their significant implications. The nurses fight at the front and play a leading role in providing services to patients at healthcare centers. They deserve a higher quality of life in catering to physical health services. This present study focuses on examining nurses' work-life quality standards and how demographic variables contribute to the hospital of Imam Reza in Kermanshah of Western Iran.

Methods: This descriptive-analytical study recruited a sample of 271 nurses affiliated with Imam Reza Hospital and Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by incorporating the stratified random sampling in 2019. This study used a two-part questionnaire to collect data from the targeted respondents. The first part presented the participants' demographic profiles, and the second part showed the nurses' work-related quality of life (WRQoL) on the scale developed by Van Laar et al. The study screened the data and performed analyses through the SPSS version-23. The research study conducted a descriptive analysis to measure mean and standard deviation with inferential statistics, including independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA (P < 0.05).

Results: The study findings specified that nurses' average quality of the work-life was at a moderate level 3.11 ± 0.47. Besides, results indicated that 57.50% of the nurses reported high standards of quality of work-life, 36.50% showed a modest and 5.20% revealed a lower level of work-life quality. The findings indicated that the quality of work-life significantly correlated with respondent'' age, marital status, education, work experience, position, department, shifts, and employment status (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of this research demonstrated that the nurses' quality of work-life was higher than the average standard. The results provide useful insight for nurses and hospital managers. The policymakers and health managers need to pay more attention to providing a better quality of work-life to the nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684X20972838DOI Listing
November 2020

A study of internet addiction and its effects on mental health: A study based on Iranian University Students.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 31;9:205. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: The Internet has drastically affected human behavior, and it has positive and negative effects; however, its excessive usage exposes users to internet addiction. The diagnosis of students' mental dysfunction is vital to monitor their academic progress and success by preventing this technology through proper handling of the usage addiction.

Materials And Methods: This descriptive-analytical study selected 447 students (232 females and 215 males) of the first and second semesters enrolled at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2018 by using Cochrane's sample size formula and stratified random sampling. The study applied Young's Internet Addiction Test and Goldberg General Health Questionnaire 28 for data collection. The study screened the data received and analyzed valid data set through the -test and Pearson's correlation coefficient by incorporating SPSS Statistics software version 23.0.

Results: The results of the current study specified that the total mean score of the students for internet addiction and mental health was 3.81 ± 0.88 and 2.56 ± 0.33, correspondingly. The results revealed that internet addiction positively correlated with depression and mental health, which indicated a negative relationship ( > 0.001). The multiple regression analysis results showed students' five significant vulnerability predictors toward internet addiction, such as the critical reason for using the Internet, faculty, depression, the central place for using the Internet, and somatic symptoms.

Conclusions: The study findings specified that students' excessive internet usage leads to anxiety, depression, and adverse mental health, which affect their academic performance. Monitoring and controlling students' internet addiction through informative sessions on how to use the Internet adequately is useful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_148_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530416PMC
August 2020

Does improve toxic effect of Malathion on male reproductive parameters?

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2020 Apr-Jun;12(2):183-191. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: has antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging properties. Malathion is the most common organophosphate, which is capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance on some of male reproductive parameters. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of extract against damage induced by Malathion to the reproductive parameter of male rats.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to eight groups: first group, sham group (normal saline); second group, Malathion (250 mg/kg) group; third to fifth groups, groups (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively); and sixth to eight groups, Malathion + groups (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg). extract (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively) administrated orally, and daily for 8 weeks. The sperm parameters, testis malondialdehyde (MDA), serum total antioxidant capacity, serum testosterone level, and the height of germinal layer were evaluated and analyzed statistically.

