Publications by authors named "Mohammad Moniruzzaman"

68 Publications

Evaluation of the Partial Replacement of Dietary Fish Meal With Fermented or Untreated Soybean Meal in Juvenile Silver Barb, .

Front Nutr 2021 1;8:733402. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Fisheries Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Fish meal (FM) has excellent protein and lipid profile. However, FM is losing its acceptability and substituted with plant protein due to FM has high price, high demand, and sustainability issues in global aquaculture production. In this study, experimental diets were prepared by substituting FM with fermented soybean meal (FSM) or normal and untreated soybean meal (SM) to assess the effects on growth, hematology, innate immunity, gut physiology, and digestive enzyme activities in juvenile silver barb, . Five diets, that is, 40% FM (FM 40), 20% FM + 20% FSM (FM 20 + FSM 20), 20% FM + 20% SM (FM 20 + SM 20), 40% FSM (FSM 40), and 40% SM (SM 40) were fed to the fish two times daily for 90 days. After 90 days of feeding trial, FM 40, FM 20 + FSM 20, and FM 20 + SM 20 diet groups showed significantly higher weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) compared to the FSM 40 and SM 40 diets. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) were significantly higher in fish fed with the FSM 40 and SM 40 diets than those of fish fed with the FM 40 diet. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte count were significantly lower in fish fed with the SM 40 diet compared to fish fed with the FM 40 and FM 20 + FSM 20 diets. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver were significantly higher in fish fed with the SM 40 diet compared to fish fed with the FM 40 diet. However, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in fish fed with the experimental diets were unaltered. Fish showed significant reduction of villus height (Vh) in the anterior and posterior intestine of fish fed with the FSM 40 and SM 40 diets, whereas muscular thickness was opposite to the findings of Vh. Digestive enzyme activities in intestine were significantly higher in fish fed with the FM 40 diet compared to those in the SM 40 diet. The results of the present study revealed that the 50% of FM can be replaced by FSM or SM as a source of protein without affecting the growth of juvenile silver barb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.733402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8591853PMC
November 2021

A phylogenomic framework for charting the diversity and evolution of giant viruses.

PLoS Biol 2021 Oct 27;19(10):e3001430. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Large DNA viruses of the phylum Nucleocytoviricota have recently emerged as important members of ecosystems around the globe that challenge traditional views of viral complexity. Numerous members of this phylum that cannot be classified within established families have recently been reported, and there is presently a strong need for a robust phylogenomic and taxonomic framework for these viruses. Here, we report a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the Nucleocytoviricota, present a set of giant virus orthologous groups (GVOGs) together with a benchmarked reference phylogeny, and delineate a hierarchical taxonomy within this phylum. We show that the majority of Nucleocytoviricota diversity can be partitioned into 6 orders, 32 families, and 344 genera, substantially expanding the number of currently recognized taxonomic ranks for these viruses. We integrate our results within a taxonomy that has been adopted for all viruses to establish a unifying framework for the study of Nucleocytoviricota diversity, evolution, and environmental distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8575486PMC
October 2021

Assessment of Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Peel (CUP) Flavonoids on LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Oct 18;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Jeju International Animal Research Center (JIA) and Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute (SARI), Jeju National University, Jeju City 63243, Korea.

is a popular medicinal herb in several Asian countries, in particular South Korea. peel (CUP) has several biologically active compounds, including flavonoids. Hence, this research aimed to label the flavonoids from CUP by HPLC-MS/MS analysis and examine their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. A total of four flavonoids (Rutin, naringin, hesperidin, and poncirin) were characterized, and their contents were quantified from CUP. It showed that the naringin is rich in CUP. Further, treatment with the flavonoids at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μg/mL had no effect on the cell viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages. On the other hand, it decreased the production and expression of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as NO, PGE, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX2 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, flavonoids treatment inhibited the NF-κB activation by downregulating the p-p65 and p-IκBα proteins expression. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production considerably decreased at the same concentrations while antioxidant enzyme activity increased in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Collectively, our results show that CUP flavonoids have the potential to decrease inflammation and oxidative damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10102209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8538621PMC
October 2021

Mechanistic Duality of Bacterial Efflux Substrates and Inhibitors: Example of Simple Substituted Cinnamoyl and Naphthyl Amides.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 09 11;7(9):2650-2665. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, United States.

Antibiotic resistance poses an immediate and growing threat to human health. Multidrug efflux pumps are promising targets for overcoming antibiotic resistance with small-molecule therapeutics. Previously, we identified a diaminoquinoline acrylamide, NSC-33353, as a potent inhibitor of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in . This inhibitor potentiates the antibacterial activities of novobiocin and erythromycin upon binding to the membrane fusion protein AcrA. It is also a substrate for efflux and lacks appreciable intrinsic antibacterial activity of its own in wild-type cells. Here, we have modified the substituents of the cinnamoyl group of NSC-33353, giving rise to analogs that retain the ability to inhibit efflux, lost the features of the efflux substrates, and gained antibacterial activity in wild-type cells. The replacement of the cinnamoyl group with naphthyl isosteres generated compounds that lack antibacterial activity but are both excellent efflux pump inhibitors and substrates. Surprisingly, these inhibitors potentiate the antibacterial activity of novobiocin but not erythromycin. Surface plasmon resonance experiments and molecular docking suggest that the replacement of the cinnamoyl group with naphthyl shifts the affinity of the compounds away from AcrA to the AcrB transporter, making them better efflux substrates and changing their mechanism of inhibition. These results provide new insights into the duality of efflux substrate/inhibitor features in chemical scaffolds that will facilitate the development of new efflux pump inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.1c00100DOI Listing
September 2021

Estimated total cardiovascular risk in a rural area of Bangladesh: a household level cross-sectional survey done by local community health workers.

