Publications by authors named "Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hot water extract of Pleurotus pulmonarius stalk waste enhances innate immune response and immune-related gene expression in red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis sp. following challenge with pathogen-associated molecular patterns.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jun 19;116:61-73. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Aquatic Animal Health and Therapeutics Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

In aquaculture, commercial fish such as red hybrid tilapia are usually raised at high density to boost the production within a short period of time. This overcrowded environment, however, may cause stress to the cultured fish and increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics are used by fish farmers to overcome these challenges, but this may increase the production cost. Studies have reported on the potential of mushroom polysaccharides that can act as immunostimulants to enhance the immune response and disease resistance in fish. In the current study, hot water extract (HWE) from mushroom stalk waste (MSW) was used to formulate fish feed and hence administered to red hybrid tilapia to observe the activation of immune system. Upon 30 days of feeding, the fish were challenged with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) to mimic bacterial and viral infection, respectively. HWE supplementation promoted better feed utilisation in red hybrid tilapia although it did not increase the body weight gain and specific growth rate compared to the control diet. The innate immunological parameters such as phagocytic activity and respiratory burst activity were significantly higher in HWE-supplemented group than that of the control group following PAMPs challenges. HWE-supplemented diet also resulted in higher mRNA transcription of il1b and tnfa in midgut, spleen and head kidney at 1-day post PAMPs injection. Tlr3 exhibited the highest upregulation in the HWE fed fish injected with poly (I:C). At 3-days post PAMPs injection, both ighm and tcrb expression were upregulated significantly in the spleen and head kidney. Results showed that HWE supplementation enhances the immune responses of red hybrid tilapia and induced a higher serum bactericidal activity against S. agalactiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.06.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Reproductive Toxicity of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on Javanese Medaka (, Bleeker 1854).

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

Compound 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) is a metabolite of several urea herbicides and intermediate chemical of several industrial products. Moreover, 3,4-DCA has been frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems around the world. This aniline is more toxic than the parent chemicals, and it affects non-target organisms. This study evaluated a 21-day reproductive response of an emerging aquatic vertebrate model, Javanese medaka (), exposed to 3,4-DCA. Fecundity and gonads histopathology were observed. The spawning rate and fertilisation reduced significantly in the highest exposed-group (250 µg/L). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) was significantly low in females exposed to 250 µg/L. No substantial structural alteration of male gonads. However, oocyte development and ovarian cell structure were disrupted in 250 µg/L exposed females. The gonadal developmental was not affected in the males; however, a significant reduction in the developmental of female gonads was observed at 250 µg/L. These results show that 3,4-DCA interfere with the reproduction of Javanese medaka through fecundity and alteration of gonadal tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000808PMC
March 2021

Economic contribution and attitude towards alien freshwater ornamental fishes of pet store owners in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

PeerJ 2021 13;9:e10643. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Malaysia is one of the top ten countries in the world that produce freshwater ornamental fishes. This industry can offer better livelihood opportunities to many poor households. However, most of the produced ornamental fishes are alien to Malaysia. In this study, we explore the contribution of alien freshwater fishes to the income of ornamental fish store owners and their attitude towards alien freshwater fishes within Klang Valley, Malaysia. Using a structured questionnaire, we surveyed 70 pet stores out of which 54 (81.42%) store owners responded. Most of the pet store owners were male (72%), Chinese (83%), and the highest educational level was at the secondary level (79%). Most of the pet store owners reported a monthly income of RM 2001-RM 5000 (78%) and were married (73%). Using Chi-square (χ) test, significant relationships ( < 0.05) existed between the attitude of store owners towards alien ornamental fish species versus educational level (χ = 16.424, = 0.007) and contribution of alien ornamental fishes to the pet store owners' income (χ = 27.266, = 0.003). Fish sales as the main income source also related significantly with the impact of fish selling business on income level (χ = 10.448, = 0.007). This study showed that the ornamental fish sales contributed over half of the income (51-100%) from the businesses of store owners. Almost half of the respondents (42%) reported that alien ornamental fish was the highest contributor to their income from the ornamental fish sale. While the mismanagement of alien ornamental fishes could give various negative ecological impacts, the socio-economic benefits of these fishes cannot be denied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811282PMC
January 2021

Antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of isolated from red hybrid tilapia (×) in Malaysia.

Vet World 2020 Oct 16;13(10):2166-2171. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background And Aim: is a major cause of bacterial infections affecting a wide range of warm water fishes worldwide. In Malaysia, isolations from diseased fishes were previously reported; however, with limited information. The present study investigates the antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of isolated from farmed red hybrid tilapia ( spp.) in Malaysia.