Results: All the values of male reproductive parameters reduced significantly in the Malathion group as compared to the sham group ( < 0.01) except MDA level, which increased significantly. The and Malathion treatments in all doses increased the whole parameters significantly as compared to the Malathion group ( < 0.01) except MDA level, which decreased significantly. No significant changes were observed in all groups as compared to the sham group ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: extract administration attenuates the toxic effects of Malathion on some of the male reproductive parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_224_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373104PMC
April 2020

Anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant actions of Middle Eastern Phoenix dactylifera extract on mercury-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Aug 31;47(8):6053-6065. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Mercuric chloride (MC) is a complex substance which is capable to produce free radicals. Middle Eastern Phoenix dactylifera (MEPD) is a flowering plant of palm family with potent antioxidant feature. Due to the increasing use of herbs in medicine, this study was designed to assess the effects of MEPD and MC on inflammatory apoptogenic, oxidative and histomorphometric alterations in liver. Sixty-four male rats were assigned to 8 groups including: control groups (normal group and MC (50 mg/kg)), MEPD groups (30, 90, 270 mg/kg) and MC + MEPD treated groups. All experimental groups were treated intraperitoneally and orally daily for 5 weeks. The relative expression level of apoptotic genes (p53, Bcl2 and Bax) and hepatocyte apoptotic index were analyzed. Also, Nitrite oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation (LP), Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assays were conducted to assess the antioxidant levels. Cytokines involved in inflammation, hepatic enzymes and histomorphometric parameters (hepatocytes diameter (HD) and central hepatic vein (CHV)) were evaluated. All factors showed incremental trends following MC administration (else FRAP level and Bcl2, which were decreased) in MC group than normal group (P < 0.05). In comparison with the MC group, total values in MEPD and MEPD + MC groups were decreased (P < 0.05) (except FRAP level and Bcl2, which were increased). According to the obtained data, the administration of MEPD extract has potent antioxidant property that attenuates the destructive hepatic effects of MC by initiation of cellular antioxidant pathways and restoration of pathological changes into the physiological form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05680-4DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of male infertility treatment following Rhus coriaria extract administration on rats exposed to morphine.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Aug 23;47(8):6073-6081. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Morphine is the most common analgesic drug that is widely used in post-operative interventions. This drug causes free radical accumulation leading to spermatogenesis failure. Antioxidant agents like Sumach (Rhus coriaria) neutralize cellular free radicals. In this study, the properties of antioxidative, modulative of inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic genes following Sumach extract administration on morphine-induced fertility destruction in male Wistar rats was evaluated. Sixty-four animals were grouped (n = 8) including; 1: control, 2: morphine, 3-5: Sumach (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), and 6-8: morphine + Sumach. Hydroalcoholic extract of Sumach seeds was prepared. Treatments with Sumach extract were applied orally and intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks. The P53, Bcl2 and caspase-3 genes expression were measured by real-time PCR. Cytokines involved in inflammation were evaluated by ELISA. Sperm parameters, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), testosterone, and germinal layer height (GLH) were assessed. All parameters (investigated in this study) in Morphine group reduced significantly than the control group (P ˂ 0.01) (except P53 and caspase-3 genes expression and inflammatory cytokine which were improved). All factors in Sumach and Sumach + Morphine groups were significantly enhanced compared to the Morphine group (P ˂ 0.01) (except P53 and caspase-3 genes expression and inflammatory cytokine which were declined). Morphine disrupted the physiological function of male fertility system. Besides, all doses of Sumach showed no therapeutic changes compared to the control group. Sumach with anti-infertility features compensates the toxic effect of Morphine administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05682-2DOI Listing
August 2020

How the COVID-19 pandemic effected economic, social, political, and cultural factors: A lesson from Iran.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2020 Jul 2:20764020939984. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764020939984DOI Listing
July 2020

Attenuates Myleran-induced Reproductive Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Male Rats.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2020 Jan-Mar;13(1):38-45. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Context: is an herbal with potent antioxidant and it has been shown to have beneficial effects during short-term administration. Myleran (MYL) is used for treatment of certain types of tumors. MYL produces free radicals and induces disturbance in sperm parameters.

Aims: This study is designed to assess the effects of against damage to the male rats' reproductive features induced by MYL.