BMJ Open 2021 08 4;11(8):e046195. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Non-Communicable Diseases Control Programme, Directorate General of Health Services, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Bangladeshi rural community residents, using the 2014 WHO/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk prediction charts.

Study Design: Cross-sectional population-based study done by local community healthcare workers engaging the lowest level facilities of the primary healthcare system.

Setting And Participants: A total of 1545 rural adults aged ≥40 years of Debhata upazila of Satkhira district of Bangladesh participated in this survey done in 2015. The community health workers collected data on age, smoking, blood pressure, blood glucose and treatment history of diabetes and hypertension.

Primary Outcome Measures: We estimated total 10-year CVD risk using the WHO/ISH South East Asia Region-D charts without cholesterol and categorised the risk into low (<10%), moderate (10%-19.9%), high (20%-29.9%) and very high (≥30%).

Results: The participants' mean age (±SD) was 53.9±11.6 years. Overall, the 10-year CVD risks (%, 95% CI) were as follows: low risk (81.6%, 95% CI 78.4% to 84.6%), moderate risk (9.9%, 95% CI 7.4% to 12.1%), high risk (5.8%, 95% CI 4.4% to 7.2%) and very high risk (2.8%, 95% CI 1.5% to 4.1%). In women, moderate to very high risks were higher (moderate 12.1%, high 6.1% and very high 3.7%) compared with men (moderate 7.5%, high 5.5% and very high 1.9%) but none of these were statistically significant. The age-standardised prevalence of very high risk increased from 2.9% (0.7%-5.2%) to 8.5% (5%-12%) when those with anti-hypertensive medication having controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mm Hg) added.

Conclusion: The very high-risk estimates could be used for planning resource for CVD prevention programme at upazila level. There is a need for a national level study, covering diversities of rural areas, to contribute to national planning of CVD prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340298PMC
August 2021

High Transcriptional Activity and Diverse Functional Repertoires of Hundreds of Giant Viruses in a Coastal Marine System.

mSystems 2021 Aug 13;6(4):e0029321. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

Viruses belonging to the phylum are globally distributed and include members with notably large genomes and complex functional repertoires. Recent studies have shown that these viruses are particularly diverse and abundant in marine systems, but the magnitude of actively replicating present in ocean habitats remains unclear. In this study, we compiled a curated database of 2,431 genomes and used it to examine the gene expression of these viruses in a 2.5-day metatranscriptomic time-series from surface waters of the California Current. We identified 145 viral genomes with high levels of gene expression, including 90 and 49 viruses. In addition to recovering high expression of core genes involved in information processing that are commonly expressed during viral infection, we also identified transcripts of diverse viral metabolic genes from pathways such as glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway, suggesting that virus-mediated reprogramming of central carbon metabolism is common in oceanic surface waters. Surprisingly, we also identified viral transcripts with homology to actin, myosin, and kinesin domains, suggesting that viruses may use these gene products to manipulate host cytoskeletal dynamics during infection. We performed phylogenetic analysis on the virus-encoded myosin and kinesin proteins, which demonstrated that most belong to deep-branching viral clades, but that others appear to have been acquired from eukaryotes more recently. Our results highlight a remarkable diversity of active in a coastal marine system and underscore the complex functional repertoires expressed by these viruses during infection. The discovery of giant viruses has transformed our understanding of viral complexity. Although viruses have traditionally been viewed as filterable infectious agents that lack metabolism, giant viruses can reach sizes rivalling cellular lineages and possess genomes encoding central metabolic processes. Recent studies have shown that giant viruses are widespread in aquatic systems, but the activity of these viruses and the extent to which they reprogram host physiology remains unclear. Here, we show that numerous giant viruses consistently express central metabolic enzymes in a coastal marine system, including components of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and other pathways involved in nutrient homeostasis. Moreover, we found expression of several viral-encoded actin, myosin, and kinesin genes, indicating viral manipulation of the host cytoskeleton during infection. Our study reveals a high activity of giant viruses in a coastal marine system and indicates they are a diverse and underappreciated component of microbial diversity in the ocean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00293-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407384PMC
August 2021

Electrochemical Synthesis of Cyanoformamides from Trichloroacetonitrile and Secondary Amines Mediated by the B Derivative.

J Org Chem 2021 Nov 17;86(22):16134-16143. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

The B derivative, heptamethyl cobyrinate, -mediated electrochemical synthesis of cyanoformamides has been developed. Aerobic oxygenation of the carbon-centered radical initiated generation of the reactive acyl chloride intermediate, which led to cyanoformamides in the presence of an amine. This one-pot and scalable synthetic method has been demonstrated with 41 examples up to 94% yields with 21 new compounds. The mechanism of electrolysis mediated by the B derivative has been proposed based on the DFT calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c00837DOI Listing
November 2021

Nutritional evaluation of some economically important marine and freshwater mollusc species of Bangladesh.

Heliyon 2021 May 25;7(5):e07088. Epub 2021 May 25.

Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI), Mymensingh 2201, Bangladesh.

