Publications by authors named "Mohammad Kazemi"

145 Publications

Results on Varextropy Measure of Random Variables.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;23(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni "Renato Caccioppoli", Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Naples, Italy.

In 2015, Lad, Sanfilippo and Agrò proposed an alternative measure of uncertainty dual to the entropy known as extropy. This paper provides some results on a dispersion measure of extropy of random variables which is called varextropy and studies several properties of this concept. Especially, the varextropy measure of residual and past lifetimes, order statistics, record values and proportional hazard rate models are discussed. Moreover, the conditional varextropy is considered and some properties of this measure are studied. Finally, a new stochastic comparison method, named varextropy ordering, is introduced and some of its properties are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23030356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002483PMC
March 2021

Implications of Sex Difference in CT Scan Findings and Outcome of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia.

Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2020 Aug 16;2(4):e200248. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Radiology, Yas Women's Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (B.M.); Department of Radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Medical Imaging Center (B.M., H.G., M.A.K., M.G., H.H., P.R.) and Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology (K.K.), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran 1416753955, Iran; Department of Radiology, Amiralam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (M.A.K.); Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Endocrinology, Yas Complex Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (F.D.T.); and Department of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (M.C.).

Purpose: The novel coronavirus pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality since December 2019. Although the role of chest CT for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is still debatable, the modality has been used in scenarios of constrained reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. The epidemiologic reports indicate an unexplored difference between men and women in disease severity. We aimed to study the role of sex on disease severity and its correlation with CT findings.

Materials And Methods: Authors retrospectively studied all confirmed cases of COVID-19 with thoracic CT scans obtained at three hospitals from February 25, 2020, to March 15, 2020, in Tehran, Iran. CT involvement patterns of COVID-19 were analyzed based on sex and age of patients.

Results: One hundred fifteen patients (64.3% [74/115] men) were enrolled, with a median age of 57 years (age range, 21-89). Thirty patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 30 patients died during the hospital stay. Seventy-seven percent (37/48) of patients with unfavorable prognosis were male. Peripheral distribution of opacities was more common in men than women. When grouped by an age cut-off of 60 years, the women in the elder group had a peribronchovascular distribution pattern, and younger men showed an anterior distribution of opacities. Women younger than 60 years had significantly lower severity scores (CT-scores) (7.5 ± 6.8). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated a CT-score cut-off of 14.5 to have 100% sensitivity and 91.9% specificity for predicting poor prognosis in women younger than 60 years.

Conclusion: Opacity patterns on chest CT scans in COVID-19 are different based on sex and age, and men are at higher risk of disease severity and death.© RSNA, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/ryct.2020200248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370352PMC
August 2020

PI3 kinase signaling pathway in hematopoietic cancers: A glance in miRNA's role.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Mar 5:e23725. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hematopoietic cancers are among the most common malignancies worldwide, which are divided into different types depending on the origin of tumor cells. In recent years, the pivotal role of different signaling pathways in the onset and progression of these cancer types has been well established. One of these pathways, whose role in blood malignancies has been well-defined, is PI3K/mTOR/AKT axis. The signaling pathway involves in a wide variety of important biological events in cells. It is clear that dysregulation of mediators involved in PI3 kinase signaling takes a pivotal role in cancer development. Considering the undeniable role of miRNAs, as one of the well-known families of non-coding RNAs, in gene regulation, we aimed to review the role of miRNAs in regulation of PI3 kinase signaling effectors in hematopoietic cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23725DOI Listing
March 2021

Immune and metabolic checkpoints blockade: Dual wielding against tumors.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Feb 13;94:107461. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Immunology Research Center, Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy have raised hopes for treating cancers that are resistant to conventional therapies. Among the various immunotherapy methods, the immune checkpoint (IC) blockers were more promising and have paved their way to the clinic. Tumor cells induce the expression of ICs on the immune cells and derive them to a hyporesponsive exhausted phenotype. IC blockers could hinder immune exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment and reinvigorate immune cells for an efficient antitumor response. Despite the primary success of IC blockers in the clinic, the growing numbers of refractory cases require an in-depth study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying IC expression and function. Immunometabolism is recently found to be a key factor in the regulation of immune responses. Activated or exhausted immune cells exploit different metabolic pathways. Tumor cells can suppress antitumor responses via immunometabolism alteration. Therefore, it is expected that concurrent targeting of ICs and immunometabolism pathways can cause immune cells to restore their antitumor activity. In this review, we dissected the reciprocal interactions of immune cell metabolism with expression and signaling of ICs in the tumor microenvironment. Recent findings on dual targeting of ICs and metabolic checkpoints have also been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107461DOI Listing
February 2021

Meta-inflammatory state and insulin resistance can improve after 10 weeks of combined all-extremity high-intensity interval training in sedentary overweight/obese females: a quasi-experimental study.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 18;19(2):717-726. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 81744-176 Iran.