Subjects And Methods: Sixty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: control group; MYL (10 mg/kg) group; groups (4.5, 9, and 18 mg/kg); and MYL (10 mg/kg) + groups (4.5, 9, and 18 mg/kg; separately). Treatments were administered daily intraperitoneal injection for 60 days. Total antioxidant capacity, sperm factors, malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone, and germinal layer height were analyzed.

Results: Whole variables of MYL group decreased signifcantly compared to the control group ( < 0.05) except MDA level (which increased). The and + MYL treatments in all doses increased all parameters significantly except MDA level (which decreased) compared to the MYL group ( < 0.05). No significant modifications were observed in all groups compared to the control group ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: reduces the poisonous properties of MYL on male reproductive factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_134_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295260PMC
April 2020

Improvement of on Morphine Toxicity in Prefrontal Cortex in Rats.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):110-116. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: () is an associate of the umbelliferae family with several therapeutic attributes. Morphine is known as a major risk factor in the development of functional disorder of several organs.

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of extract against morphine-induced damage to the brain prefrontal cortex (PC) of rats.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 64 Wistar male rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups: Sham group, Morphine group, groups (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg), and Morphine + groups. Daily intraperitoneal treatment applied for 20 days. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power method was hired to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The number of dendritic spines was investigated by Golgi staining technique. Cresyl violet staining method was used to determine the number of neurons in the PC region. Furthermore, Griess technique was used to determine the level of serum nitrite oxide.

Results: Morphine administration increased nitrite oxide levels and decreased TAC, density of neuronal dendritic spines and neurons compared to the sham group significantly ( < 0.05). In whole doses of the and Morphine + groups, the number of neurons and neuronal dendritic spines increased significantly while nitrite oxide level and TAC decreased compared to the morphine group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: It seems that the administration of extract protects the animals against oxidative stress and nitrite oxide, also improves some PC parameters including the number of neurons, and dendritic spines because of the morphine application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_126_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289200PMC
April 2020

Quercetin postconditioning attenuates gastrocnemius muscle ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Dec 21;235(12):9876-9883. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Quercetin, an antioxidant derived from plants, can play a beneficial role in the protection of various tissues against ischemia-reperfusion injuries (IRI). The purpose of the present research was to investigate the protective effects of quercetin on gastrocnemius muscle ischemia-reperfusion. A total of 80 adult male Wistar rats (weights: 250-300 g) were divided into ten groups (n = 8 per group). We used silk 6.0 surgical thread to create a knit to occlude the femoral artery and vein for 3 hr. The treated groups, which comprised half of each experimental group, received intraperitoneal injections of 150 mg/kg quercetin after the ischemia. Blood flow was subsequently reestablished in the reperfusion phase. The rats were kept in reperfusion for 3, 7, 14, or 28 days after which they were killed with high doses of anesthetic drugs, and the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and fixed. Tissue processing, hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue staining, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) levels. A comparison between treated and untreated ischemic sites showed that on the third day of reperfusion, the severity of edema and NF-κB level decreased significantly; on the 7th day of reperfusion, the severity of edema and the levels of TNF-α and NF-κB decreased significantly; and on the 14th day of reperfusion, all of the parameters showed significant decreases. On the 28th day of reperfusion, there were significantly decreased levels of TNF-α and NF-κB, and decreased mast cell infiltration when compared with the untreated groups. According to the results, administration of quercetin after ischemia could significantly prevent gastrocnemius muscle IRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29801DOI Listing
December 2020

extract reduces hepatotoxicity by antioxidative properties following dichlorvos administration in rats.