Molluscs are the most important resources among all the seafood items in South-East Asian countries. However, very little information available on nutritional value of molluscs in these regions. In this study, we evaluated the 7 economically important species of molluscs in terms of proximate composition, amino acids profile, fatty acids profile, cholesterol and heavy metal contents in the bivalves (mussels, oysters, clams and cockles) and univalve (snail) collected from freshwater and marine environments of Bangladesh. The results of the proximate analyses revealed that significantly higher amount of crude protein contents were present in marine water oysters, clams and cockles (59.3 ± 0.3 to 75.4 ± 0.2%) than the freshwater mussels and snail (36.9 ± 0.4 to 49.6 ± 0.6%) on dry matter basis. However, carbohydrate contents were significantly higher in freshwater mussels and snail (30.2 ± 0.9 to 57.3 ± 0.2%) compared to the marine water bivalves (8.1 ± 0.4 to 20.2 ± 0.6%). Crude lipid contents were ranged from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 11.2 ± 0.1% and ash from 11.4 ± 0.1 to 16.8 ± 0.6% among the bivalves and snail species. The amino acid contents were comparatively higher in marine water bivalves than their freshwater counterparts. Saturated fatty acid contents were found to be higher in marine water bivalves than the freshwater mollusc species. The results also show that the omega-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) fatty acids were comparatively higher in oysters, clams and cockles in marine water than those in freshwater mussels and snail. However, omega-6 fatty acids like linoleic acid (LA), α- linolenic acid (ALA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were higher in freshwater mussels and snail than in the marine bivalves. The n-3/n-6 ratio were significantly higher in oysters and cockle species than the other groups of bivalves and snail. The index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity of the mollusc species ranged from 0.74 ± 0.1 to 1.74 ± 0.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.2, respectively. The results show that marine water bivalves contained higher amount of potassium, sodium, iron, chlorine especially oyster species contained significantly higher iodine than the freshwater bivalves and snail. However, freshwater mussels and snail showed significantly higher amount of zinc contents than the marine bivalves. The heavy metal contents such as arsenic, chromium and mercury were absent or present in very tiny amounts among the mollusc species. Significantly higher amount of cholesterol was present in marine bivalves and freshwater snail species than the freshwater mussels. Overall, the results indicate that marine bivalves can be good sources of high quality protein and lipid especially EPA and DHA. On the other hand, freshwater mussels and snails also could be good sources of protein, LA and ARA but scarcity of EPA and DHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167219PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of Dietary Soluble Extract Hydrolysates with or without Supplementation of Inosine Monophosphate Based on Growth, Hematology, Non-Specific Immune Responses and Disease Resistance in Juvenile Nile Tilapia .

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 12;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Feeds & Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea.

We performed an 8-week feeding trial to evaluate dietary soluble extract hydrolysates from fishery by-products, such as shrimp soluble extract (SSE) with or without inosine monophosphate (IMP), tilapia soluble extract (TSE) and squid soluble extract (SQSE), in juvenile Nile tilapia. A diet without feed additives was used as the control diet (CON); and five other experimental diets were formulated with 2% soluble extracts consisting of 100% SSE, 98% SSE + 2% IMP (SSEP), 96% SSE + 4% IMP (SSEP), 100% SQSE and 100% TSE. The diets were fed to 4.9 ± 0.07 g (mean ± SD) juvenile Nile tilapia in triplicate groups. The weight gain and specific growth rates of fish fed the SSE, SSEP and SSEP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the CON and SQSE diets. The superoxide dismutase activity levels of fish fed the SSE and SSEP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the CON, SSEP, SQSE and TSE diets. Myeloperoxidase activity levels of fish fed the SSE and SSEP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the CON, SSEP and SQSE diets. Lysozyme activity levels of fish fed the SSEP and SQSE diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the SSE and SSEP diets. Feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, survival rate, whole body proximate composition and hematological parameters were not significantly different among the groups. After ten days of challenge = against , the cumulative survival rate of fish fed the SSE diet was significantly higher than those of fish fed the CON, SQSE and TSE diets. In conclusion, dietary shrimp soluble extract could improve the growth performance, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile Nile tilapia, and inosine monophosphate did not add further benefits to this ingredient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11041107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070139PMC
April 2021

Curcumin and Its Modified Formulations on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): The Story So Far and Future Outlook.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 2;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Jeju International Animal Research Center (JIA) and Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute (SARI), Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorder of the small intestine and colon. IBD includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), and it is a major factor for the development of colon cancer, referred to as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). The current treatment of IBD mainly includes the use of synthetic drugs and monoclonal antibodies. However, these drugs have side effects over long-term use, and the high relapse rate restricts their application. In the recent past, many studies had witnessed a surge in applying plant-derived products to manage various diseases, including IBD. Curcumin is a bioactive component derived from a rhizome of turmeric (). Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies show that curcumin may interact with many cellular targets (NF-κB, JAKs/STATs, MAPKs, TNF-γ, IL-6, PPARγ, and TRPV1) and effectively reduce the progression of IBD with promising results. Thus, curcumin is a potential therapeutic agent for patients with IBD once it significantly decreases clinical relapse in patients with quiescent IBD. This review aims to summarize recent advances and provide a comprehensive picture of curcumin's effectiveness in IBD and offer our view on future research on curcumin in IBD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065662PMC
April 2021

Comparative Genomics and Environmental Distribution of Large dsDNA Viruses in the Family .

Front Microbiol 2021 15;12:657471. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, United States.