Objective: The effects of exercise training on suppression of inflammation have been proposed as a therapeutic approach in recent years to modify the obesity-induced inflammatory status and immunometabolic disorders. The present study aimed to assess the impacts of an all-extremity combined high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory state and glycolipid metabolism in young sedentary overweight and obese females.

Method: This was an quasi-experimental study which was applied by comparing two groups. The participants were allocated to two active (AG, n = 15) and inactive (IG, n = 15) groups. The serum level of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-10, pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and tumor-necrosis factor α (TNFα) was measured in all subjects. Also, glycolipid metabolism was assessed by measuring the fasting lipid profile parameters, glucose, and insulin levels and calculating the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR).

Results: Following a 10-week combined all-extremity HIIT in the active subjects, the TNFα, PTX3/IL-10, and TNFα/adiponectin were significantly reduced. However, the absolute levels of adiponectin, IL-10, and PTX3 remained unchanged. Additionally, a significant decrease was found in insulin, LDL, and HOMA2-IR, while insulin sensitivity and HDL levels showed a significant increase in the active group compared to the inactive group.

Conclusions: Our 10-week time-efficient combined all-extremity HIIT promoted an anti-inflammatory state and glycolipid metabolism improvement, suggesting this protocol as a practical therapeutic approach in sedentary obese females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00550-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843680PMC
December 2020

Plasma levels of norepinephrine and expression levels of ß2-adrenergic receptor gene correlate with the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 9;34:151. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Acute graft-versus-host disease is a major complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are stress hormones which affect many cells, including immune cells through interaction with adrenergic receptors, mainly β2-adrenergic receptor. The immunomodulatory effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and signaling of the adrenergic receptor have been shown to decrease the probability of the acute graft-versus-host disease in animal models. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible correlations between the serum levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine and also leukocytic expression levels of β2-adrenergic receptor with the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. In this study, the plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine and the leukocytic expression of β2-adrenergic receptor gene were measured and compared in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation patients with and without acute graft-versus-host disease. Data were analyzed and illustrated using SPSS 19 and GraphPad Prism 6. The student T-test, Pearson, and Spearman's tests were performed and p<0.05 was considered as significant. We showed that the plasma levels of norepinephrine and the relative amount of the mRNA of β2-adrenergic receptor at 7 and 21 days after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation were significantly lower in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease than recipients without acute graft-versus-host disease. There were also negative correlations between the plasma levels of norepinephrine, leukocytic levels of the mRNA of β2-adrenergic receptor, and the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease. Our results suggest that stress hormones and their receptor might have a role in preventing acute graft-versus-host disease and could be promising factors in controlling the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.34.151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787040PMC
November 2020

Chondrogenic activity of two herbal products; pomegranate fruit extract and avocado/soybean unsaponifiable.

Res Pharm Sci 2020 Aug 28;15(4):358-366. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Articular cartilage defects aren't repaired by itself. Numerous studies have been conducted in the area of cartilage tissue engineering and some of them considered herbal products. An attempt was made in this study to compare the effects of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE), avocado/soybean unsaponifiable (ASU), and their equal proportional mixture on the chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs).

Experimental Approach: PFE was prepared through the percolation method. ASU powder was dissolved in ethanol at 10 μg/mL concentration and was sterilized. The hADSCs first were isolated, expanded in monolayer culture and identified, and next seeded on fibrin scaffolds. The hADSCs/fibrin scaffolds were divided into 4 groups of control, ASU, PFE, and PFE+ ASU and subjected to induction for 2 weeks. The control group received chondrogenic medium, other groups received chondrogenic medium plus ASU, PFE, or PFE + ASU, respectively. The MTT assay was performed for cell viability evaluation, real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of cartilage genes, and the toluidine blue, safranin-O, and immunohistochemistry for staining of the constructs.