Chin J Physiol 2020 Mar-Apr;63(2):77-84

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Ipomoea aquatica (IA) with antioxidant properties is used in therapeutic trends. An organophosphate, dichlorvos (Dich), is a common insecticide with various side effects on living tissues. This study examines the role of IA on Dich-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Sixty-four male rats were divided into eight groups including sham, Dich (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), IA 1, 2, and 3 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively, orally), and Dich + IA 1, 2, and 3. All treatments were applied daily for 60 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed. The histopathological changes, leukocyte infiltration, and apoptosis were assessed by light and fluorescent microscopy. The serum levels of hepatic enzymes, nitrite oxide (NO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated biochemically. Dich statistically significantly increased the NO level, hepatic enzyme activity, apoptosis, leukocyte infiltration, the mean diameter of hepatocytes (DHs), and central hepatic vein diameter (CHVD) and also decreased the TAC, mean weight of liver, and the total weight of rats compared to the sham group (P < 0.01). In all IA and Dich + IA groups, a statistically significant decrease was detected in apoptosis, leukocyte infiltration, hepatic enzyme activity, NO level, mean DH, and CHVD, whereas an increase in TAC level, mean liver weight, and total weight was detected compared to the Dich group (P < 0.01). IA, due to the antioxidant property, recovers the Dich-related catastrophic changes in liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/CJP.CJP_89_19DOI Listing
July 2020

Resveratrol Attenuates Malathion Induced Damage in Some Reproductive Parameters by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Male Rats.

J Family Reprod Health 2019 Jun;13(2):70-79

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Malathion is the most organophosphates which capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance on some of male reproductive parameter. Resveratrol is an herbal polyphenol and it has been beneficial antioxidant effects during short-term administration. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Resveratrol against damage induced by Malathion to the reproductive parameter of male rats. In this experimental study, 48 male rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups: normal control (saline) and Malathion control (250 mg/kg) groups; Resveratrol groups (2, 8, 20 mg/kg) and Malathion + Resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally and gavage daily for 65 days. The sperm parameters, testis malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), testosterone level and germinal layer height were evaluated and statistically analyzed. The results displayed that the values of all parameters except MDA level (which increased) reduced significantly in the Malathion control group compared to the normal control group (p < 0.001). The Resveratrol and Resveratrol + Malathion treatments at all doses increased significantly all parameters except MDA level (which decreased) compared to the Malathion control group (p < 0.001). No significant modifications were observed in all Resveratrol groups compared to the normal control group (p > 0.05). Resveratrol attenuates toxic effect of Malathion on some of male reproductive parameters.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969894PMC
June 2019

The protective effect of Pentoxifylline on testopathy in male rats following Dimethyl Nitrosamine administration: An experimental study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2019 Oct 7;17(10):727-738. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Nitrosamines as a carcinogenic agent has unfavorable effects on some of the male reproductive parameters. Pentoxifylline (PX) is a xanthine derivative used as a drug inhibiting the inflammatory factors, reducing blood viscosity, improving peripheral blood flow, and so on. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of PX against Dimethyl nitrosamine (DMN)-inducing the damage to the reproductive parameter of male rats.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats (8 wk, 220-250 gr) were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6/each): normal control and DMN control groups (40 mg/kg); PX groups (25, 50, 100 mg/kg), and DMN + PX groups (25, 50, 100 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally and the gavage applied daily for 28 days. The sperm parameters, spermatogenesis index, total antioxidant capacity, testosterone level, and seminiferous tube diameter were assessed.

Results: The values of all parameters reduced significantly in the DMN control group compared to the normal control group (p 0.001). The PX and PX + DMN treatments at all entirely doses improved all parameters significantly compared to the DMN control group (p 0.001).

Conclusion: DMN caused detrimental effects on reproductive parameters. Also, no significant modifications were observed in PX treatments at all doses compared to the normal control group. PX compensated the toxic effect of DMN on reproductive parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v17i10.5292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6844288PMC
October 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Resveratrol attenuates malathion-induced liver damage by reducing oxidative stress.

J Lab Physicians 2019 Jul-Sep;11(3):212-219

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide which disrupts the antioxidant system of the body. Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen and antioxidant of the red grape.

Aim And Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of resveratrol against toxic effects of malathion to the liver of rats.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 48 male rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups: control normal (saline) and malathion control-treated groups (50 mg/kg), resveratrol groups (2, 8, and 20 mg/kg), and malathion + resveratrol-treated groups (2, 8, and 20 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days. Griess technique was assessed for determined serum nitrite oxide level. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were determined for liver functional disturbances. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, antioxidant capacity, the diameter of hepatocytes, and the central hepatic vein (CHV) were investigated.