The family is a group of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) of which African swine fever virus (ASFV) is well-characterized. Recently the discovery of several members other than ASFV has suggested that this family represents a diverse and cosmopolitan group of viruses, but the genomics and distribution of this family have not been studied in detail. To this end we analyzed five complete genomes and 35 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of viruses from this family to shed light on their evolutionary relationships and environmental distribution. The Asfarvirus MAGs derive from diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats, underscoring the broad environmental distribution of this family. We present phylogenetic analyses using conserved marker genes and whole-genome comparison of pairwise average amino acid identity (AAI) values, revealing a high level of genomic divergence across disparate Asfarviruses. Further, we found that genomes encode genes with diverse predicted metabolic roles and detectable sequence homology to proteins in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, highlighting the genomic chimerism that is a salient feature of NCLDV. Our read mapping from Tara oceans metagenomic data also revealed that three MAGs were present in multiple marine samples, indicating that they are widespread in the ocean. In one of these MAGs we identified four marker genes with > 95% AAI to genes sequenced from a virus that infects the dinoflagellate (HcDNAV). This suggests a potential host for this MAG, which would thereby represent a reference genome of a dinoflagellate-infecting giant virus. Together, these results show that are ubiquitous, comprise similar sequence divergence as other NCLDV families, and include several members that are widespread in the ocean and potentially infect ecologically important protists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.657471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005611PMC
March 2021

Curcumin Nanoformulations with Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Jeju International Animal Research Center (JIA) & Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute (SARI), Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

In the past few decades, curcumin, a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has been studied for treating a wide variety of diseases. It has shown promising results as a potential curative agent for a variety of diseases. However, its inherent limitations, such as poor aqueous solubility, poor absorbability, fast metabolic rate, and quick elimination from the body, have limited its application beyond preclinical studies. A huge number of studies have been made to address the issues of curcumin and to maximally utilize its potentials. Many review articles have tried to assess and summarize different nanocarriers, especially organic nanocarriers, for nanoformulations with curcumin. Nevertheless, few exclusive reviews on the progress in nanoformulation of curcumin with inorganic nanomaterials have been made. In this review, we present an exclusive summary of the progress in nanoformulation of curcumin with metal oxide nanoparticles. The beneficial feature of the metal oxide nanoparticles used in the curcumin nanoformulation, the different approaches followed in formulating curcumin with the metal oxides, and the corresponding results, protective effect of curcumin from different metal oxide caused toxicities, and concluding remarks are presented in the review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916858PMC
February 2021

Incorporating ash removal unit in local rice parboiling industries for flue gas cleaning and heat recovery.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 24;286:112172. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Local rice parboiling industries of Bangladesh are burdened with heavy emission. Despite recent modification in the rice-parboiling boiler, the amount of stack emission (especially particulate matter) from local rice parboiling industry is still considerably high to jeopardize public health and environmental sustainability. There is no provision of flue gas cleaning in these industries since flue gas cleaning often requires significant investment, complicated installation and heavy-maintenance. Therefore, a modified flue gas cleaning system, namely Ash removal unit (ARU) was designed for simultaneously and synergistically removing particulate matter (PM), SO, NOx, CO and heat from flue gas of local rice parboiling industries. In this study, ARU was incorporated in a local rice parboiling industry in order to evaluate the co-removal efficiency achieved by the ARU. Installation of ARU eliminated PM from flue gas by 91.8%, while it removed 78.5% SO, 78.3% NOx and 23.9% CO respectively from the emitting stack. Other than flue gas cleaning , ARU also facilitates heat exchange between flue gas and boiler feed water. Hence, flue gas temperature was dropped by 42.1%, while boiler feed water temperature was raised by 36% in 30 min. Moreover, adopting ARU also improved the ambient air quality surrounding the industrial area, since it reduced SO, NOx, SPM, PM2.5 and PM10 level in ambient air by 81.7%, 78.2%, 21.1%, 22.9% and 43.1% respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112172DOI Listing
May 2021

The Whole Is Bigger than the Sum of Its Parts: Drug Transport in the Context of Two Membranes with Active Efflux.

Chem Rev 2021 05 17;121(9):5597-5631. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Stephenson Life Sciences Research Center, University of Oklahoma, 101 Stephenson Parkway, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, United States.

Cell envelope plays a dual role in the life of bacteria by simultaneously protecting it from a hostile environment and facilitating access to beneficial molecules. At the heart of this ability lie the restrictive properties of the cellular membrane augmented by efflux transporters, which preclude intracellular penetration of most molecules except with the help of specialized uptake mediators. Recently, kinetic properties of the cell envelope came into focus driven on one hand by the urgent need in new antibiotics and, on the other hand, by experimental and theoretical advances in studies of transmembrane transport. A notable result from these studies is the development of a kinetic formalism that integrates the Michaelis-Menten behavior of individual transporters with transmembrane diffusion and offers a quantitative basis for the analysis of intracellular penetration of bioactive compounds. This review surveys key experimental and computational approaches to the investigation of transport by individual translocators and in whole cells, summarizes key findings from these studies and outlines implications for antibiotic discovery. Special emphasis is placed on Gram-negative bacteria, whose envelope contains two separate membranes. This feature sets these organisms apart from Gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotic cells by providing them with full benefits of the synergy between slow transmembrane diffusion and active efflux.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369882PMC
May 2021

Effects of physical activities on dementia-related biomarkers: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2020 20;6(1):e12109. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia (CERA) Shiga University of Medical Science Otsu Japan.

Introduction: Physical activities (PA) may lead to improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and dementia. The mechanisms mediating potential PA effects are unknown. Assessment of PA effects on relevant biomarkers may provide insights into mechanisms underlying potential PA effects on cognition.

Methods: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that studied PA effects on biomarkers in MCI, AD, and dementia populations. We examined whether biological mechanisms were hypothesized to explain associations among PA, biomarkers, and cognitive functions. We used the PubMed database and searched for RCTs with PA until October 31, 2019.

Results: Of 653 studies examining changes in biomarkers in PA trials, 18 studies met inclusion criteria for the present review. Some studies found favorable effects of PA on neurotrophic and inflammatory biomarkers. AD pathological markers were rarely investigated, with inconclusive results. Most studies were relatively small in sample size, of limited duration, and not all studies compared the changes in biomarkers between the control and experimental groups.