Findings / Results: Cell viability, cartilage genes expression, matrix staining density, and collagen II protein levels in PFE samples were significantly higher than those of the other groups ( < 0.05). Histological assessments revealed more chondrogenic centers ( < 0.05) in the PFE group compared to the other groups.

Conclusion And Implications: In this study, it was revealed that PFE can be considered as an induction factor for future chondrogenic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.293514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714020PMC
August 2020

Investigation of grape sap on wingless/integrated and β-catenin genes expression with histological factors on the hair follicle in rat.

Res Pharm Sci 2020 Aug 28;15(4):350-357. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Natural products are used to improve the damage caused by harmful reagents in various pathological situations. This study investigated the effect of grape sap as a natural product with antioxidant properties on follicle cell proliferation in bleomycin (as a chemotherapy agent with toxic effects on hair growth) treated rats skin.

Experimental Approach: The bleomycin treated rats were administrated grape sap. Wingless/integrated (wnt) and β-catenin gene expression as follicle proliferative markers were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, histological factors and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated.

Findings / Results: The data showed that, grape sap increased the number of anagenic hair follicle in grape sap (100 mg/kg) group ( < 0.001), sebaceous glands ( < 0.001), blood vessel density ( < 0.001), and hair growth length ( < 0.001). Also, wnt and β-catenin gene expression was elevated. The data showed that wnt and β-catenin gene expression were elevated in grape sap treated animals versus bleomycin group ( < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively).

Conclusion And Implications: Our finding showed that grape sap can be effective in increasing hair growth a gains bleomycin toxic effects on skin hair growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.293513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714015PMC
August 2020

The Decomposition and Forecasting of Mutual Investment Funds Using Singular Spectrum Analysis.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Jan 9;22(1). Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahroud, Iran.

Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is a non-parametric method that breaks down a time series into a set of components that can be interpreted and grouped as trend, periodicity, and noise, emphasizing the separability of the underlying components and separate periodicities that occur at different time scales. The original time series can be recovered by summing all components. However, only the components associated to the signal should be considered for the reconstruction of the noise-free time series and to conduct forecasts. When the time series data has the presence of outliers, SSA and other classic parametric and non-parametric methods might result in misleading conclusions and robust methodologies should be used. In this paper we consider the use of two robust SSA algorithms for model fit and one for model forecasting. The classic SSA model, the robust SSA alternatives, and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model are compared in terms of computational time and accuracy for model fit and model forecast, using a simulation example and time series data from the quotas and returns of six mutual investment funds. When outliers are present in the data, the simulation study shows that the robust SSA algorithms outperform the classical ARIMA and SSA models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22010083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516519PMC
January 2020

Immunopathological similarities between COVID-19 and influenza: Investigating the consequences of Co-infection.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 3;152:104554. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Immunology Research Center, Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a global public health emergency since December 2019, and so far, more than 980,000 people (until September 24, 2020) around the world have died. SARS-CoV-2 mimics the influenza virus regarding methods and modes of transmission, clinical features, related immune responses, and seasonal coincidence. Accordingly, co-infection by these viruses is imaginable because some studies have reported several cases with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus co-infection. Given the importance of the mentioned co-infection and the coming influenza season, it is essential to recognize the similarities and differences between the symptoms, immunopathogenesis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus. Therefore, we reviewed the virology, clinical features, and immunopathogenesis of both influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 and evaluated outcomes in cases with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus co-infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607235PMC
March 2021