Results: Malathion administration significantly improved liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite oxide level, the mean diameter of CHV and hepatocyte, and liver enzymes and decreased tissue ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) level compared to the normal control group ( < 0.01). The resveratrol and resveratrol + malathion treatments at all doses significantly reduced the mean diameter of hepatocyte and CHV, liver enzymes, kidney MDA, and nitrite oxide levels and increased tissue FRAP level compared to the malathion control group ( < 0.01).

Conclusion: It seems that resveratrol administration improved liver injury induced by malathion in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JLP.JLP_43_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771320PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Extract Attenuates Ethanol-induced Renal Damage by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2019 Jul-Sep;11(3):268-275

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Alcohol consumption is capable of producing free radicals and inducing disturbance in body antioxidant. () is a vegetable and it has beneficial antioxidant effects.

Materials And Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups ( = 6): control normal (saline) and ethanol (5g EtOH/kg body weight/24h) control groups, groups (50, 100, and 150mg/kg), and + ethanol treated groups (50, 100, and 150mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally and through gavage daily for 12 weeks. Parameters related to the function and the histology of the kidneys were evaluated and statistically analyzed from kidney and blood serum samples with respect to the groups.

Results: Ethanol administration increased significantly Bowman's space, qualitative histopathology indices, kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) level, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and nitrite oxide levels and decreased significantly total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level and diameter and number of renal corpuscles compared to that in the control normal group ( < 0.001). The and + ethanol treatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced significantly Bowman's space, qualitative histopathology indices, kidney MDA level, BUN, creatinine, and nitrite oxide levels and increased significantly TAC level and diameter and number of renal corpuscles compared to that in the ethanol normal group ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: It seems that administration in a dose-dependent manner improved kidney injury induced by ethanol in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_134_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662036PMC
September 2019

Toxic Effects of Methotrexate on Rat Kidney Recovered by Crocin as a Consequence of Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Peroxidation Prevention

Iran Biomed J 2020 01 28;24(1):39-46. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The application of methotrexate (MTX) as a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant has various side effects. Crocin, a xanthine derivative plant, has many therapeutic benefits. This study was planned to assess the effect of crocin on renal toxicity of MTX in a rat model.

Methods: Forty eight rats were divided randomly into eight groups (n = 6), which received normal saline, MTX, crocin, and MTX + crocin for 28 days intraperitoneally. The levels of oxidative stress in kidney and blood serum were measured, and the kidney was analyzed histologically.

Results: MTX caused an enhancement in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and biochemical marker (creatinine and BUN). Besides, a significant decrease was observed in tissue parameters and antioxidant capacity compared to the normal control group (p < 0.001). The crocin and crocin + MTX decreased the biochemical markers, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, and tissue parameters considerably at entire dose (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) and enhanced the antioxidant capacity levels compared to the MTX group (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Administration of crocin improves the damage caused by MTX in rats. The crocin by the establishment of balance in the levels of antioxidant prevents the damage to the renal cell membrane, and subsequently the renal damage repairs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900476PMC
January 2020

Effect of Harmine on Nicotine-Induced Kidney Dysfunction in Male Mice.

Int J Prev Med 2019 7;10:97. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Daneshgah Ave., Taghbostan, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The nicotine content of cigarettes plays a key role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Harmine is a harmal-derived alkaloid with antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of harmine against nicotine-induced damage to the kidneys of mice.

Methods: In this study, 64 male mice were randomly assigned to eight groups: saline and nicotine-treated groups (2.5 mg/kg), harmine groups (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg), and nicotine (2.5 mg/kg) + harmine-treated groups (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally daily for 28 days. The weights of the mice and their kidneys, kidney index, glomeruli characteristics, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, antioxidant capacity, kidney function indicators, and serum nitrite oxide levels were investigated.

