Publications by authors named "Mohammad Naemi"

5 Publications

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A novel inflammatory signaling pathway in patients with slow coronary flow: NF-κB/IL-1β/nitric oxide.

Cytokine 2021 Apr 7:155511. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: The slow coronary flow (SCF) was identified as delayed opacification of epicardial coronary arteries in the absence of stenotic lesion. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), oxidative stress, and inflammation may be possible known insulting factors for the pathogenesis of SCF. This investigation aimed to assess the relationship between some inflammatory markers, oxidative stress parameters and MetS components with SCF phenomenon.

Methods: A total of 35 patients with SCF and 35 subjects with normal coronary flow (NCF) were included in the study. We assessed some inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, and NF-κB mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)). Moreover, blood samples of the participants were tested for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and nitric oxide (NO) levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Diagnosis of MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATPIII) criteria, 2005. Diagnostic criteria for coronary flow rates of all subjects were documented by thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count method.

Results: SCF patients had significantly higher prevalence of MetS (46%, p = 0.048).We found that the level of TAC was significantly higher in the NCF group (p = 0.006). Furthermore, the NO concentration was significantly lower in SCF groups (p = 0.001). A significant incremental difference was detected in IL-1β (fold change 2.82 ± 0.31, p < 0.05) and NF-κB (fold change 4.62 ± 0.32, p < 0.05) mRNA expression in the SCF group when compared with its level in the NCF group. Furthermore, according to logistic regression analysis, there were significant associations between IL-1β, NF-κB expression levels and the incidence of SCF (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the pathogenesis of the SCF phenomenon may be closely associated with metabolic syndrome and inflammation. The NF-κB/IL-1β/nitric oxide & MetS signaling pathway might be considered as potential therapeutic targets in the management of SCF patients but further researches is required to guarantee these findings.
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April 2021

Total, dietary, and supplemental calcium intake and risk of all-cause cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 22:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between calcium intake and mortality risk. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize available findings on the associations of total, dietary and supplemental calcium intake with all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge until February 2020 to identify eligible publications. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled effect sizes (ESs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for highest versus lowest categories of calcium intake and to incorporate variation between studies. Linear and non-linear dose-response analyses were done to evaluate the dose-response relations between calcium intake and mortality. 36 publications were included in this systematic review and 35 in the meta-analysis. During the follow-up periods ranging from 4.2 to 28 years, the total number of deaths from all causes was 163,657 (83703 from CVD and 83929 from cancer). Total calcium intake was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (Pooled ES for highest v lowest category: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83-0.99, =68.1%,  < 0.001). Dietary calcium intake was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (Pooled ES for highest v lowest category: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, =62.1%,  < 0.001). Supplemental calcium intake was not significantly associated with risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. In the dose-response analysis, there was evidence of nonlinear association between calcium intake and risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. In conclusion, a non-linear association between calcium intake with all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality risk was observed in this meta-analysis. Moderate intake of total (1000-1800), dietary (600-1200), and supplemental calcium (600-1200) was inversely significantly associated with mortality risk but higher calcium intake was not associated with a lower risk of mortality.
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March 2021

Oleoylethanolamide supplementation in obese patients newly diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Effects on metabolic parameters, anthropometric indices, and expression of PPAR-α, UCP1, and UCP2 genes.