Regeneration of Rat Sciatic Nerve Using PLGA Conduit Containing Rat ADSCs with Controlled Release of BDNF and Gold Nanoparticles.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Apr 7;71(4):746-760. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Implantation of a nerve guidance conduit (NGC) carrying neuroprotective factors is promising for repairing peripheral nerve injury. Here, we developed a novel strategy for repairing peripheral nerve injury by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-encapsulated chitosan in laminin-coated nanofiber of Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) conduit and transplantation of rat adipose-derived stem cells (r-ADSCs) suspended in alginate. Then, the beneficial effect of AuNPs, BDNF, and r-ADSCs on nerve regeneration was evaluated in rat sciatic nerve transection model. In vivo experiments showed that the combination of AuNPs- and BDNF-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles in laminin-coated nanofiber of PLGA conduit with r-ADSCs could synergistically facilitate nerve regeneration. Furthermore, the in vivo histology, immunohistochemistry, and behavioral results demonstrated that the AuNPs- and BDNF-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles in NGC could significantly reinforce the repair performance of r-ADSCs, which may also contribute to the therapeutic outcome of the AuNPs, BDNF, and r-ADSCs strategies. In this study, we found that the combination of AuNPs and BDNF releases in NGC with r-ADSCs may represent a new potential strategy for peripheral nerve regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01694-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Generalized gene expression programming models for estimating reference evapotranspiration through cross-station assessment and exogenous data supply.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 30;28(6):6520-6532. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Adopting methodologies utilizing exogenous data from ancillary stations for determining crop water requirement is a suitable approach to exempt local shortcomings due to the lack of meteorological data/stations. Meanwhile, soft computing techniques might be suitable tools to be used with such data management scenarios. The present paper aimed at evaluating the generalizability of the gene expression programming (GEP) technique for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ET) through cross-station assessment and exogenous data supply, using data from Turkey and Iran. The GEP-based models were established and learnt using data from 10 stations in Turkey, and then the developed models were tested (validated) in 18 stations of Iran with considerable latitude differences. Different time periods (beginning and the end of time series) were selected for the training and testing stations so that there was no overlap among the dates of the events in both the groups. A comparison was also performed between the GEP models and the corresponding commonly used empirical equations. The obtained results revealed that the generalized GEP models presented promising outcomes in simulating daily ET values when they were trained and tested in quite distant stations with different chronological periods of the applied parameters. The performance accuracy of the empirical equations calibrated using exogenous data was reduced in comparison with their original (non-calibrated) versions. Further, although the generalization ability of the GEP models was reduced when the climatic context of the training-testing stations was different, the overall performance accuracy of those models was higher than those of the commonly used classic empirical equations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10916-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values and peritumoral edema with pathologic biomarkers in patients with breast cancer.

Clin Imaging 2020 Dec 27;68:242-248. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Complex Hospital, Tehran, Iran; Department of Radiology, Amiralam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between breast cancer imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological characteristics.

Methods And Materials: We prospectively enrolled 46 patients who underwent 1.5-T MRI with 68 breast malignant lesions from 2017 until 2019. Peritumoral edema was determined based on visual assessment on T2 weighted imaging. Lesions were categorized into two groups: A: with edema (48 lesions) and B: without edema (20 lesions).

Results: The tumor size was not different among two groups but multifocal-multicentric lesions were more common in the group A (70% vs. 35%). The axillary lymph nodes are most involved in group A. ER and PR positive lesions were more common in group B (90% vs. 56.3%) but in the group A, HER2 positive lesions were found to be more common (31.3% vs. 15%). The mean ADC value in tumors and peritumoral regions were lower (0.97 × 10 mm/s, P = 0.023) and higher (1.85 × 10 mm/s, P < 0.0001) in group A, respectively. Peritumoral ADC value was significantly higher in HER2-positive group.

Conclusion: Breast carcinomas with peritumoral edema were found to be more multifocal-multicentric, with higher prevalence of axillary lymph node involvement, more HER 2-positive, with lower prevalence of ER/PR-positive, lower tumoral ADC and higher peritumoral ADC values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.08.020DOI Listing
December 2020

Radiologic evaluation of the mastoid segment of the facial nerve tract in the intact temporal bone.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Feb 18;43(2):145-151. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amir Alam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To localize the facial nerve course in the mastoid segment and to measure its distances relative to the tympanic membrane.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. During 2019 in a tertiary hospital, 129 non-contrast and non-pathologic temporal CT images were studied in a tertiary hospital. Facial nerve distances were measured from the planes passing through the annulus in the axial cross-sections at superior, umbo, and inferior levels of the tympanic membrane. It was done in two different dimensions which are anteroposterior (toward the plane of the ear canal wall) and mediolateral (toward the plane of the tympanic membrane).