Discussion: There is only limited use of potentially informative biomarkers in PA trials for MCI, AD, and dementia. Most studies did not examine the role of biomarkers to study associations between PA and cognitive functions in their analyses. Several potential biomarkers remain uninvestigated. Careful use of biomarkers may clarify mechanisms underlying PA effects on cognition. Our review serves as a useful resource for developing future PA RCTs aimed at improving cognitive functions in MCI, AD, and dementias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/trc2.12109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816814PMC
January 2021

ViralRecall-A Flexible Command-Line Tool for the Detection of Giant Virus Signatures in 'Omic Data.

Viruses 2021 Jan 20;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

Giant viruses are widespread in the biosphere and play important roles in biogeochemical cycling and host genome evolution. Also known as nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), these eukaryotic viruses harbor the largest and most complex viral genomes known. Studies have shown that NCLDVs are frequently abundant in metagenomic datasets, and that sequences derived from these viruses can also be found endogenized in diverse eukaryotic genomes. The accurate detection of sequences derived from NCLDVs is therefore of great importance, but this task is challenging owing to both the high level of sequence divergence between NCLDV families and the extraordinarily high diversity of genes encoded in their genomes, including some encoding for metabolic or translation-related functions that are typically found only in cellular lineages. Here, we present ViralRecall, a bioinformatic tool for the identification of NCLDV signatures in 'omic data. This tool leverages a library of giant virus orthologous groups (GVOGs) to identify sequences that bear signatures of NCLDVs. We demonstrate that this tool can effectively identify NCLDV sequences with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we show that it can be useful both for removing contaminating sequences in metagenome-assembled viral genomes as well as the identification of eukaryotic genomic loci that derived from NCLDV. ViralRecall is written in Python 3.5 and is freely available on GitHub: https://github.com/faylward/viralrecall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13020150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909515PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of dietary selenium, vitamin C and E as the multi-antioxidants on the methylmercury intoxicated mice based on mercury bioaccumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial oxidative stress.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 18;273:129673. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Feeds & Foods Nutrition Research Center (FFNRC), Pukyong National University, Busan, 48574, Republic of Korea; FAO-World Fisheries University Pilot Program, Busan, 48574, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Mercury (Hg) in high exposures can be a potent life threatening heavy metal that bioaccumulate in aquatic food-chain mainly as organic methylmercury (MeHg). In this regard, fish and seafood consumptions could be the primary sources of MeHg exposure for human and fish-eating animals. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effects of dietary supplementation of some antioxidants on induced mercury toxicity in mice model. In this study, a 30-day long investigation has been conducted to evaluate the dietary effect of selenium (Se) in combination with vitamin C and vitamin E on methylmercury induced toxicity in mice. Total 54 mice fed the diets with three levels of Hg (0, 50 or 500 μg kg) and two levels of Se in combination with vitamin C and E (Se: 0, 2 mg kg; vitamin C: 0, 400 mg kg; vitamin E: 0, 200 mg kg) in triplicates. The results show that Hg accumulated in blood and different tissues such as muscle, liver and kidney tissues of mice on dose dependent manner. The bioaccumulation pattern of dietary Hg, in decreasing order, kidney > liver > muscle > blood. Superoxide dismutase levels in blood serum showed no significant differences in mice fed the diets. However, dietary antioxidants significantly reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in mice fed the mercury containing diets. Cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activities showed no significant differences as the mercury level increases in liver and kidney tissues of mice. Kaplan-Meier curve showed a dose- and time-dependent survivability of mice. Cumulative survival rate of Hg intoxicated mice fed the antioxidant supplemented diets were increased during the experimental period. Overall, the results showed that dietary Se, vitamin C and vitamin E had no effect on reducing the mercury bioaccumulation in tissues but reduced the serum lipid peroxidation as well as prolonged the cumulative survival rate in terms of high Hg exposures in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129673DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of estradiol on in vitro maturation of buffalo and goat oocytes.

Reprod Med Biol 2021 Jan 25;20(1):62-70. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Animal Science Bangladesh Agricultural University Mymensingh Bangladesh.

Purpose: The effects of estradiol on oocyte development seem to be varied among species. The present study investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol on in vitro maturation of buffalo and goat oocytes.

Methods: Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from large antral follicles of slaughtered buffalo and goat ovaries. COCs were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 µg/mL of 17β-estradiol for in vitro maturation. Then, oocytes were used for the examination of state of nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion.

Results: In both species, oocytes treated with 17β-estradiol showed higher cumulus expansion rate than control (0 µg/mL treated). In buffalo, the percentage of oocytes matured to the metaphase II (MII) stage increased in the concentration-dependent manner of 17β-estradiol. Similarly, estradiol positively influenced nuclear maturation of goat oocytes in vitro.

Conclusions: Estradiol has promoting effects on normalprogress of in vitro oocyte meiosis in buffalos and goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmb2.12350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812509PMC
January 2021

Seven-Day Pedometer-Assessed Step Counts and Brain Volume: A Population-Based Observational Study.

J Phys Act Health 2021 01 11;18(2):157-164. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Background: To investigate the association between step counts and brain volumes (BVs)-global and 6 a priori selected cognition-related regions of interest-in Japanese men aged 40-79 years.

Methods: The authors analyzed data from 680 cognitively intact participants of the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis-a population-based observational study. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors assessed cross-sectional associations between 7-day step counts at baseline (2006-2008) and BVs at follow-up (2012-2015) for age-stratified groups (<60 y and ≥60 y).

Results: In the older adults ≥60 years, step counts at baseline (per 1000 steps) were associated with total BV at follow-up (β = 1.42, P = .022) while adjusted for potential covariates. Regions of interest-based analyses yielded an association of step counts with both prefrontal cortexes (P < .05) in older adults, while the left entorhinal cortex showed marginally significant association (P = .05). No association was observed with hippocampus, parahippocampal, cingulum, and cerebellum. No association was observed in younger adults (<60 y).

