Publications by authors named "Mohammad Mardani"

52 Publications

Comparison of TGF-β3 and avocado/soybean unsaponifiable on chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid/ hyaluronic acid hybrid scaffold.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Jan;24(1):24-29

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Avocado/soybean unsaponifible (ASU) possesses properties including chondroprotective, anticatabolic, and anabolic. The goal behind this research was to detect the effect of ASU and TGF-β3 on the chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) on poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)/ hyaluronic acid (PLGA/HA) hybrid scaffold.

Materials And Methods: First hADSCs were seeded in PLGA/Hyaluronic acid scaffold and cultured in chondrogenic media. These cells were assigned into 4 groups: control, TGFβ-3, ASU, and TGFβ-3+ASU. The viability was assessed separately by MTT. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the expression of chondrogenic specific genes [] and . Moreover, Western blotting was employed to evaluate protein expression levels of collagens type II and X.

Results: These findings indicated a significant increase in the proliferation and survival of hADSCs differentiated cells by ASU compared with the control group (=0.008). Real-time PCR results revealed significant differences in the expression of , , , and genes in the control group when compared with other groups (ASU, TGF-β3, and TGF-β3+ASU). ColII protein production significantly dropped in the TGF-β3 group in comparison with the TGF-β3+ASU group (0.000). The ColII (=0.002) and ColX (=0.002) protein production proved significantly higher in the TGF-β3+ASU group compared with the ASU group.

Conclusion: Using the synergist form TGFβ-3, ASU induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs in PLGA/HA composite scaffold. This can be deduced with reduction of special markers of hyaline cartilage in comparison with ASU and decreased hypertrophic marker compared with TGF-β3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2020.44409.10391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894631PMC
January 2021

Determination of the correlation between muscle forces obtained from OpenSim and muscle activities obtained from electromyography in the elderly.

Phys Eng Sci Med 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Measurement of muscle forces related to aging can help to better identify the gait impairment mechanisms in the elderly. To this end, musculoskeletal modeling has been developed to estimate muscle forces. This study aimed to check the validity of OpenSim modeling (i.e., computed muscle control) approach in elderly subjects. Kinematic and kinetic data and Electromyography (EMG) signals for four different muscles were collected in nine healthy elderly males during walking. Dynamic simulation was done within OpenSim. Correlation analysis was performed to quantitatively compare the maximum estimated muscle forces with maximum measured muscle activities during the first double limb support, single limb support, and the second double limb support phases. The area-time plots of OpenSim and EMG data during gait cycle were obtained for qualitative assessment. In quantitative assessment, a low to moderate correlation was observed for the peak of muscle force and muscle activation of four muscles during sub phases of gait. The muscle forces pattern from OpenSim was found to be relatively similar to the muscle activity pattern from EMG especially for Gastrocnemius Medialis. A low to moderate consistency between OpenSim and EMG in the elderly can be explained by using a single mathematical estimation approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13246-021-00973-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Improvement of Remyelination in Demyelinated Corpus Callosum Using Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hADSCs) and Pregnenolone in the Cuprizone Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

J Mol Neurosci 2020 Jul 21;70(7):1088-1099. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 81744-176, Iran.

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have neuroprotective effects, and their repair ability has been approved in neurodegenerative studies. Pregnenolone as a neurosteroid plays significant roles in neurogenesis. We aimed to consider the effect of ADSCs and pregnenolone injection on the multiple sclerosis (MS) model created by cuprizone. Male Wistar rats (n = 36) were fed with an ordinary diet or a diet with cuprizone (0.6%) for 3 weeks. H-ADSCs were taken from patients with lipoaspirate surgery. The rats were divided into six groups (n = 6): healthy, MS, sham, pregnenolone injection, ADSCs injection, pregnenolone and ADSCs injection. Behavioral test, histological examination and TEM were conducted. The specific markers for myelin and cell differentiation were assessed using immunohistochemistry staining. Additionally, the measure of MBP and MOG gene expression and the amount of related proteins were determined using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA techniques, respectively. Histologic results showed that induced demyelination in corpus callosum fibers. TEM revealed an increased thickness of myelin in fibers in the treated groups (P < 0.05). Injection of hADSC and pregnenolone significantly increased the expression levels of MBP and MOG (P < 0.001). The mean percentage of MOG and MBP markers were significantly increased in the treated groups compared to MS and sham groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, the OD level of MBP and MOG proteins showed that their values in the ADSCs/pregnenolone group were close to those of the control group without a significant difference. Our data indicated the remyelination potency and cell differentiation can improve with ADSCs and pregnenolone treatments in the multiple sclerosis model which created by cuprizone in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01515-wDOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of Two Different Hip-Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Postural Stability in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study.

Asian Spine J 2019 Feb 18;13(1):96-102. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Study Design: Pilot study.

Purpose: Evaluation of two different hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses (HKAFOs; medial linkage reciprocating gait orthosis [MLRGO] and isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis [IRGO]) using gait and postural stability analysis in four subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Overview Of Literature: To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated postural stability in subjects with SCI when using MLRGO and IRGO.