Pharmacol Res 2020 06 23;156:104770. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Student Research Committee, Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The effects of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on NAFLD are yet to be examined in human. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of OEA supplementation along with weight loss intervention on the expression of PPAR-α, uncoupling proteins 1and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2) genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), metabolic parameters, and anthropometric indices among obese patients with NAFLD. In this triple-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 76 obese patients newly diagnosed with NAFLD were randomly allocated into either OEA or placebo group along with calorie-restricted diets for 12 weeks. At pre-and post-intervention phase, mRNA expression levels of PPAR-α, UCP1, and UCP2 genes in the PBMCs, serum levels of metabolic parameters as well as diet and appetite sensations were assessed. There was a significant increase in the expression levels of PPAR-α, UCP1, and UCP2 genes in the PBMCs, compared to the placebo at the endpoint. A significant decrease in the anthropometric indices, energy and carbohydrate intakes, glycemic parameters, except for hemoglobin A1c concentration was also observed in the OEA group, compared to the placebo group. OEA treatment significantly resulted in decreased serum levels of triglyceride (TG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST, increased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and improved appetite sensations. Importantly, a significant improvement in TG, ALT, AST, ALT/AST, HDL-C levels as well as appetite sensations by OEA were under the influence of body mass index (BMI). Although liver steatosis severity was significantly reduced in both groups, the between-group differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.061). In conclusion, the present study, for the first time, revealed that OEA supplementation significantly improved anthropometric and metabolic risk factors related to NAFLD.
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June 2020

Polypill for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (PolyIran): study design and rationale for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2015 Dec 17;22(12):1609-17. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Background: The complexity of treatment regimens, costs and pill burden decrease the medication adherence and contribute to shortfall in cardiovascular preventive drug coverage. The polypill, a fixed dose combination pill of established drugs, is expected to increase adherence and reduce the costs whilst preventing major cardiovascular events (MCVE).

Design And Methods: The PolyIran trial is a pragmatic cluster randomized trial nested within the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). Subjects were randomized to either non-pharmacological preventive interventions alone (minimal care arm) or together with a polypill (polypill arm) comprising hydrochlorothiazide, aspirin, atorvastatin and either enalapril or valsartan. This study benefits from the infrastructure of the primary health care system in Iran and the interventions are delivered by the local auxiliary health workers (Behvarz) to the participants. The primary outcome of the study is the occurrence of first MCVE within five years defined as non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, sudden death, heart failure, coronary artery revascularization procedures, and non-fatal and fatal stroke.

Trial Status: From February 2011 to April 2013, 8410 individuals (236 clusters) attended the eligibility assessment. Of those, 3421 in the polypill arm and 3417 in the minimal care arm were eligible. The study is ongoing.

Conclusion: The infrastructure of GCS and the primary health care system in Iran enabled the conduct of this pragmatic large-scale trial. If the polypill strategy proves effective, it may be implemented to prevent cardiovascular disease in developing countries.
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December 2015

Prevalence, awareness and risk factors of hypertension in a large cohort of Iranian adult population.

J Hypertens 2013 Jul;31(7):1364-71; discussion 1371

Digestive Disease Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There is considerable variation in hypertension prevalence and awareness, and their correlates, across different geographic locations and ethnic groups. We performed this cross-sectional analysis on data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS).

Methods: Enrollment in this study occurred in 2004-2008, and included 50,045 healthy individuals from Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. Hypertension was defined as a SBP at least 140 mmHg, a DBP at least 90 mmHg, a prior diagnosis of hypertension, or the use of antihypertensive drugs. Potential correlates of hypertension and its awareness were analyzed by logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, BMI, place of residence, literacy, ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, black and green tea consumption and wealth score.

Results: Of the total cohort participants, 21,350 (42.7%) were hypertensive. Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, using the 2001 WHO standard world population, was 41.8% (95% confidence interval: 38.3-45.2%). Hypertension was directly associated with female sex, increased BMI, Turkmen ethnicity, and lack of physical activity, and inversely associated with drinking black tea and wealth score. Among hypertensive patients, 46.2% were aware of their disease, 17.6% were receiving antihypertensive medication, and 32.1% of the treated patients had controlled hypertension. Hypertension awareness was greater among women, the elderly, overweight and obese patients, and those with a higher wealth score.

Conclusion: Hypertension is highly prevalent in rural Iran, many of the affected individuals are unaware of their disease, and the rate of control by antihypertensive medications is low. Increasing hypertension awareness and access to health services, especially among less privileged residents are recommended.
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July 2013