Publications by authors named "Mohammad Reza Fakoorziba"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effectiveness of Paromomycin on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Med Sci 2019 May;44(3):185-195

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Research Centre for Health Sciences, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Some treatment reported for cutaneous leishmaniasis. The studies examined the impact of the paromomycin has different characteristics and results. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of paromomycin in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

Methods: Literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, Magiran, Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (from February 2000 to May 2016), and references cited in the text of selected studies. Search terms used were "paromomycin", "cutaneous leishmaniasis", "randomized"," aminosidine", "controlled trial", and "clinical trial". Random effects models were used to calculate the measure of association, with 95% confidence intervals, to analyze the efficacy of paromomycin in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Results: Initial search yielded 76 citations. Of these original results, 9 met our specific selection criteria. Four of the randomized controlled trials compared the efficacy of paromomycin in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with that of a placebo; they were included in the meta-analysis. The success rate of treatment with paromomycin was higher than that with the placebo (pooled RR=4.50, 95% CI: 2.54 to 8.02; P=0.001 and I=26.7%), whereas the difference with the non-placebo treatments was nonsignificant (pooled RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.073; P=0.131 and I=83.3%).

Conclusion: No significant difference was observed between paromomycin and the other treatments in their effectiveness in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Because no single drug is effective against all the forms of leishmaniasis, we suggest multidrug therapy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6525728PMC
May 2019

Faunal Distribution and Seasonal Bio-Ecology of Naturally Infected Sand Flies in a New Endemic Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus of Southern Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2016 Dec 4;10(4):560-568. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

Research Centre for Health Sciences, Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Iran in spite of implementation of control program. This infectious disease caused morbidity in less than 27000 people in 2010. This study was set to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in Fasa district, Fars Province, southern Iran during 2011-2012.

Methods: A total of 4792 sand flies were captured by means of sticky paper and CDC miniature light traps in 10 selected villages from the beginning to the end of the active season, from which 1115 specimens were captured for abundance study and 3677 specimens captured for monitoring monthly activities in Fasa. After species identification, extracted DNA was processed for detection of parasite infection in sand flies.

Results: Twelve species (6 , 6 ) were identified. The most common sand fly was (82.4%) which represented 86.6% of sand flies from indoors and 82.7% from outdoors. The monthly activity of the species extended from April to the end of November. There were two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in September. Natural infection to was detected in (25 out of 130 sand flies, 19.2%)

Conclusion: is considered as a main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fasa, Fars Province, south of Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5186746PMC
December 2016

In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. using cell sensitivity and flow cytometry assays.

J Parasit Dis 2016 Sep 20;40(3):735-40. Epub 2014 Sep 20.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Research Centre for Health Sciences, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71645-111, Shiraz, Iran.

Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected human diseases with an estimated global burden ranking second in mortality and fourth in morbidity among the tropical infections. Chemotherapy involving the use of drugs like glucantime is the mainstay treatment in endemic areas of Iran. Drug resistance is increasingly prevalent, so search for alternative therapy is gathering pace. Medicinal herbs, like wormwood Artemisia, have chemical compounds effective against a number of pathogens. In this study, the efficacy of ethanol extract from Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. was investigated in vitro. The outcome of different effective doses (1-40 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts from this medicinal herb, A. absinthium, on a standard Iranian parasite strain of L. major was examined. The L. major promastigote cell sensitivity and mortality or viability effects due to the addition of herbal extract were measured using the MTT assay and the flow cytometry technique, respectively. There was complete agreement between the two assays. The lethal concentration (LC50) was measured as 101 mg/ml. Some contrasting relationships between the medicinal herb concentrations and the viability of parasites were observed; so that there was an increased multiplication of the parasite at low concentrations of the drug, but an anti-parasitic apoptotic effect was seen at high concentrations of A. absinthium. It was concluded that there might be one or more chemical constituents within the herbal extract of wormwood which at high concentration controlled cell division and affected the relevant activity within the only one giant mitochondrion in this flagellate parasite. At low doses, however, it showed the opposite effect of leading to mitotic cell divisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0569-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996182PMC
September 2016

Faunal distribution of fleas and their blood-feeding preferences using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays from farm animals and human shelters in a new rural region of southern Iran.

J Parasit Dis 2016 Mar 25;40(1):169-75. Epub 2014 May 25.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71645-111, Shiraz, Iran.