Methods: The relative efficacy of each orthosis was evaluated with relevant gait parameters, and an assessment of postural stability and sway during usage was made. Each analysis was conducted following an appropriate period of training and acclimatization. The gait parameters employed in the study were walking speed, cadence, and endurance; these were recorded and analyzed using current, validated methods. Postural stability was assessed using a verified force plate measurement system, and a modified Falls Efficacy Scale (mFES) was used for the measurement of postural sway and the perceived fear of falling.

Results: Walking speed, cadence, and endurance increased with the use of both HKAFOs. When the two types of HKAFOs were compared, all the parameters showed a slight (but not significant) increase with the use of MLRGO compared with the use of IRGO. In contrast, there were slight but insignificant improvements in postural sway with the use of IRGO. However, although there were no significant differences between the two sets of mFES scores, there was a slightly reduced fear of falling with the use of MLRGO compared with the use of IRGO in the static standing position.

Conclusions: It is noteworthy that meaningful interpretations of results can only be drawn if a larger sample is employed. This pilot study showed no significant data; however, the results indicate that the use of MLRGO is superior to that of IRGO in terms of potential improvement in the mobility and confidence levels of subjects with SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2017.0283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365790PMC
February 2019

A systematic review of variables used to assess clinically acceptable alignment of unilateral transtibial amputees in the literature.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2018 Aug;232(8):826-840

5 Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Prosthetic alignment is a subjective concept which lacks reliability. The outcome responsiveness to prosthetic alignment quality could help to improve subjective and instrument assisted prosthetic alignment. This study was aimed to review variables used to assess clinically acceptable alignment in the literature. The search was done in some databases including: Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus. The first selection criterion was based on abstracts and titles to address the research questions of interest. The American Academy of Orthotics and Prosthetics checklists were used for paper risk of bias assessment. A total of 25 studies were included in this study. Twenty-four studies revealed the critics of standing position or walking to locate clinically acceptable alignment, only one study measured outcomes in both situations. A total of 253 adults with transtibial amputations and mean age of 48.71 years participated in included studies. The confidence level of included studies was low to moderate, and before-after trial was the most common study design (n = 19). The joint angle, load line location with respect to joints and center of pressure-related parameters were reported as sensitive outcomes to prosthetic alignment quality in standing posture. The amount of forces at various parts of gait cycle and time of events were sensitive to prosthetic alignment quality during walking. Standing balance and posture and temporal parameters of walking could help to locate clinically acceptable alignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0954411918789450DOI Listing
August 2018

Development and preliminary evaluation of a new anatomically based prosthetic alignment method for below-knee prosthesis.

Assist Technol 2020 26;32(1):38-46. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Health and Social Care Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, England, UK.

The objectives of current study were to a) assess similarities and relationships between anatomical landmark-based angles and distances of lower limbs in unilateral transtibial amputees and b) develop and evaluate a new anatomically based static prosthetic alignment method. First substudy assessed the anthropometrical differences and relationships between the lower limbs in the photographs taken from amputees. Data were analyzed via paired t-test and regression analysis. Results show no significant differences in frontal and transverse planes. In the sagittal plane, the anthropometric parameters of the amputated limb were significantly correlated to the corresponding variables of the sound limb. The results served as bases for the development of a new prosthetic alignment method. The method was evaluated on a single-subject study. Prosthetic alignment carried out by an experienced prosthetist was compared with such alignment adjusted by an inexperienced prosthetist but with the use of the developed method. In sagittal and frontal planes, the socket angle was tuned with respect to the shin angle, and the position of the prosthetic foot was tuned in relation to the pelvic landmarks. Further study is needed to assess the proposed method on a larger sample of amputees and prosthetists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10400435.2018.1467513DOI Listing
December 2020

The effects of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus of male rats.

J Chem Neuroanat 2018 09 22;91:27-34. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with an increasing risk of congenital malformations and central nervous system disorders (CNS) especially hippocampal neuronal circuitry disruption as a discreet region involved in neurogenesis phenomenon. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on the expression and distribution pattern of NeuN and DCX as two important markers of neurogenesis paradigm in developing rat hippocampus. All animals were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Control group, Diabetic (STZ-D), Diabetic treated with insulin (STZ-INS). Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by Sterptozotocin intraperitoneal injection (single does). Following confirmation of diabetes, animals were mated with non-diabetic males. Four to six units of protamine-Zinc insulin were delivered subcutaneously (SC) in insulin treated group. At the post-natal day 14 (P14), the brain of male offspring's were removed for further study. In fact Immunofluorescence staining and Real time - PCR assays are used for evaluation of neurogenesis phenomenon. Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal DCX expression and an increase in the mean number of DCX positive cells in the DG of diabetic group male offspring (P < 0.05). We also found an insignificant up-regulation in the expression of DCX and the mean number of positive cells in the insulin-treated diabetic group neonates as compared to control group (P > 0.05). Nevertheless the results of immunofluorescence staining for NeuN also indicated that the mean number of NeuN+ cells was significantly lower in dentate gyrus of diabetic group male offspring (P < 0.05). Besides, there were significant down- regulation in the hippocampal mRNA expression of NeuN in diabetic pups compare to control (P < 0.05 each). Our results revealed that diabetes during pregnancy has an adverse effect on the hippocampal neurogenesis in rat neonates. Furthermore, the control of glycemia by insulin is sufficient to prevent the alterations in expression of neurogenesis markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2018.03.005DOI Listing
September 2018