Conclusions: The authors found a positive association between 7-day step counts and BVs, including prefrontal cortexes, and left entorhinal cortex in apparently healthy Japanese men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0659DOI Listing
January 2021

Episodic Decrease in Temperature Increases Gene Transcription and Cellular Microcystin in Continuous Cultures of PCC 7806.

Front Microbiol 2020 3;11:601864. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, United States.

Microcystins produced during harmful cyanobacterial blooms are a public health concern. Although patterns are emerging, the environmental cues that stimulate production of microcystin remain confusing, hindering our ability to predict fluctuations in bloom toxicity. In earlier work, growth at cool temperatures relative to optimum (18°C 26°C) was confirmed to increase microcystin quota in batch cultures of NIES-843. Here, we tested this response in PCC 7806 using continuous cultures to examine temporal dynamics and using RNA-sequencing to investigate the physiological nature of the response. A temperature reduction from 26 to 19°C increased microcystin quota ∼2-fold, from an average of ∼464 ag μm cell volume to ∼891 ag μm over a 7-9 d period. Reverting the temperature to 26°C returned the cellular microcystin quota to ∼489 ag μm. Long periods (31-42 d) at 19°C did not increase or decrease microcystin quota beyond that observed at 7-9 d. Nitrogen concentration had little effect on the overall response. RNA sequencing indicated that the decrease in temperature to 19°C induced a classic cold-stress response in PCC 7806, but this operated on a different timescale than the increased microcystin production. Microcystin quota showed a strong 48- to 72-h time-lag correlation to gene expression, but no correlation to concurrent expression. This work confirms an effect of temperature on microcystin quota and extends our understanding of the physiological nature of the response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.601864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744600PMC
December 2020

A potential defense mechanism against amyloid deposition in cerebellum.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 01 16;535:25-32. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Laboratory of Neuropathology, Graduate School of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Amyloid-β (Aβ) is the major component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Senile plaques are generally observed in cerebral cortex (CTX) rather than cerebellum (CBL) in AD patients. However, it is not clear why CBL has less Aβ deposition than CTX. It is very important to elucidate the mechanism of suppressing Aβ deposition in CBL, because it contributes to understanding of not only AD pathogenesis but also prevention and cure of AD. In this study, we explored to figure out the potential mechanism of reducing Aβ deposition in CBL. We observed higher age-dependent elevation of Aβ level in CTX rather than CBL of human APP knock-in AD model mice, although we detected no significant differences in the levels of interstitial fluid Aβ in these brain tissues. These data imply that less Aβ deposition in CBL is due to enhanced Aβ clearance rather than altered Aβ production in CBL. To gain insights into Aβ clearance in CBL, we injected fluorescence-labeled Aβ in brain tissues. Importantly diffusion area of fluorescent Aβ in CBL was roughly six-times larger than that in CTX within 2 h of injection. In addition, injected Aβ area in CBL decreased sharply after 24 h and CBL-injected Aβ was robustly detected in deep cervical lymph nodes (DcLNs). In contrast, diffusion area of fluorescent Aβ in CTX was consistent up to 72 h and CTX-injected Aβ was faintly detected in DcLNs. Our data suggest that enhanced Aβ drainage in association with meningeal lymphatic system is responsible for less Aβ deposition in CBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.12.036DOI Listing
January 2021

Prevalence of epilepsy in Bangladesh: Results from a national household survey.

Epilepsia Open 2020 Dec 18;5(4):526-536. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

World Health Organization Bangladesh Dhaka Bangladesh.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of epilepsy in Bangladesh.

Methods: We conducted a nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey among Bangladeshi population of all ages, except children under one month. We surveyed 9839 participants (urban, 4918; rural, 4920) recruited at their households using multistage cluster sampling. Trained physicians with neurology background confirmed the diagnosis of suspected epilepsy cases identified by interviewer-administered questionnaires. We reported the overall and sex, residence, and age groups-specific prevalence of epilepsy per 1000 populations with 95% confidence interval.

Results: The national prevalence of epilepsy per 1000 was 8.4 (95% CI 5.6-11.1), urban 8.0 (4.6-11.4), and rural 8.5 (5.60-11.5). The prevalence in adult males and females was 9.2 (5.7-12.6) and 7.7 (3.6-11.7), respectively. The prevalence in children aged <18 years (8.2, 3.4-13.0 was similar to adults (8.5 (5.4-11.4). Among all epilepsy cases, 65.1% had active epilepsy. Their (active epilepsy) prevalence was 5.8 (3.5-8.1). Of them, 63.4% were not receiving treatment. Moreover, those who received allopathy treatment, 72.5% had low adherence leading to a high treatment gap.

Significance: Our findings out of this first-ever national survey were similar to other Asian countries. However, the prevalence of active epilepsy and treatment gap were considerably higher. This study serves useful evidence for tailoring interventions aimed to reduce the burden of epilepsy-primarily through targeted community awareness program-and access to antiepileptic treatment in health facilities in Bangladesh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733657PMC
December 2020

Alcohol drinking and brain morphometry in apparently healthy community-dwelling Japanese men.