Materials And Methods: was biochemically identified and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests. The isolate was then intraperitoneally injected into red hybrid tilapia, and the mortality, clinicopathological changes, and LD were determined up to 240 h post-infection (hpi).

Results: The isolate demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistances (MAR) toward amikacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, and streptomycin, with a MAR index of 0.5. The experimental infection of at 10 CFU/mL in the red hybrid tilapia resulted in 100% mortality at 240 hpi. The LD was determined at 1.1×10 CFU/mL. Infected fish demonstrated occasional erratic swimming patterns, localized hemorrhages and depigmentation on the body and operculum areas, fin erosion, enlargement of the gall bladder, and hemorrhage in internal organs. Microscopic observation of infected fish revealed brain congestion, tubular necrosis, and glomerular shrinkage in the kidneys, necrosis of hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels in the liver.

Conclusion: The high virulence of to the red hybrid tilapia emphasizes the importance of active, on-going monitoring of its prevalence in Malaysian tilapia farming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.2166-2171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704323PMC
October 2020

Embryonic toxicity of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on Javanese medaka ( Bleeker, 1854).

Toxicol Rep 2020 16;7:1039-1045. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Early-life exposure to toxic chemicals causes irreversible morphological and physiological abnormalities that may last for a lifetime. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity effect of 3,4-Dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on Javanese medaka () embryos. Healthy embryos were exposed to various 3,4-DCA concentrations for acute toxicity (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg.L) and sublethal toxicity (0.10, 0.50, 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg.L) for 96 h and 20 days respectively. Acute toxicity test revealed that the median lethal concentration (96h-LC) was 32.87 mg.L (95 % CI = 27.90-38.74, R = 0.95). Sublethal exposure revealed that 1.25 mg.L at 3 days post-exposure (3 dpe) has a significant lower heartrate (120 ± 12.3 beats/min., p < 0.01), while at 7 dpe those exposed to 5 mg.L (141.8 ± 8.3 beats/min) had significantly (p < 0.01) lower heart rate compared to other treatments. Likewise, at 13 dpe, 5.00 mg.L (110.4 ± 17.3 beats/min) and 2.5 mg.L (130.4 ± 8.3 beats/min) were significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to control. None of the embryos in 5.00 mg.L and 2.50 mg.L treatment groups survived at the end of the experiment. The results indicated a concentration-dependent response. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) that exerted developmental deformities was 0.5 mg.L. Javanese medaka embryo have low sensitivity to acute toxicity of 3,4-DCA, but developmental abnormalities at sublethal concentrations were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472802PMC
August 2020

Herbicide Diuron as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) through Histopathalogical Analysis in Gonads of Javanese Medaka (, Bleeker 1854).

Animals (Basel) 2020 Mar 20;10(3). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

The expeditious augmentation of the agriculture industry is leaving a significant negative impact on aquatic ecosystems. However, the awareness of the impacts of herbicide Diuron toxicities on the non-targeted aquatic organism, especially fish is still lacking. Javanese medaka, a new model fish species were exposed under sublethal levels and the long-term effects on gonads were investigated via histological studies. A total of 210 sexually mature fish were exposed to Diuron at seven different concentrations; control, solvent control, 1, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 μg/L for 21 days. In this study, Diuron caused histopathological alterations in gonads (ovary and testis) of Javanese medaka () by decreasing in gonadal staging and maturity of germ cells in oogenesis and spermatogenesis of female and male Javanese medaka. The results obtained in this study had proven our hypothesis that long-term exposure of herbicide Diuron can cause alterations in the gonadal histology of the adults of Javanese medaka.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10030525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142969PMC
March 2020

One hypervirulent clone, sequence type 283, accounts for a large proportion of invasive Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from humans and diseased tilapia in Southeast Asia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 06 27;13(6):e0007421. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background: In 2015, Singapore had the first and only reported foodborne outbreak of invasive disease caused by the group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae). Disease, predominantly septic arthritis and meningitis, was associated with sequence type (ST)283, acquired from eating raw farmed freshwater fish. Although GBS sepsis is well-described in neonates and older adults with co-morbidities, this outbreak affected non-pregnant and younger adults with fewer co-morbidities, suggesting greater virulence. Before 2015 ST283 had only been reported from twenty humans in Hong Kong and two in France, and from one fish in Thailand. We hypothesised that ST283 was causing region-wide infection in Southeast Asia.