Results: Nicotine administration significantly improved kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) level, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and nitrite oxide levels and decreased glomeruli number and tissue ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) level compared to the saline group ( < 0.05). The harmine and harmine + nicotine treatments at all doses significantly reduced BUN, kidney MDA level, creatinine, glomerular diameter, and nitrite oxide levels and increased the glomeruli number and tissue FRAP level compared to the nicotine group ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: It seems that harmine administration improved kidney injury induced by nicotine in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_85_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6592107PMC
June 2019

Genistein improve nicotine toxicity on male mice pancreas.

Anat Cell Biol 2019 Jun 30;52(2):183-190. Epub 2019 Jun 30.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Nicotine is the most toxic factor of tobacco. Genistein is a phytoestrogen and antioxidant that has numerous health benefits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of genistein against toxic properties of nicotine to the pancreas of mice. For this purpose, 48 male mice were randomly assigned into six groups (n=8): normal control, nicotine control (2.5 mg/kg), genistein (25 and 50 mg/kg), and nicotine+genistein (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups. Various doses of genistein and genistein+nicotine were administered intraperitoneally to animals for 4 weeks. The weight of pancreas, total antioxidant capacity and nitrite oxide of serum, insulin levels, and the number and diameter of islets of Langerhans were investigated. Nicotine administration reduced significantly total antioxidant capacity, insulin, pancreas weight, and the number and diameter of islets of Langerhans and increased nitrite oxide in serum compared to the control normal group (<0.05). Conversely, genistein and genistein+nicotine increased significantly insulin, total antioxidant capacity, and the number and diameter islets of Langerhans and decreased serum nitrite oxide compared to the nicotine control group. It seems that the genistein can improve pancreas damage following the nicotine administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.2019.52.2.183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6624331PMC
June 2019

Effect of on oxidative damage of liver in diabetic rats.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2019 Jun 9;18(1):15-23. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

3Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development of diabetes mellitus. , contains antioxidant ingredients. This study was designed in order to evaluate the effect of on the damaged liver in diabetic rats.

Methods: In this study, hydroalcoholic extract of was prepared. Sixty four male rats were divided into 8 groups ( = 8), including saline (normal control), streptozotocin (STZ) (diabetic control) (60 mg/kg), (50, 100, 150 mg/kg), and STZ plus (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) were administered through oral gavage on treated group once a day for 28 consecutive days. Serum nitrite oxide (NO) level, Ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), Malondialdehyde (MDA), liver weight, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), diameter of hepatocytes and central hepatic vein have been examined. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the post hoc test.

Result: The outcomes showed that administrating streptozotocin enhanced liver MDA, nitrite oxide, the mean diameter of central hepatic vein and hepatocyte, liver enzymes significantly and reduced liver weight compared to saline group ( < 0.05). Though, administrating and plus STZ enhanced liver weight and tissue FRAP level significantly and reduced liver enzymes, NO levels, liver MDA, the mean diameter of hepatocyte and central hepatic vein in entire doses were equal to STZ group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: It seems that, were equal might recover liver injuries in diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-019-00385-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582102PMC
June 2019

Can royal jelly protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats?

Chin J Physiol 2019 May-Jun;62(3):131-137

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee secretion, has numerous medicinal properties in particular antioxidant activities. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the main challenges in acute kidney damage. This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of RJ against I/R-induced renal disorders. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) as sham (0.9% saline) group, I/R group, RJ group (treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day RJ), and I/R + RJ group that were pretreated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day of RJ. The I/R-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by determining leukocyte infiltration and mRNA expression level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α). Antioxidant capacity of kidneys and thiobarbituric acid reactive species was measured in kidneys for the evaluation of oxidative stress. In addition, the diameter of renal glomeruli, kidney function indicators, and serum nitrite oxide (NO) levels was determined. The I/R increased the completely measured parameters, except the tissue ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) level, which was decreased compared to the sham group (P < 0.05). However, pretreatment with RJ reduced significantly blood urea nitrogen, kidney malondialdehyde, creatinine, glomerular diameter, leukocyte infiltration, levels of TNF-α, adhesion molecule-1 expression, and NO and increased tissue FRAP compared to the I/R group (P < 0.05). It seems that RJ administration improved I/R-induced acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/CJP.CJP_36_19DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect of Falcaria Vulgaris on Milk Production Parameters in Female Rats' Mammary Glands.