Design and analysis of an original powered foot clearance creator mechanism for walking in patients with spinal cord injury.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2019 05 12;14(4):333-337. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

b Orthotics and Prosthetics Department , University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences , Tehran , Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of an original powered foot clearance creator (PFCC) mechanism worn in conjunction with an isocentric reciprocal gait orthosis (IRGO) and evaluate its effect on trunk compensatory movements and spatiotemporal parameters in nine healthy subjects.

Method: A PFCC motorized mechanism was designed that incorporated twin sole plates, the movements of which enabled increased toe to floor clearance during swing phase. A prototype was constructed in combination with an IRGO, and hence was re-named as an IRGO-PFCC orthosis. The effects of IRGO-PFCC usage on the spatiotemporal parameters and trunk compensatory movements during walking were then analyzed under two conditions, firstly with the PFCC 'active' i.e., with the motorized device functioning, and secondly inactive, where floor clearance was standard.

Results: Ambulating with IRGO-PFCC orthosis resulted in reduction in the spatiotemporal parameters of gait (speed of walking, cadence and stride length) in nine healthy subjects. Walking with IRGO-PFCC orthosis led to significant differences in lateral (p = .007) and vertical (p = .008) trunk compensatory movements. In other words, through using IRGO-PFCC orthosis, the lateral and vertical trunk compensatory movements decreased by 51.32% and 42.7%, respectively.

Conclusion: An adapted PFCC mechanism, with a relatively small motor and power supply could effectively increase toe to floor clearance during swing phase and thereby decrease trunk compensatory motions and potentially improve energy consumption. Implications for rehabilitations •The High rejection rates of reciprocal gait orthoses are related to the increasing in energy expenditure and burden loads on the upper limb joints during walking following trunk compensatory movements.•An original powered foot clearance creator mechanism was designed and constructed to assisting floor clearance capability and reduce trunk compensatory movements in subjects with spinal cord injury during swing phase of gait.•This original powered foot clearance creator mechanism by using moveable soleplates and motorized actuation could decrease the trunk compensatory motions during the ambulation of nine healthy subjects.•More experiments are needed to investigate this mechanism on trunk compensatory movements of SCI subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2018.1447610DOI Listing
May 2019

Co-Transplantation of Human Neurotrophic Factor Secreting Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Cell J 2018 Apr 1;20(1):46-52. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: The presence of neurotrophic factors is critical for regeneration of neural lesions. Here, we transplanted combination of neurotrophic factor secreting cells (NTF-SCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) into a lysolecithin model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and determined the myelinization efficiency of these cells.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, lysolecithin, vehicle, hADSCs transplantation and NTF-SCs/ hADSCs co-transplantation group. Focal demyelization was induced by lysolecithin injection into the spinal cord. In order to assess motor functions, all rats were scored weekly with a standard experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis scoring scale before and after cell transplantation. Four weeks after cell transplantation, the extent of demyelination and remyelination were examined with Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) staining. Also, immunofluorescence method was used for evaluation of oligodendrocyte differentiation markers including; myelin basic protein (MBP) and Olig2 in the lesion area.

Results: Histological study show somewhat remyelinzation in cell transplantation groups related to others. In addition, the immunofluorescence results indicated that the MBP and Olig2 positive labeled cells were significantly higher in co-cell transplantation group than hADSCs group (P<0.05). Also, outcome of motor functional test showed significant improvement function in cell transplantation groups, as compared to the others (P<0.01).

Conclusions: Our results indicated that the remyelinization process in co-cell transplantation group was better than other groups. Thus, NTF-SCs/ hADSCs transplantation can be proper candidate for cell based therapy in neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2018.4777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5759680PMC
April 2018

Evaluation of Progesterone and Ovulation-stimulating Drugs on the Glandular Epithelium and Angiogenesis in Mice.

Adv Biomed Res 2017 21;6:116. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Human endometrium is a dynamic tissue during the menstrual cycle can be influenced by ovarian hormones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endometrium angiogenesis under the influence of human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (HMG and HCG) that stimulate ovulation and progesterone.

Materials And Methods: In this study, thirty adult female mice were randomly divided into three groups as: control, gonadotropin and gonadotropin + progesterone. The mice in the other two groups except the control group received 7.5 IU HMG and later HCG. Subsequently, the mice were placed in a cage for mating. Gonadotropin + progesterone group was administered, 1 mg/mouse progesterone in 24, 48, and 72 h interval, after HMG injection. Ninety-six hours after HMG injection, animals were sacrificed, and their uterine specimens were prepared by immunohistochemistry technique for light microscopic studies, and statistical analysis was carried out.