Alcohol 2021 02 3;90:57-65. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

The clinical implications of alcohol consumption have been extensively examined; however, its effects on brain structures in apparently healthy community-dwellers remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and brain gray matter volume (GMV) in community-dwelling Japanese men using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited cognitively intact Japanese men, aged 40-79 years, from a population-based cohort in Shiga, Japan. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed, on average, 2 years after demographic and medical information was obtained in 2010-2014. A multivariable linear regression analysis of 639 men was conducted to elucidate the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and GMV. VBM statistics were analyzed by threshold-free cluster enhancement with a family-wise error rate of <0.05. The results obtained demonstrated that the amount of alcohol consumed was associated with lower GMV. The VBM analysis showed lower GMV within the parahippocampal, entorhinal, cingulate, insular, temporal, and frontal cortices and cerebellum in very heavy drinkers (≥42 ethanol g/day) than in non-drinkers. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was associated with a higher white matter lesion volume. These results suggest subclinical structural changes similar to alcohol-related neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2020.11.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Widespread endogenization of giant viruses shapes genomes of green algae.

Nature 2020 12 18;588(7836):141-145. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Endogenous viral elements (EVEs)-viruses that have integrated their genomes into those of their hosts-are prevalent in eukaryotes and have an important role in genome evolution. The vast majority of EVEs that have been identified to date are small genomic regions comprising a few genes, but recent evidence suggests that some large double-stranded DNA viruses may also endogenize into the genome of the host. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) have recently become of great interest owing to their large genomes and complex evolutionary origins, but it is not yet known whether they are a prominent component of eukaryotic EVEs. Here we report the widespread endogenization of NCLDVs in diverse green algae; these giant EVEs reached sizes greater than 1 million base pairs and contained as many as around 10% of the total open reading frames in some genomes, substantially increasing the scale of known viral genes in eukaryotic genomes. These endogenized elements often shared genes with host genomic loci and contained numerous spliceosomal introns and large duplications, suggesting tight assimilation into host genomes. NCLDVs contain large and mosaic genomes with genes derived from multiple sources, and their endogenization represents an underappreciated conduit of new genetic material into eukaryotic lineages that can substantially impact genome composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2924-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Relationship Between Step Counts and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Japanese Men.

Stroke 2020 12 5;51(12):3584-3591. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia (M.M., A.K., H.S., H.U., K.M.), Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common subclinical feature of the aging brain. Steps per day may contribute to its prevention. We herein investigated the association between step counts and CSVD in a healthy Japanese male population.

Methods: We analyzed data from 680 men who were free of stroke and participated in this observational study. Seven-day step counts were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) using a pedometer. CSVD was assessed at follow-ups (2012-2015) based on deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), periventricular hyperintensities, lacunar infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. Using a logistic regression analysis, we computed the adjusted odds ratios, with 95% CIs, of prevalent CSVD according to quartiles of step counts (reference: Q1). We also investigated the association between step counts and WMH volumes using a quantile regression.

Results: Steps per day were significantly associated with lower odds ratios, with the lowest at Q3 (8175-10 614 steps/day), of higher (versus low or no burden) deep and subcortical WMHs (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.89]), periventricular hyperintensities (0.50 [95% CI, 0.29-0.86]), and lacunar infarcts (0.52 [95% CI, 0.30-0.91]) compared with Q1 (≤6060 steps/day) but not cerebral microbleeds. An inverse linear association was observed between step counts and WMH volumes. These associations were independent of age and smoking and drinking status and remained consistent when adjusted for vascular risk factors.

Conclusions: We found a J-shaped relationship between step counts and prevalent CSVD in healthy Japanese men, with the lowest risk being observed among participants with ≈8000 to 10 000 steps/day. Higher steps were also associated with lower WMH volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030141DOI Listing
December 2020

Estimation of total cardiovascular risk using the 2019 WHO CVD prediction charts and comparison of population-level costs based on alternative drug therapy guidelines: a population-based study of adults in Bangladesh.

BMJ Open 2020 07 19;10(7):e035842. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

National Institute of Opthalmology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the population distribution of 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Bangladeshi adults aged 40 years and above, using the 2019 WHO CVD risk prediction charts. Additionally, we compared the cost of CVD pharmacological treatment based on the total CVD risk (thresholds ≥30%/≥20%) and the single risk factor (hypertension) cut-off levels in the Bangladeshi context.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, population-based study.

Setting And Participants: From 2013 to 2014, we collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of adults aged ≥40 years from urban and rural areas of Bangladesh (n=6189). We estimated CVD risk using the 2019 WHO CVD risk prediction charts and categorised as very low (<5%), low (5% to <10%), moderate (10% to <20%), high (20% to <30%) and very high risk (≥30%). We estimated drug therapy costs using the lowest price of each drug class available (aspirin, thiazide diuretics, statins and ACE inhibitors). We compared the total cost of drug therapy using the total CVD risk versus single risk factor approach.

Primary Outcome Measures: Our primary outcome was 10-year CVD risk categorised as very low (<5%), low (5% to <10%), moderate (10% to <20%), high (20% to <30%) and very high risk (≥30%).

Results: The majority of adults (85.2%, 95% CI 84.3 to 86.1) have a 10-year CVD risk of less than 10%. The proportion of adults with a 10-year CVD risk of ≥20% was 0.51%. Only one adult was categorised with a 10-year CVD risk of ≥30%. Among adults with CVD risk groups of very low, low and moderate, 17.4%, 27.9% and 41.4% had hypertension (blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90) and 0.1%, 1.7% and 2.9% had severe hypertension (BP ≥160/100), respectively. Using the total CVD risk approach would reduce drug costs per million populations to US$144 540 (risk of ≥20%).