J Family Reprod Health 2018 Dec;12(4):177-183

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Falcaria Vulgaris (F.Vulgaris) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine, containing essential amino acids, vitamins and numerous nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of F.Vulgaris on the on the milk production parameters in rats. In this experimental study, 32 wistar female rats were equally divided into 4 groups; group1, control group and group2-4, experimental groups by various doses of F.Vulgaris (20, 50, 100 mg/kg) injected interaperitoneally once a day for 21 consecutive days. The milk production parameters including, diameter and number of alveoli, prolactin hormone level and receptor prolactin (PRLR) gene expression in mammillary gland tissue were measured and compared. The results indicated that F.Vulgaris significantly increased diameter and number of alveoli, prolactin hormone level and PRLR gene expression compared to control group (p < 0.05). F.Vulgaris extract has positive effects on the milk production parameters in mammary glands.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581660PMC
December 2018

Plasma Leptin Does Not Reflect the Effect of High Body Mass Index on Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Immunol Invest 2020 Feb 21;49(1-2):32-45. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Professor of Medical Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

: The effect of obesity on disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial. Adipocytes secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines which may contribute to RA disease activity. The goal of the present study is to address the association between body mass index (BMI) with plasma levels of leptin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and RA disease severity.: Fifty RA patients (20 newly diagnosed and 30 under treatment) as well as 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in this survey. The plasma levels of leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, were measured, and the results were compared among the patients in the three different categories of BMI, including <25, ≥25-30, and ≥30.: In our study, a significant positive correlation was observed between disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) and BMI in overweight (OW) RA patients ( .036  = 0.440). The plasma levels of leptin were significantly higher in patients group, compared to healthy subjects ( < .05); moreover, leptin levels were significantly higher in OW and obese patients compared to RA patients with normal BMI (.011, = .001, respectively) and also BMI had positive correlation with leptin concentrations just in the newly diagnosed patients ( < .0001, = 0.748). There was no correlation between leptin and DAS-28. The plasma IL-6 and TNF-α did not show significant differences between RA patients and healthy subjects, and also the plasma leptin did not have any correlation with plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α.: BMI contribution to RA disease severity is independent of systemic levels of leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2019.1631844DOI Listing
February 2020

Harmine shows therapeutic activity on nicotine-induced liver failure in mice.

Histol Histopathol 2019 Oct 3;34(10):1185-1193. Epub 2019 May 3.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

This experiment evaluated the effects of harmine against nicotine-induced damage to the liver of mice. Nicotine is a major toxic component of cigarette smoke and a major risk factor for functional disorders in the liver, because it induces oxidative stress. Harmine is a harmal-derived alkaloid with therapeutic and antioxidant properties. In this study, 80 male mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups: the normal control and nicotine control groups (2.5 mg/kg); the harmine groups (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg), and the nicotine + harmine groups (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally daily for 28 days. Nitric oxide (NO) level, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations were determined. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, antioxidant capacity, and the diameters of the hepatocytes and central hepatic vein (CHV) were investigated. Nicotine administration significantly improved liver MDA and NO levels, CHV and hepatocyte diameters, and liver enzymes, and it decreased tissue FRAP levels compared to the normal control group (p<0.05). In the harmine and harmine + nicotine groups, in all dosages, all measured factors decreased significantly, while the FRAP tissue level increased compared with the nicotine control group (p<0.05). It seems that liver injury was improved by harmine administration in mice because of nicotine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-122DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of pentoxifylline on kidney damage induced by nitrosamine in male rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2019 Feb;14(1):64-73

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran.