Results: Endometrium angiogenesis in control group showed that mean ± standard deviation was 24.15 ± 11.15, gonadotropin group was 62.50 ± 24.16, and gonadotropin + progesterone group was 41.85 ± 19.54. Significant difference between the control group and gonadotropin group and between the control group and gonadotropin + progesterone was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in all groups in the endometrial angiogenesis ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Ovarian induction with gonadotropins and gonadotropins + progesterone could not change the morphometrically index of endometrial glandular epithelium in mice. Ovarian stimulation followed by progesterone injection could modify the angiogenesis of mice endometrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_179_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5627566PMC
September 2017

Remyelination improvement after neurotrophic factors secreting cells transplantation in rat spinal cord injury.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Apr;20(4):392-398

Department of Anatomical Science, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Neurotrophic factors secreting cells (NTS-SCs) may be a superior cell source for cell-based therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. NTS-SCs are able to secrete some neurotrophic Such as nerve growth factor and glia-derived neurotrophic factor. Our primary aim was to assess transplantation of neurotrophic factor secreting cells derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into the damaged spinal cord rats and determine the potential of these cells in remyelination.

Materials And Methods: To this end, 40 adult male Wistar rats were categorized into four groups including; control, lysolecithin (Lysophosphatidylcholines or LPC), vehicle, and NTS-SCs transplan-tation. Local demyelination was induced using LPC injection into the lateral column of spinal cord. Seven days after the lysolecithin lesion, the cells transplantation was performed. The ultrastructure of myelinated fibers was examined with a transmission electron microscope to determine the extent of myelin destruction and remyelinization 4 weeks post cell transplantation. Moreover, the presence of oligodendrocyte in the lesion of spinal cord was assessed by immunohistochemistry procedure.

Results: The results of current study indicated that in NTF-SCs transplantation group, the remyelination process and the mean of myelin sheath thickness as well as axonal diameters were significantly higher than other groups (<0.001). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that in NTF-SCs transplantation group more than 10 percent of transplanted cells were positive for specific markers of oligodendrocyte cells.

Conclusion: NTF-SCs transplantation represents a valuable option for cell-based therapy in the nervous tissue damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.8580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5425921PMC
April 2017

All-trans retinoic acid and genistein induce cell apoptosis in OVCAR-3 cells by increasing the P14 tumor suppressor gene.

Res Pharm Sci 2016 Dec;11(6):505-512

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

In this study, we evaluated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone or in combination with genistein (GEN) in p14 tumor suppressor gene and subsequent apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR-3). The cells were treated with ATRA or GEN at concentrations of 50 and 25 μM respectively, either alone or in combination for 24 and 48 h. The cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The percentage of cell apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry and p14 gene expression was measured using real time PCR. The MTT results showed that in both ATRA and GEN treated groups, the cell viabilityviability in group treated for 48 h was significantly lower than group treated for 24 h. The flow cytometry results showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells in groups that treated with ATRA and GEN in combination for 24 h and 48 h was significantly more than all other tested groups. The real time results showed that the mRNA level of p14 in cells treated with both drugs for 48 h was significantly higher than all other groups. In conclusion, we confirm that GEN in combination with ATRA is an effective strategy to up regulate the p14 tumor suppressor gene and induce cell apoptosis in OVCAR-3 cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.194899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5168888PMC
December 2016

Induction of chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by low frequency electric field.

Adv Biomed Res 2016 30;5:97. Epub 2016 May 30.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Since when the cartilage damage (e.g., with the osteoarthritis) it could not be repaired in the body, hence for its reconstruction needs cell therapy. For this purpose, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is one of the best cell sources because by the tissue engineering techniques it can be differentiated into chondrocytes. Chemical and physical inducers is required order to stem cells to chondrocytes differentiating. We have decided to define the role of electric field (EF) in inducing chondrogenesis process.

Materials And Methods: A low frequency EF applied the ADSCs as a physical inducer for chondrogenesis in a 3D micromass culture system which ADSCs were extracted from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. Also enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, real time polymerase chain reaction and flowcytometry techniques were used for this study.

Results: We found that the 20 minutes application of 1 kHz, 20 mv/cm EF leads to chondrogenesis in ADSCs. Although our results suggest that application of physical (EF) and chemical (transforming growth factor-β3) inducers at the same time, have best results in expression of collagen type II and SOX9 genes. It is also seen EF makes significant decreased expression of collagens type I and X genes.

Conclusion: The low frequency EF can be a good motivator to promote chondrogenic differentiation of human ADSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.183146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4908790PMC
June 2016

Neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena extract on learning and memory in a rat model of amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer's disease.

Adv Biomed Res 2015 27;4:131. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Department of Biology, Cells, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized clinically by serious impairment in memory and cognition. Current medications only slow down the dementia progression and the present treatment one-drug one-target paradigm for anti-AD treatment appears to be clinically unsuccessful. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. With respect to multifunctional and multitargeted characteristics of Rosa damascena via its effective flavonoids, we investigated the effects of R. damascena extract on behavioral functions in a rat model of amyloid-β (A-β)-induced Alzheimer's disease.