Results: The least mean anteroposterior distance between the facial nerve and the posterior ear canal wall was at the level of umbo (3.66 ± 0.76 mm). The nearest point of the nerve toward the tympanic membrane was the inferior level (- 0.03 ± 0.81 mm). Overall external ear canal lengths were statistically significantly lower in women rather than men. There was a reverse correlation between the age and the ear canal length.

Conclusion: Posterior canalplasty seems to be safe unless dissection does not cross the plane of annulus. In this study, the safe margin was 1.4 mm in posterior canal wall drilling. It also should be performed carefully if it extends to the inferior side of the canal. Measuring the mediolateral dimension of the nerve toward the annulus in the axial CT images seems to be practically beneficial, especially in the inferior where the ear canal wall turns and might not act as a good landmark. Paying attention to this plane may reduce the risks of nerve injury in any procedures with transcanal approaches, particularly in inferior canaloplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-020-02554-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Petrochemical wastewater and produced water: Treatment technology and resource recovery.

Water Environ Res 2020 Oct 25;92(10):1695-1700. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

College of Engineering, The State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, Utica, New York, USA.

Petrochemical wastewater and produced water from oil and gas operations typically contain an array of organic and inorganic contaminants. The complexity of the wastewater, stringent environmental regulations, and the need for sustainable solutions have driven many research efforts in studying and developing advanced technology or combined treatment processes. On the other hand, the wastewater itself can be resources for water, energy, and other valuable product if appropriate technology is developed to recover them in a cost-effective fashion. The research advances in wastewater treatment and resource recovery technology are reviewed and summarized. For petrochemical wastewater, progresses were made in advanced oxidation, biological processes, and recovery of energy and water from wastewater. For produced water, many efforts were focused on membrane processes, combined systems, and biological treatment. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Significant progress continued to be made on petrochemical wastewater and produced water treatment. Recent technological advances in various treatment processes were summarized. Technologies focusing on resource recovery (e.g., water or energy) were presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1424DOI Listing
October 2020

The immunoregulatory and neuroprotective effects of human adipose derived stem cells overexpressing IL-11 and IL-13 in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Oct 18;87:106808. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Anatomical Science, School Of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelination disease in the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by incomplete endogenous remyelination in the chronic phase. A shift of the balance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines is one of the important markers in the pathogenesis of MS. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) overexpressing interleukin 11 and interleukin 13 (IL-11, 13-hADSCs) on the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS.12 days after immunization of C57Bl/6 female mice with MOG35-55 and initial clinical symptoms appearance, the IL-11, 13-hADSCs were injected via the tail vein into the EAE mice. Then, the mice were sacrificed at 30 days post-immunization (DPI) and the spinal cords of experimental groups were extracted for histopathological and real-time RT-PCR studies.The results indicated that the clinical scores and mononuclear cells infiltration into the spinal cords of EAE mice were significantly reduced in mice treated with IL-11, 13-hADSCs. Likewise, the remyelination and oligodendrogenesis were significantly enhanced in the mentioned treatment group. Real-time results demonstrated that pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine genes expression was reversed in IL-11, 13-hADSCs treatment group in comparison to the untreated EAE group.Expression of IL-11 as a neurotrophic cytokine and IL-13 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine by hADSCs could increase the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of hADSCs and be a powerful candidate in stem cell therapy for future treatment of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106808DOI Listing
October 2020

Apparent diffusion coefficient of different areas of brain in foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction.

Pol J Radiol 2020 15;85:e301-e308. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Centre, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (IKHC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of different brain areas between two groups of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) foetuses and control cases.

Material And Methods: A total of 38 foetuses with IUGR and 18 normal control foetuses with similar gestational age were compared using a 3T magnetic resonance scanner. IUGR cases included 23 foetuses with clinical severity signs (group A) and 15 foetuses without clinical severity signs (group B). ADC values were measured in different brain regions and compared among groups. Foetuses with structural brain abnormalities were excluded from the study.

Results: All foetuses had normal foetal structural brain anatomy. Head circumference (HC) < 5% was more common in IUGR group A compared to IUGR group B (56.5% vs. 13.3%, < 0.0001). In comparison to the normal group, the ADC values in IUGR foetuses were significantly lower in cerebellar hemispheres (CH) (1.239 vs. 1.280.5 × 10 mm/s, = 0.045), thalami (1.205 vs. 1.285 × 10 mm/s, = 0.031) and caudate nucleus (CN) (1.319 vs. 1.394 × 10 mm/s, = 0.04). However, there were no significant differences in ADC values between IUGR subtypes. Among all brain regions, pons had the lowest ADC values.