Nitrosamines are well-known carcinogenic agents. Humans are exposed to nitrosamines in various ways, the most important of which is the diet. Pentoxifylline is a xanthine derivative, which is used as a drug that inhibits inflammatory factors, reduces blood viscosity, improves peripheral blood flow, and increases oxygenation of tissue. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline against damage induced by nitrosamine to the kidneys of rats. In this study, 48 male rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups: control normal group and nitrosamine control treated group (40 mg/kg); pentoxifylline groups (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and nitrosamine + pentoxifylline treated groups (25, 50, 100 mg/kg). Treatments were administered either intraperitoneally (nitrosamine) or orally (pentoxifylline) on a daily basis for 28 days. The normalized kidney weight, glomeruli characteristics, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, antioxidant capacity, kidney function indicators, and serum nitrite oxide levels were investigated. Nitrosamine administration increased kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) level, kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and nitrite oxide levels and decreased significantly glomeruli number and tissue ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) level compared to the control normal group ( < 0.05). The pentoxifylline and pentoxifylline + nitrosamine treatments reduced BUN, kidney MDA level, creatinine, glomerular diameter, and nitrite oxide levels significantly at all doses and increased the glomeruli number, kidney weight, and tissue FRAP level compared to the nitrosamine control group ( < 0.05). It seems that pentoxifylline administration improved kidney injury induced by nitrosamine in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.251854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407339PMC
February 2019

Effects of Crocin on Sperm Parameters and Seminiferous Tubules in Diabetic Rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2019 31;8. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Diabetes can increase the generation of free radicals and can be harmfully effective in spermatogenesis. Crocin is a carotenoid and is accountable for the red color of saffron. Crocin has shown numerous pharmacological actions such as antioxidant roles and radical scavenging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of crocin on sperm parameters and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, diabetic rats were induced by Streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg). Sixty-four rats were equally divided into the following eight groups; (1) normal control group, (2-4) crocin groups, receiving various doses of crocin (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg), (5) diabetic control group, and (6-8) diabetic groups, receiving STZ plus crocin (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The sperm count, motility, morphology, viability, spermatogenesis index (SI), and the diameter of seminiferous tubules were examined and compared.

Results: The results demonstrated that count, motility, viability, normal sperm morphology, SI, and the diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased significantly in the diabetic control group compared to the normal control group ( < 0.05). However, in the diabetic groups, count, motility, normal morphology, viability, SI, and the diameter of seminiferous tubules enhanced significantly in total doses compared to those of the diabetic control group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: It seems that, as a strong antioxidant, crocin could compensate for the toxicity induced through STZ and raise the quality of some sperm parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_124_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385561PMC
January 2019

Synergistic effects of TIMP2-418G/C and MMP9-1562C/T variants on the male infertility risk.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Feb 4;46(1):861-866. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Medical Biology Research Center (MBRC), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) involve in the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that imbalances their activity and may lead to various diseases. The present study aims to evaluate the association between MMP9-1562C/T and TIMP2-418G/C variants and synergistic effects of both variants on male infertility in an Iranian population. We analyzed these polymorphisms in 101 infertile men and 106 fertile men as a control group using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Based on the obtained results, no considerable association was observed in MMP9-1562C/T polymorphism frequency between infertile men and controls while frequencies of TIMP2-418G/C variant were significantly different in infertile and control groups (P = 0.028). Men with CC, GC and CC + GC genotypes for TIMP2-418G/C polymorphism had an increased risk of infertility compared to men with GG genotype [OR = 1.85, 95% CI (0.917-3.734, P = 0.086), OR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.098-3.437, P = 0.023) and OR = 2.053 95% CI (1.179-3.577, P = 0.011), respectively]. Also, in the presence of both TIMP2-418C and MMP9-1562T alleles the male infertility risk was significantly increased (P = 0.032). The current study suggests that the variation of TIMP2 gene and its interaction with MMP9 gene might be associated with male infertility. However, to confirm these findings, further studies are required in different ethnicities and with a larger sample size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4541-9DOI Listing
February 2019