Materials And Methods: After preparation of the methanolic extract of the R. damascena, HPLC analysis and toxicity studies, median lethal dose (LD50) and dose levels were determined. For evaluation of baseline training behavioral performance, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used. A-β was injected bilaterally into CA1 area of the hippocampus. Twenty-one days after injection of A-β, the first probe trial of the behavioral tests were used to confirm learning and memory impairment. To examine the potential effects of the extract on behavioral tasks, the second probe trials were performed after one month administration of R. damasena extract.

Results: Results showed that the R. damascena extract significantly improved the spatial and long-term memories in the extract- treated groups in a dose-dependent manner, as in the middle and high doses it had significant effect.

Conclusion: According to these results, we concluded that R. damascena can reverse behavioral deficits caused by A-β, and may provide a new potential option for prevention and treatment of the cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.161512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4544115PMC
August 2015

The effect of trunk extension on physiological cost index in spinal cord injury patients when using the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis: A pilot study.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2016 Dec 24;40(6):696-702. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: People with spinal cord injury walk with a flexed trunk when using reciprocating gait orthoses for walking. Reduction in trunk flexion during ambulation has been shown to improve gait parameters for reciprocating gait orthosis users.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on energy expenditure when spinal cord injury patients ambulate with an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis while wearing a thoracolumbosacral orthosis to provide trunk extension.

Study Design: Quasi experimental study.

Methods: Four patients with spinal cord injury were fitted with an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis after completing a specific gait training program. Patients walked along a flat walkway using the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis as a control condition and also while additionally wearing a thoracolumbosacral orthosis at their self-selected walking speed. A stopwatch and a polar heart rate monitor were used to measure walking speed and heart rate.

Results: Walking speed, the distance walked, and the physiological cost index all improved when walking with the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis/thoracolumbosacral orthosis test condition compared to walking with no thoracolumbosacral orthosis in situ.

Conclusion: Spinal cord injury patients can improve their walking speed, walking distance, and physiological cost index when wearing a thoracolumbosacral orthosis in conjunction with an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis, which may be attributed to the trunk extension provided by the thoracolumbosacral orthosis.

Clinical Relevance: It is concluded that wearing thoracolumbosacral orthosis in association with an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis could be an effective alternative in rehabilitation for thoracic level of paraplegic patients to promote their health and well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309364615592700DOI Listing
December 2016

Comparison of gait between healthy participants and persons with spinal cord injury when using the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2016 Apr 20;40(2):287-93. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: The advanced reciprocating gait orthosis (ARGO) has a rigid structure which provides restricted movement at the hip, knee, and ankle joints and incorporates a pelvic section with an extended section in the lumbar region. Healthy subjects, when walking with an RGO in situ, could feasibly demonstrate the level of limitation in movement imposed by ARGO-assisted ambulation.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the function of the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis when fitted with the dorsiflexion-assist ankle-foot orthoses on temporal-spatial parameters and kinematics of walking in both able-bodied people and those with spinal cord injury.

Study Design: Quasi experimental design.

Methods: Data were acquired from six able-bodied and four spinal cord injury subjects who used an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis which incorporated dorsiflexion-assist ankle-foot orthoses. Kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters were calculated and compared.

Results: All able-bodied individuals walked with speeds which were only approximately one-third that of when walking without an orthosis. The mean step length and cadence were both reduced by 48% and 6%, respectively. There were significant differences in hip, knee, and ankle joint range of motions between normal walking and walking with the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis both in able-bodied subjects and patients with spinal cord injury. There were also significant differences in the speed of walking, cadence, step length, hip range of motion, and ankle range of motion when using the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis between the two groups.

Conclusion: Temporal-spatial parameters and lower limb sagittal plane kinematics of walking were altered compared to normal walking, especially when spinal cord injury subjects walked with the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis compared to the able-bodied subjects.

Clinical Relevance: To produce an improvement in RGO function, an increase in walking performance should involve attention to improvement of hip, knee, and ankle joint kinematics, which differs significantly from normal walking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309364615592699DOI Listing
April 2016

The physiological cost index of walking with a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis in subjects with poliomyelitis: A pilot study.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2016 Aug 20;40(4):454-9. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine its effect on the physiological cost index, walking speed and the distance walked in people with poliomyelitis compared to when walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints.

Study Design: Quasi experimental study.

Methods: Seven subjects with poliomyelitis volunteered for the study and undertook gait analysis with both types of knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

Results: Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis significantly reduced walking speed (p = 0.015) and the distance walked (p = 0.004), and also, it did not improve physiological cost index values (p = 0.009) compared to walking with the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

Conclusion: Using a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis did not significantly improve any of the primary outcome measures during walking for poliomyelitis subjects.

