Publications by authors named "Mohammad Reza Atashzar"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular imaging in tracking cancer stem cells: A review.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 3;34:90. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Radiologic Sciences and Medical Physics, School of Allied Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have critical roles in tumor development, progression, and recurrence. They are responsible for current cancer treatment failure and remain questionable for the design and development of new therapeutic strategies. With this issue, medical imaging provides several clues for finding biological mechanisms and strategies to treat CSCs. This review aims to summarize current molecular imaging approaches for detecting CSCs. In addition, some promising issues for CSCs finding and explaining biological mechanisms have been addressed. Among the molecular imaging approaches, modalities including Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have the greatest roles and several new approaches such as optical imaging are in progress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.34.90DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711048PMC
August 2020

Tumor cryotherapy using Ice-producing bacteria.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 13;144:110101. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; Student Research Committee, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; Laboratory Sciences Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran. Electronic address:

One of he approaches to cancer treatment is cryotherapy. In this therapy low temperatures lead to freezing and killing the cancer cells. Low temperature has several side effects on the health of tissues. Using bacteria for treatment of cancer as a therapeutic approach is proposed. One of the bacteria is Pseudomonas syringe with ice-producing properties. In this study, we hypothesized that by insertion of INA gene of P. syringe into anaerobic bacteria can do cryotherapy at a low temperature. This hypothesis is based on the manipulated anaerobic bacteria moves to the side of the tumor from ice crystal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110101DOI Listing
November 2020

Mesenchymal stem cells in cancer therapy.

J Cancer Res Ther 2019 Oct-Dec;15(6):1422-1423

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.257983DOI Listing
May 2020

Cancer stem cells: A review from origin to therapeutic implications.

J Cell Physiol 2020 02 8;235(2):790-803. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), are elucidated as cells that can perpetuate themselves via autorestoration. These cells are highly resistant to current therapeutic approaches and are the main reason for cancer recurrence. Radiotherapy has made a lot of contributions to cancer treatment. However, despite continuous achievements, therapy resistance and tumor recurrence are still prevalent in most patients. This resistance might be partly related to the existence of CSCs. In the present study, recent advances in the investigation of different biological properties of CSCs, such as their origin, markers, characteristics, and targeting have been reviewed. We have also focused our discussion on radioresistance and adaptive responses of CSCs and their related extrinsic and intrinsic influential factors. In summary, we suggest CSCs as the prime therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29044DOI Listing
February 2020

Pyrin and Hematopoietic Interferon-Inducible Nuclear Protein Domain Proteins: Innate Immune Sensors for Cytosolic and Nuclear DNA.

Crit Rev Immunol 2019;39(4):275-288

Department of Immunology, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. The response of innate immunity is initiated by molecules known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Such responses are often triggered by nucleic acids that are delivered to the cytoplasm or nucleus of cells. The ability to recognize foreign nucleic acids in these two locations is an important defense mechanism of the human innate immune system. Several PRRs are located in the cytosol or nucleus and detect foreign DNAs. The pyrin and hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear (PYHIN) domain protein is a family of PRRs that includes interferon-inducible protein 16, absent in melanoma 2, PYHIN 1 (or interferon-inducible protein X, as it is also known), myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen, and pyrin domain only protein 3. These nuclear and cytosolic sensors play an essential part in host defense of intracellular pathogens. In addition, members of the PYHIN family are critical regulators of immune response, apoptosis, cell growth, differentiation, and transcription. In this review, we summarize important characteristics of these innate immune sensors and their roles in several diseases. A better understanding of the role of DNA sensors in the nucleus and cytoplasm will lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control infections and associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2020033114DOI Listing
August 2020

Regulatory Effects of Estradiol on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Activation in Patients with Asthma.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Feb;17(1):9-17

Department of Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Asthma prevalence and severity are greater in women than in men, and mounting evidence suggests this is in part related to female steroid sex hormones. Conflicting data are reported regarding pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of estradiol. This study was designed to clarify whether estradiol may contribute to enhanced T helper (Th) 17-associated cytokines production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in asthmatic patients and healthy individuals. PBMCs from patients with asthma and healthy donors were cultured with 17-β estradiol (E2) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure IL-6, IL-17, IL-23 and TGF-β. We observed a significant increased IL-17, IL-23 and TGF-β expression in PBMCs of patients compared to the healthy individuals. In addition, our findings indicated that IL-6 and IL-17 expressions in PBMCs were induced, following E2 treatment. Our results identified an impact of E2 in stimulation of Th17 phenotype, and upon hormonal oscillations and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), asthma inflammation may be mediated by Th17-associated cytokines.
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February 2018

Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in rheumatoid arthritis: Regulatory effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells activation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2017 Jun 30;47:59-69. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells with immunomodulatory properties. The mechanisms by which MSCs inhibit the proliferation of pro-inflammatory T cells have not been fully elucidated yet. It is assumed that pro-inflammatory T-cells play an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases. We investigated the potential therapeutic effects of human adipose tissue derived (Ad)-MSCs on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy individuals, with a particular focus on Th17-associated cytokines.

Materials And Methods: PBMCs from RA patients and healthy donors were co-cultured with Ad-MSCs and HeLa with or without Phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Finally, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β levels were determined by ELISA and quantitative real-time RT-PCR on co-culture supernatants and PBMCs, respectively.

Results: In co-culture interaction, Ad-MSCs inhibited IL-17 secretion by PBMCs compared to unstimulated PBMCs cultured alone. In addition, IL-21 expressions in PBMCs of the patient group, and IL-17 and IL-21 in healthy group were inhibited by Ad-MSCs compared to PBMCs cultured alone. TGF-β expression in healthy individuals remarkably increased in both MSC-treated groups with and without PHA in comparison to PHA-stimulated and -unstimulated PBMCs.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that human Ad-MSCs act as key regulators of immune tolerance by inhibiting the inflammation. Therefore, they can be attractive candidates for immunomodulatory cell-based therapy in RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2017.03.016DOI Listing
June 2017

Elevated IL-17 and TGF-β Serum Levels: A Positive Correlation between T-helper 17 Cell-Related Pro-Inflammatory Responses with Major Depressive Disorder.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2016 Apr;7(2):137-42

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Introduction: Depression is a mental disorder that highly associated with immune system. Therefore, this study compares the serum concentrations of IL-21, IL-17, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) between patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 healthy age-matched controls with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders. The subjects were interviewed face to face according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Depression score was measured using completed Beck Depression Inventory in both groups. The serum concentrations of IL-21, IL-17, and TGF-β were assessed using ELISA.

Results: The mean score of Beck Depression score in the patient and control groups was 35.4±5.5 and 11.1±2.3. IL-17 serum concentrations in the patients and the control group were 10.03±0.6 and 7.6±0.6 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.0002). TGF-β level in the patients group was significantly higher than compare to the control group; 336.7±20.19 vs. 174.8±27.20 pg/mL, (P<0.0001). However, the level of IL-21 was not statistically different between the two groups 84.30±4.57 vs. 84.12±4.15 pg/mL (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Considering pro-inflammatory cytokines, current results support the association of inflammatory response and depressive disorder. So, it seems that pro-inflammatory factors profile can be used as indicator in following of depression progress and its treatment impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15412/J.BCN.03070207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4892318PMC
April 2016

Reduced levels of T-helper 17-associated cytokines in the serum of patients with breast cancer: indicators for following the course of disease.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2016 24;41(1):78-85. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Department of Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells that are known to produce IL-17 have recently been defined as a unique subset of proinflammatory helper cells. Interleukin 17 is an inflammatory cytokine with robust effects on many cells. It can play important roles in the pathogenesis of diverse groups of immune-mediated diseases. In this regard, the present case-control study aimed at determining serum levels of IL-17, IL-6, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in Iranian breast cancer patients. Blood samples were collected from 55 patients with breast cancer and 34 healthy individuals with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders, based on simple sampling. The serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and TGF-β were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum level of IL-6 was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared with healthy individuals (p = 0.0003), and also the IL-17 was lower in the patient group than in controls (p = 0.01). Interestingly, the TGF-β serum level in patients was less than in controls (p < 0.0001). As most of the cases investigated in this study were in their early stages, it can be concluded that reduced IL-17, IL-6, and TGF-β can be used as predictors for clinical stage and prognosis of cancers such as breast carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2016.58819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829824PMC
April 2016