Methodology/principal Findings: We performed a literature review, whole genome sequencing on 145 GBS isolates collected from six Southeast Asian countries, and phylogenetic analysis on 7,468 GBS sequences including 227 variants of ST283 from humans and animals. Although almost absent outside Asia, ST283 was found in all invasive Asian collections analysed, from 1995 to 2017. It accounted for 29/38 (76%) human isolates in Lao PDR, 102/139 (73%) in Thailand, 4/13 (31%) in Vietnam, and 167/739 (23%) in Singapore. ST283 and its variants were found in 62/62 (100%) tilapia from 14 outbreak sites in Malaysia and Vietnam, in seven fish species in Singapore markets, and a diseased frog in China.

Conclusions: GBS ST283 is widespread in Southeast Asia, where it accounts for a large proportion of bacteraemic GBS, and causes disease and economic loss in aquaculture. If human ST283 is fishborne, as in the Singapore outbreak, then GBS sepsis in Thailand and Lao PDR is predominantly a foodborne disease. However, whether transmission is from aquaculture to humans, or vice versa, or involves an unidentified reservoir remains unknown. Creation of cross-border collaborations in human and animal health are needed to complete the epidemiological picture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597049PMC
June 2019

Natural Concurrent Infection of Vibrio harveyi and V. alginolyticus in Cultured Hybrid Groupers in Malaysia.

J Aquat Anim Health 2019 03 28;31(1):88-96. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Clinical Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

In September 2016, a marine fish farm operator in Selangor, Malaysia, reported a disease outbreak affecting juvenile hybrid groupers (Camouflage Grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion × Tiger Grouper E. fuscoguttatus). The average daily mortality was 120 fish, resulting in a cumulative mortality rate of 29% within 10 d. The affected hybrid groupers displayed lethargy, excessive mucus production, rotten fins, congestion of livers and kidneys, and enlargement of spleens. Microscopically, general congestion of the brains and internal organs was evident. Vibrio harveyi and V. alginolyticus were successfully isolated from the diseased fish. The isolated pathogens were found to be sensitive to oxytetracycline and tetracycline, but resistant towards ampicillin and vancomycin. Experimental infections using the isolated V. harveyi (10  CFU/mL), V. alginolyticus (10  CFU/mL), and concurrent infection by V. harveyi (10  CFU/mL) and V. alginolyticus (10  CFU/mL) in juvenile Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer resulted in 60, 100, and 100% mortality, respectively, within 240 h postinfection. The experimentally infected Asian Seabass demonstrated similar clinical signs and histopathological changes as the naturally infected hybrid groupers. However, concurrently infected fish demonstrated severe clinical signs and histopathological changes compared with single infections. These results suggest that both isolates of Vibrio are pathogenic to fish and responsible for the disease outbreak. However, concurrent infection involving V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi leads to a more devastating impact to the cultured fish. This is the first report of concurrent Vibrio infection in cultured marine fish in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aah.10055DOI Listing
March 2019

Acute toxicity test of copper pyrithione on Javanese medaka and the behavioural stress symptoms.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Feb 6;127:150-153. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study was conducted to investigate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of copper pyrithione (CuPT) at 96-hr exposure on adult Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus) in revealing toxicological effects of CuPT contamination in the tropical area. Wild stock fishes were acclimatized for 14-days prior analysis. Triplicate of test tanks for seven test concentrations were placed with ten fishes each, this includes two control tanks. The behaviour of the tested fishes was manually observed through a camera. The LC50 of CuPT at 96-h was found to be 16.58mg/L. Tested fishes swam slowly in vertical movement and swam fast towards food during feeding time as the sign of stress behaviour. Meanwhile, fishes in the two control groups swam actively in a horizontal manner and no excitement during feeding time. No mortality in control groups. Results indicate CuPT to be toxic to Javanese medaka at low concentration and caused behavioural stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.11.046DOI Listing
February 2018

Histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 23;2014:312670. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study was conducted to record the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia. The gastrointestinal tract was segmented into the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Then, the oesophagus was divided into five (first to fifth), the stomach into two (cardiac and pyloric), and the intestine into four segments (anterior, intermediate, posterior, and rectum) for histological examinations. The stomach had significantly taller villi and thicker inner circular muscles compared to the intestine and oesophagus. The lamina propria was thickest in stomach, significantly when compared with oesophagus, but not with the intestine. However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. The histological features were closely associated with the functions of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of A. b. bicolor are consistent with the feeding habit of a carnivorous fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/312670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4284934PMC
September 2015
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