Clinical Relevance: This powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis design did not improve the physiological cost index of walking for people with poliomyelitis when compared to walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. This may have been due to the short training period used or the bulky design and additional weight of the powered orthosis. Further research is therefore warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309364615592697DOI Listing
August 2016

The influence of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: A pilot study.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2016 Jun 16;40(3):377-83. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental design.

Methods: Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system.

Results: Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis.

Conclusion: The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

Clinical Relevance: This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309364615592703DOI Listing
June 2016

The influence of thermoplastic thoraco lumbo sacral orthoses on standing balance in subjects with idiopathic scoliosis.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2016 Aug 1;40(4):460-6. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: Idiopathic scoliosis patients have postural equilibrium problems.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess postural control in subjects with idiopathic scoliosis following a 4-month intervention in an unbraced position.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental.

Methods: Eight healthy girls and eight girls with idiopathic scoliosis took part. A Kistler force platform was used with a frequency of 100 Hz for recording data. The center of pressure was recorded in different positions out of brace for scoliosis and healthy subjects. Test conditions were single limb and double limb stance, with eyes open and closed, and foam and rigid surfaces.

Results: The data reflected a weak balance of idiopathic scoliosis subjects compared to healthy subjects. After 1 and 4 months of wearing the brace, center of pressure and center of gravity sway increased in the majority of the tests, although there were no significant differences in any of the test conditions (p > 0.05). While the center of pressure sway in medio-lateral direction decreased after 4 months of wearing a brace, in other variables center of pressure and center of gravity sway increased.

Conclusion: Idiopathic scoliosis patients have weak balance in comparison to healthy subjects. In addition, following a period of 4 months of wearing a brace, balance parameters in the scoliosis subjects did not improve. The results show that we need more follow-up of orthoses wearing in idiopathic scoliosis subjects and suggest more studies at least 1-year follow-up to identify the efficiency of brace wear on balance.

Clinical Relevance: Scoliosis can alter postural stability and balance performance during quiet standing. Spinal deformity can alter a subject's ability to compensate for postural changes and cause gait deviations. This study investigated balance differences between the healthy and idiopathic scoliosis patients and the results of thoraco lumbo sacral orthosis brace wear. It might provide some new insight into the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis patients for clinicians and researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309364615589466DOI Listing
August 2016

The gait and energy efficiency of stance control knee-ankle-foot orthoses: A literature review.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2016 Apr 8;40(2):202-14. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: The use of knee-ankle-foot orthoses with drop locked knee joints produces some limitations for walking in subjects with quadriceps muscle weakness. The development of stance control orthoses can potentially improve their functionality.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to compare the evidence of the effect of stance control orthoses to knee-ankle-foot orthoses with drop locked knee joints in improving kinematic variables and energy efficiency of walking by subjects with quadriceps muscle weakness caused by different pathologies.

Study Design: Literature review.

Methods: Based on selected keywords and their composition, a search was performed in Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. In total, 18 articles were finally chosen for review.

Results: The results of this study demonstrated that this type of orthosis can improve the walking parameters of subjects with quadriceps muscle weakness and spinal cord injury patients when compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

Conclusion: There is evidence to show that stance control orthosis designs improve the gait kinematics but not energetic of knee-ankle-foot orthosis users. Development of new designs of stance control orthoses to provide a more normal pattern of walking is still required.

Clinical Relevance: Stance control orthoses are a new generation of orthotic intervention that could potentially be significant in assisting to improve the gait kinematics by knee-ankle-foot orthosis users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309364615588346DOI Listing
April 2016

Neurotrophic factors and their effects in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Adv Biomed Res 2015 17;4:53. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Neurotrophins are small molecules of polypeptides, which include nerve growth factor (NGF) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands, and neuropoietic cytokines. These factors have an important role in neural regeneration, remyelination, and regulating the development of the peripheral and central nervous systems (PNS and CNS, respectively) by intracellular signaling through specific receptors. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative disorders may be due to an alteration in the neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The use of neurotrophic factors as therapeutic agents is a novel strategy for restoring and maintaining neuronal function during neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, autoimmune and mesenchymal stem cells, by the release of neurotrophic factors, have the ability to protect neuronal population and can efficiently suppress the formation of new lesions. So, these cells may be an alternative source for delivering neurotrophic factors into the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.151570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361963PMC
March 2015

An animal model study for bone repair with encapsulated differentiated osteoblasts from adipose-derived stem cells in alginate.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014 Nov;17(11):854-9

Cancer Prevention Research Center, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran ; Institute of Novin Tahlilgarane Nesfe-jahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be engineered to express bone specific markers. The aim of this study is to evaluate repairing tibia in animal model with differentiated osteoblasts from autologous ADSCs in alginate scaffold.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 6 canine's ADSCs were encapsulated in alginate and differentiated into osteoblasts. Alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP) and RT-PCR method were applied to confirm the osteogenic induction. Then, encapsulated differentiated cells (group 1) and cell-free alginate (group 2) implanted in defected part of dog's tibia for 4 and 8 weeks. Regenerated tissues and compressive strength of samples were evaluated by histological and Immunohistochemical (IHC) methods and Tensometer Universal Machine.