Blood sucking insects, such as fleas, are responsible for the transmission of many infectious disease-causing agents which impose an intolerable burden on the health of people living particularly in endemic parts of the world. Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are found in many parts of the world including Iran. Both adult male and female fleas are obligatory ectoparasites. They are one of the main public health concerns as a result of their nuisance or the potential to act as vectors of a number of medically-important pathogens. The current study was conducted to examine the geographical distribution and fauna of fleas and their anthropophagic index in part of Fars province, southern Iran. This study was the first to be done in Iran. A total of 20 villages were randomly selected. From October 2011 to May 2012, adult fleas were collected by direct hand catch from human to animal shelters. Overall 848 fleas, most of which were blood-fed, were captured from the floor or the body of farm animal hosts (cattle, sheep, goat and hens). Only two different genera of fleas were identified, the main species (99.76 %) was human flea, Pulex irritans. The village of Shamsabad was the most heavily infested area. P. irritans had an anthropophagic index of 15 % using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). It could be concluded that P. irritans is widely distributed in this area. Based on their blood feeding activity, fleas thus posed a serious health threat to residents and their economically important livestock in this part of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0471-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4815862PMC
March 2016

First phylogenetic analysis of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome in naturally infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

Arch Virol 2015 May 6;160(5):1197-209. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Research Centre for Health Sciences, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71645-111, Shiraz, Iran,

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal systemic viral disease in many parts of the world, including Iran. The nationwide incidence of human CCHF in endemic areas was 870 confirmed cases with 126 deaths (case fatality rate, CFR = 17.6 %) in the decade leading to 2012. The detection of the CCHF virus (CCHFV) genome in tick vectors is of fundamental importance for identifying these ticks as potential reservoirs of CCHFV infection. From May to October 2013, following detection of four new clinical cases resulting in two deaths in the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran), hard ticks were recovered from infested livestock in 40 villages in Khorasan-Razavi province and examined by the microscopic method for species identification. About a quarter of the ticks were then subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the CCHFV genome. The PCR products were then sequenced, and their phylogenetic lineages were determined. A total of 407 hard ticks were captured, representing seven different species in two distinct genera. Members of the genus Hyalomma were widely distributed in all but two of the villages studied, and this was also the most frequent (83.3 %) tick genus. Of 105 adult ticks subjected to RT-PCR, four (3.8 %) ticks were found positive for the CCHFV genome. One brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, was found to be naturally infected for the first time anywhere in the world. Ticks of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus turanicus were also found to be naturally infected with CCHFV. CCHFV found in these four different tick species were clustered in the same lineage with the Matin and SR3 strains from Pakistan and some other strains from Iran, indicating that these tick species were naturally infected with genetically closely related CCHFV in the region. The presence of CCHFV infection in four different hard tick species was confirmed using RT-PCR in northeast Iran. Part of this infection was attributed to Rh. appendiculatus, which is thus a potential new natural vector of CCHFV in Iran. It is also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that CCHFV in this region is genetically closely related, even in the different tick species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-015-2379-1DOI Listing
May 2015

Nosocomial myiasis with Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in an ICU patient in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2014 Jul;17(7):523-5

Department of Medical Entomology, Research Centre for Health Sciences, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Myiasis is the invasion of larvae to human or animal live tissues by flies belonging to the order Diptera and families like Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oesteridae, etc. Although rare, nosocomial myiasis must be noted carefully, especially in case of hospitalized patients. A 63-year old man admitted to an ICU ward in Mashhad is investigated and presented in this research. On the 35(th) day of hospitalization, about 100 larvae 6-7 mm in length, yellow to cream and fusiform were observed around the tracheotomy site. They were identified as second instar larvae of Lucilia genus of the family Calliphoridae based on morphological characters of the larvae. However, for exact identification of the species, the emerging adults must also be tested. According to the standard key of adult flies, they were identified as Lucilia sericata.
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http://dx.doi.org/0141707/AIM.0015DOI Listing
July 2014

Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence- based detection of leishmania infection of sand flies in recently emerged endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern iran.

Iran J Med Sci 2013 Jun;38(2 Suppl):156-62

Department of Medical Entomology, Research Centre for Health Sciences, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

Background: Geographical distribution of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) has continuously been extended in recent years in Iran. The Beiza District is one of the newly-emerged endemic foci of ZCL in southern Iran. The main aim of the present study was to detect the vector(s) of ZCL in this area.

Methods: To detect the fauna and vectors of ZCL in this district, sand flies were caught using sticky papers. Seventy randomly selected female sand flies out of 730 were molecularly investigated for Leishmania infection using species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay between April and October 2010.

Results: A total of 2543 sand flies were caught. The fauna was identified as 10 species (five Phlebotomus spp. and five Sergentomyia spp.). Phlebotomus papatasi was the most dominant species both indoors and outdoors (37.55% and 16.35 %, respectively). L. major was detected in 5 out of 48 investigated Phlebotomus papatasi (10.41%). Sequence-based characterization was carried out to confirm the PCR findings. The positive samples were shown to have 75-88% similarity with L. major sequences in GenBank.

Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, similar to the other foci of ZCL in Iran, P. papatasi is the proven and primary vector of CL. This study could be drawn upon for future strategy planning in this newly emerged endemic focus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771217PMC
June 2013

Molecular detection of Leishmania major kDNA from wild rodents in a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in an Oriental region of Iran.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012 Oct 31;12(10):844-50. Epub 2012 May 31.

Department of Medical Entomology, School of Health and Nutrition, Research Centre for Health Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Human cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most challenging public health issues in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world, including Iran. More than half (54%) of the new zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) cases among the Eastern Mediterranean countries were reported from Iran in 2008. The detection of Leishmania parasites in rodents is essential to incriminate them as probable reservoir hosts of ZCL infection. As a result of the annual detection of about 200-250 clinical ZCL cases in the Jask district of southern Iran, feral rodents were trapped, identified to species level, and examined for Leishmania presence by preparing routine blood smears on microscopic slides from 2007 to 2008. Overall, 27 Tatera indica, 17 Gerbillus nanus, 29 Meriones persicus, 26 M. hurrianae, and 7 M. libycus were identified. Females of T. indica, M. hurrianae, and G. nanus appeared to be naturally infected with the protozoan parasite, L. major. This is the first report of microscopic and molecular detection of this trypanosomatid parasite infecting these three rodents reported from Hormozgan province in southeast Iran. More than three-quarters (82%) of the parasite-infected rodents came from the eastern plain of this province, but none of the other rodents were found to be smear-positive or kinetoplast DNA-positive by PCR. M. hurrianae, G. nanus, and T. indica are therefore incriminated as three potential reservoir hosts of L. major in Oriental parts of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0872DOI Listing
October 2012

Reverse transcription PCR-based detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from ticks of domestic ruminants in Kurdistan province of Iran.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012 Sep 31;12(9):794-9. Epub 2012 May 31.

Department of Medical Entomology, School of Health and Nutrition, Research Centre for Health Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal viral vector-borne zoonosis which has a mortality rate of up to 30% without treatment in humans. CCHF virus is transmitted to humans by ticks, predominantly from the Hyalomma genus. Following the report of two confirmed and one suspected death due to CCHF virus in Kurdistan province of Iran in 2007, this study was undertaken to determine the fauna of hard ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) and their possible infection with CCHF virus using reverse transcription PCR technique. This is the first detection of CCHF virus in ticks from the Kurdistan province of Iran. Overall, 414 ixodid ticks were collected from two districts in this province. They represented four genera from which 10 separate species were identified. The Hyalomma genus was the most abundant tick genus (70%). It was the only genus shown to be infected with the CCHF virus using RT-PCR technique. The number of ticks positive for CCHF virus was 5 out of 90 (5.6%) adult ticks. The three remaining genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, and Dermacentor) were all negative following molecular survey. Four of the five virally-infected ticks were from cattle mainly in the Sanandaj district. We concluded that CCHF virus is present in the Hyalomma ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle) in Kurdistan province of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0743DOI Listing
September 2012

Two volatiles from the venom gland of the Samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis.

Toxicon 2009 Jul 13;54(1):80-2. Epub 2009 Mar 13.

Department of Medical Parasitology & Entomology, College of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-331, Tehran, Iran.

Allergy and anaphylactic reactions after the stings of the Samsum ant Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr, 1862) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been reported from several countries along the Persian Gulf coast, but no analysis has been yet carried out on the ant's venom gland secretions. This study is focused on the identification of volatiles from the venom gland of Pachycondyla sennaarensis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which showed the presence of The main volatile components of the venom gland were phenol-2,4-bis(1,1 dimethylethyl) and trimethyl pyrazine. This is the first record of the occurrence of phenol-2,4-bis(1,1 dimethylethyl) in insects. The venom gland secretions of Pachycondyla species are known contain a variety of volatiles, making the members of this genus distinctive among the ponerine ants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.03.005DOI Listing
July 2009

Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Hamedan, Iran.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006 ;37 Suppl 3:95-8

Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Medicine, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.

Pediculus capitis or head-louse infestation has been a worldwide public-health problem, especially among school-aged children. To determine the intensity of infestation (abundance) among schoolchildren, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 schoolchildren (407 girls, 440 boys) aged 6-12 years, from 12 public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Hamedan Province, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p<0.001), head lice were much more common in girls than boys. The results showed significant variations in head lice infestation, and factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb, and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family, and pediculosis in the studied areas (p>0.05). Sex and social factors are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.
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July 2007