Conclusion: To reduce healthcare expenditure for the prevention and treatment of CVD, a total risk approach using the 2019 WHO CVD risk prediction charts may lead to cost savings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371224PMC
July 2020

Accumulation of trace elements in selected fish and shellfish species from the largest natural carp fish breeding basin in Asia: a probabilistic human health risk implication.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 1;27(30):37852-37865. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Soil and Environment Laboratories, BCSIR Laboratories, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Intake of fish contaminated with non-essential hazardous trace elements poses a significant risk to human health. In this study, trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured in edible tissues of seven commercially important fish and shellfish species (Otolithoides pama, Pseudapocryptes elongatus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Liza parse, Notropis atherinoides, Apocryptes bato, and Rhinomugil corsula) from a natural carp breeding basin, Halda river, Bangladesh. The elements were detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the hierarchy of elemental levels (mg/kg) was Zn (61.56) > Pb (30.45) > Ni (26.81) > Cu (21.09) > As (1.49) > Cd (0.24). Among the analyzed elements, Pb, Ni, and Zn for some fish species exceeded the permissible dietary limit, suggested by national and international agencies. In addition, results of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) indicated that most of the studied species were bioaccumulative in nature (BAFs > 1000), and the mean BAF of elements were found in the following order: Zn (3156.74) > Ni (1629.30) > Cu (1566.77) > As (997.14) > Pb (259.98) > Cd (216.52). However, the species, L. parse being omnivorous represented the highest BAF (stored higher concentrations of metals) as compared to other species. The growth pattern of all the species was negatively allometric, and the health condition of the species varied from poor to good state revealed from the estimated Fulton's condition factor (FC). For the evaluation of health hazards, estimated weekly (EWI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were calculated for both adults and children. Results of EWI showed As, Pb, and Ni surpassed provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI)-recommended guidelines. The non-carcinogenic health effect (TTHQ) might not appear for both types of consumers (as TTHQ < 1), and CRs of all consumers were also in acceptable range (10 to 10). However, the probabilistic distribution through Monte Carlo simulation revealed that children were more vulnerable to non-carcinogenic (67.3%) and carcinogenic risk effect (47.3%) for Pb. Meanwhile, adults obtained the probability of 0.7% and 36% for THQ and CR effect, respectively, interpreting less vulnerable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09766-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Curcumin, Curcumin Nanoparticles and Curcumin Nanospheres: A Review on Their Pharmacodynamics Based on Monogastric Farm Animal, Poultry and Fish Nutrition.

Pharmaceutics 2020 May 11;12(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Jeju International Animal Research Center (JIA) & Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute (SARI), Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science that is widely used in medical sciences. However, it has limited uses in monogastric farm animal as well as fish and poultry nutrition. There are some works that have been done on curcumin and curcumin nanoparticles as pharmaceutics in animal nutrition. However, studies have shown that ingestion of curcumin or curcumin nanoparticles does not benefit the animal health much due to their lower bioavailability, which may result because of low absorption, quick metabolism and speedy elimination of curcumin from the animal body. For these reasons, advanced formulations of curcumin are needed. Curcumin nanospheres is a newly evolved field of nanobiotechnology which may have beneficial effects in terms of growth increment, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects on animal and fish health by means of nanosphere forms that are biodegradable and biocompatible. Thus, this review aims to highlight the potential application of curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles and curcumin nanospheres in the field of monogastric farm animal, poultry and fish nutrition. We do believe that the review provides the perceptual vision for the future development of curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles and curcumin nanospheres and their applications in monogastric farm animal, poultry and fish nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12050447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284824PMC
May 2020

Dynamic genome evolution and complex virocell metabolism of globally-distributed giant viruses.

Nat Commun 2020 04 6;11(1):1710. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

The discovery of eukaryotic giant viruses has transformed our understanding of the limits of viral complexity, but the extent of their encoded metabolic diversity remains unclear. Here we generate 501 metagenome-assembled genomes of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) from environments around the globe, and analyze their encoded functional capacity. We report a remarkable diversity of metabolic genes in widespread giant viruses, including many involved in nutrient uptake, light harvesting, and nitrogen metabolism. Surprisingly, numerous NCLDV encode the components of glycolysis and the TCA cycle, suggesting that they can re-program fundamental aspects of their host's central carbon metabolism. Our phylogenetic analysis of NCLDV metabolic genes and their cellular homologs reveals distinct clustering of viral sequences into divergent clades, indicating that these genes are virus-specific and were acquired in the distant past. Overall our findings reveal that giant viruses encode complex metabolic capabilities with evolutionary histories largely independent of cellular life, strongly implicating them as important drivers of global biogeochemical cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15507-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136201PMC
April 2020

Bioaccumulation of trace metals in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii from farmed and wild sources and human health risk assessment in Bangladesh.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 2;27(14):16426-16438. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh.

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an important species for Bangladesh's national economy, aquatic biodiversity, and employment opportunities; furthermore, human health risk associated to consumption of this species has become a crucial issue. Eight trace metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) in different body parts of M. rosenbergii (U/10 as large and U/12 and U/15 as medium size), and water collected from farm and wild sources along with the human health risks were assessed in this study. Except Cd, all trace metals exceeded the maximum permissible limits proposed by different authorities. Elevated levels of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were found in the wild-caught prawn, whereas Ni and Cd were higher in farmed prawn. A higher trace metal contamination was recorded from the cephalothorax part than the abdomen of both sized prawns. However, trace metal concentrations between two sizes of prawns were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The estimated daily intakes (EDI) values were higher than the recommended and/or tolerable daily intake for Pb and Cr. Moreover, the target hazard quotient (THQ) values were > 1 for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, elucidating non-carcinogenic risks to the consumers. In addition, the target cancer risk (TR) values of Pb and Ni were high and exceeded the acceptable guideline of 10, explicating the possibility of carcinogenic risks. Therefore, the study concludes that the consumption of the studied prawn species contaminated with elevated levels of toxic metals is associated with higher degree of potential health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08028-4DOI Listing
May 2020
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