Results: Our results showed that ADSCs were differentiated into osteoblasts in vitro, and type I collagen and osteocalcin genes expression in differentiated osteoblasts was proved by RT-PCR. In group 2, ossification and thickness of trabecula were low compared to group 1, and in both groups woven bone was observed instead of control group's compact bone. Considering time, we found bone trabeculae regression and ossification reduction after 8 weeks compared with 4 weeks in group 2, but in group 1 bone formation was increased in 8 weeks. Presence of differentiated cells caused significantly more compressive strength in comparison with group 2 (P-value ≤0.05).

Conclusion: This research showed that engineering bone from differentiated adipose-derived stem cells, encapsulated in alginate can repair tibia defects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4328093PMC
November 2014

Effect of T3 hormone on neural differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells.

Cell Biochem Funct 2014 Dec 28;32(8):702-10. Epub 2014 Nov 28.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Human adult stem cells, which are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into other cell types, can be isolated from various tissues. There are no ethical and rejection problems as in the case of embryonic stem cells, so they are a promising source for cell therapy. The human body contains a great amount of adipose tissue that contains high numbers of mesenchymal stem cells. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) could be easily induced to form neuron-like cells, and because of its availability and abundance, we can use it for clinical cell therapy. On the other hand, T3 hormone as a known neurotropic factor has important impressions on the nervous system. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of T3 treatment on neural differentiation of hADSCs. ADSCs were harvested from human adipose tissue, after neurosphere formation, and during final differentiation, treatment with T3 was performed. Immunocytochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting techniques were used for detection of nestin, MAP2, and GFAP markers in order to confirm the effects of T3 on neural differentiation of hADSCs. Our results showed an increase in the number of glial cells but reduction in neuronal cells number fallowing T3 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3074DOI Listing
December 2014

The effect of high frequency electric field on enhancement of chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014 Aug;17(8):571-6

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is globally one of the most common diseases from the middle age onwards. Cartilage is an avascular tissue therefore it cannot be repaired in the body. Conservative treatments have failed as a good remedy and cell therapy as a decisive cure is needed. One of the best and easily accessible cell sources for this purpose is adipose-derived stem cells which can be differentiated into chondrocytes by tissue engineering techniques. Chemical and physical inducers have a key role in stem cell - chondrocyte differentiation. We have tried to determine the role of electric fields (EF) in promoting this kind of chondrogenesis process.

Materials And Methods: Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were extracted from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue during cesarean section. A high frequency (60 KHz) EF (20 mv/cm), as a physical inducer for chondrogenesis in a 3D micromass culture system of ADSCs was utilized. Also, MTT, ELISA, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR techniques were used for this study.

Results: We found that using physical electric fields leads to chondrogenesis. Furthermore, results show that using both physical (EF) and chemical (TGFβ3) inducers simultaneously, has best outcomes in chondrogenesis, and expression of SOX(9) and type II collagen genes. It also causes significant decreased expression of type I and X collagen genes in pure EF group compared with control group.

Conclusion: The EF was found as a proper effective inducer in chondrogenic differentiation of human ADSCs micromass culture.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240790PMC
August 2014

Impact of saffron on rat sperm membrane integrity and spermatogenesis status.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 25;3:146. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Male factor has been considered as a 50% of infertility causes. One of the reasons for poor semen quality is oxidative stress. Saffron and vitamin E as antioxidant agent can be involved in free radical scavenging and improvement of semen quality.

Materials And Methods: We divided 30 adult male Wistar rats into saffron (n = 10), vitamin E (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups randomly. Saffron (100 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day), and distilled water (0.5 ml/day) were fed by gavage to the animals for 60 consecutive days in aforementioned groups. After cervical dislocation, both testes and left epididymis of each animal were removed and the cauda epididymal spermatozoa were aspirated for analysis of sperm parameters. Sperm membrane integrity was assessed by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). In different groups, seminiferous tubule histological assessments were done after Hematoxylin -Eosin staining.

Results: The mean percentage of HOST positive sperm was increased in vitamin E and saffron groups as compared to control group. As we can see there was a significant difference among control and experimental groups (P < 0.001); also a significant difference was obtained between vitamin E and saffron groups (P = 0.002). The evaluation of seminiferous tubules has shown no significant differences among groups.

Conclusions: The present data suggest that saffron had superior antioxidant properties which can improve sperm parameters and membrane integrity so it can lead to develop fertility potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.135163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139985PMC
August 2014

Platelet-rich plasma application in chondrogenesis.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 25;3:138. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous derivative of whole blood, has been recently used in surgical treatment. PRP contains growth factors including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and also bioactive proteins that influence the healing of tendon, ligament, muscle, and bone. This article describes the current clinical applications of PRP in chondrogenesis. This study reviews and evaluates the studies that have been published in the field of chondrogenesis. All aspects of using PRP in chondrogenesis are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.135156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139981PMC
August 2014

Effect of saffron on rat sperm chromatin integrity.

Iran J Reprod Med 2014 May;12(5):343-50

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Currently, relation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) ROS concentration and semen quality was indicated. Saffron has traditionally been not only considered as a food additive but also as a medicinal herb, which has a good antioxidant properties.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection potency of saffron and vitamin E on sperm chromatin integrity.

Materials And Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats divided equally into saffron (100 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and control (0.5cc distilled water /day) groups. After 60 days, cauda epididymis dissected and sperm cells were used for analysis of sperm chromatin packaging by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining, and sperm chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation by acridine orange (AO) staining.

Results: The mean percentage of CMA3 positive sperm was significantly decreased in saffron and vitamin E groups relative to control group (p<0.001). Moreover, the AO staining results showed that the mean percentage of sperm with DNA damage was significantly decreased in saffron and vitamin E groups as compared with control group (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Our results purposed that saffron can protect sperm against DNA damage and chromatin anomalies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094660PMC
May 2014

Comparative Study of Microtubule-associated Protein-2 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Proteins during Neural Induction of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

Int J Prev Med 2014 May;5(5):584-95

Department of Genetic, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: In recent years, adipose tissue, due to the stem cells contained within, has found a new special place in laboratory and clinical applications. These adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the same characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Although bone marrow (BM) is not easily accessible and its procurements may be painful, most patients possess excess fat which can be obtained by less invasive methods; this makes adipose tissue ubiquitous, available and an ideal large-scale source for research on clinical applications.

Methods: BMSCs and ADSCs were harvested from three healthy human and were characterized using flow-cytometry. After they were treated for neurosphere formation using basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, B 27; terminal differentiation was performed. In this study, we used immunocytochemistry, real time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting techniques for detection and comparison of Nestin, microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) markers in human ADSCs and BMSCs.

Results: Under appropriate conditions ADSCs can differentiate into neuron-like cells and express neural markers the same as BMSCs, also the expression of GFAP marker in differentiated cells derived from ADSCs was significantly lower than the cells derived from BMSCs (P < 0.05). While the expression of MAP-2 marker in both groups was the same.

Conclusions: However, due to its advantages and according to our results based on the expression levels of GFAP and MAP-2, adipose tissue rather than BM could represent a more appropriate stem cell source for investigating the application of these cells in understanding the pathophysiology and in treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050679PMC
May 2014

Plastination of decalcified bone by a new resin technique.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 9;3:18. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The scope of this study was to preserve whole detailed structure of dissected and decalcified bones, taken from used cadavers, by a new plastination technique.

Materials And Methods: Specimens we used in this study were sheep femurs and human bones including pelvis, femur, tibia, and fibula. Bones, at first, fixed with 5% formalin and were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, and then were fixed again and washed under the tap water. The resulted flexible bones were dehydrated in -25°C acetone and degreased them in +25°C acetone. Then, the experimental and control specimen were placed in the vacuum chamber for forced impregnation with our new flexible unsaturated polyester resin (UP89 method) and silicon resin (S10 method), respectively. Finally, the strength and flexibility of plastinated decalcified specimens were investigated by tensometer, and the weight diversity was measured by digital balance.

Results: Plastinated bones prepared by this technique were found to be dried, non-fragile, durable, odorless, non-greasy, and demonstrating all detailed structures of the bones. Tensile and weight tests results indicated that plastinated decalcified femurs have owned higher flexibility and strength but lesser weight than plastinated undecalcified femurs. The characteristics of both experimental and control groups of plastinated decalcified specimens were found to have no significant difference.

Conclusions: Our synthesized resin found to be much more economical than conventional plastination method. In more details, properties of these new products were the same as, S10 method, from points of strength, flexibility and weight, but, since the money cost for producing them was about one fifth that of S10 method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.124648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929099PMC
March 2014

Transplantation of human adipose-derived stem cells enhances remyelination in lysolecithin-induced focal demyelination of rat spinal cord.

Mol Biotechnol 2014 May;56(5):470-8

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 81744-176, Isfahan, Iran.

Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a desirable stem cell source in neurodegenerative diseases treatment due to their ability to differentiate into different cell lineages. In this study, we transplanted human ADSCs (hADSCs) into a lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and determined the efficiency of these cells in remyelination process. Forty adult rats were randomly divided into control, lysolecithin, vehicle, and transplantation groups, and focal demyelination was induced by lysolecithin injection into spinal cord. To assess motor performance, all rats were examined weekly with a standard EAE scoring scale. Four weeks after cell transplantation, to assess the extent of demyelination and remyelination, Luxol Fast Blue staining was used. In addition, immunohistochemistry technique was used for assessment of the presence of oligodendrocyte phenotype cells in damaged spinal cord. Our results indicated that hADSCs had ability to differentiate into oligodendrocyte phenotype cells and improved remyelination process. Moreover, the evaluation of rat motor functions showed that animals which were treated with hADSC compared to other groups had significant improvement (P < 0.001). Our finding showed that hADSCs transplantation for cell-based therapies may play a proper cell source in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-014-9744-2DOI Listing
May 2014