Conclusions: ADC values of thalami, CN, and CH were significantly lower in IUGR than control foetuses, while there was no significant difference among IUGR groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of ADC changes in IUGR foetuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pjr.2020.96950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361370PMC
June 2020

Do we expect important complications of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy?

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Jul 16:1-2. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Maternal Fetal Neonatal Research Center, Valiasr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1793321DOI Listing
July 2020

Combined All-Extremity High-Intensity Interval Training Regulates Immunometabolic Responses through Toll-Like Receptor 4 Adaptors and A20 Downregulation in Obese Young Females.

Obes Facts 2020 2;13(3):415-431. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran,

Metainflammation and malfunctions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are related to obesity-induced immunometabolic morbidities. There are almost no studies relating exercise training to the TLR4 pathway and its adaptors and negative regulators. Thirty young women with obesity (exercise group and control group) were included in a 10-week all-extremity combined high-intensity interval training program. The immunomodulatory impacts of exercise on TLR4, its related adaptors (TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β[TRIF], myeloid differentiation factor 88 [MyD88],and tumor receptor-associated factor 6 [TRAF6]), transcriptional factors (nuclear factor [NF]-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3 [IRF3]), and negative regulator (A20) mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR. Also, the serum concentration of TLR4 final products (tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα] and interferon γ [IFNγ]) was measured by ELISA. Cardiorespiratory and body composition parameters were tested, as well. There was a significant improvement in body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. This intervention downregulated TLR4 (from 2.25 ± 1.07 to 0.84 ± 1.01), MyD88 (from 4.53 ± 5.15 to 1.27 ± 0.88), NF-κB (from 1.61 ± 2.03 to 0.23 ± 0.39), IRF3 (from 1.22 ± 0.77 to 0.25 ± 0.36), and A20 (from 0.88 ± 0.59 to 0.22 ± 0.33) levels and reduced the TNFα concentrations (from 22.39 ± 11.43 to 6.26 ± 5.31) significantly in the exercise group, while no statistically significant change was found in TRIF and TRAF6 expression and IFNγ circulating levels. It is concluded that long-term exercise modifies the inflammatory pathways and modulates the immune function at the early stages of inflammation initiation in circulating immune cells. Accordingly, we suggest time-efficient exercise protocols as a possible therapy approach for the prevention of M1 polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445579PMC
July 2020

Direct Conjugation of Retinoic Acid with Gold Nanoparticles to Improve Neural Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells.

J Mol Neurosci 2020 Nov 8;70(11):1836-1850. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed as useful medical carriers in the field of regenerative medicine. This study aimed to assess the direct conjugation ability of retinoic acid (RA) with AuNPs and to develop a strategy to differentiate the human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hADSCs) into neurons using AuNPs-RA. The physical properties of this nanocarrier were characterized using FT-IR, TEM, and FE-SEM. Moreover, the efficiency of RA conjugation on AuNPs was determined at 99% using UV-Vis spectroscopy. According to the MTT assay, an RA concentration of 66 μM caused a 50% inhibition of cell viability and AuNPs were not cytotoxic in concentrations below 5 μg/ml. Real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry proved that AuNPs-RA is able to increase the expression of neuronal marker genes and the number of neuronal protein (GFAP and MAP2)-positive cells, 14 days post-induction of hADSCs. Taken together, these results confirmed that the AuNPs-RA promote the neuronal differentiation of hADSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01577-wDOI Listing
November 2020

Application of electrospun polycaprolactone fibers embedding lignin nanoparticle for peripheral nerve regeneration: In vitro and in vivo study.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Sep 13;159:154-173. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Lignin displays attractive properties in peripheral nerve applications. Here, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with various percentages of lignin nanoparticles were fabricated using the electrospinning method. The morphologies, contact angles, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, and water uptake of the PCL/lignin fibers were characterized. Cell viability and adhesion of PC12 and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were studied employing MTT assay and SEM, respectively. SEM, immunocytochemistry, and Real-Time PCR were utilized to characterize neural differentiation and neurite length of PC12 and hADSCs. To further study on lignin effect on nerve regeneration, in vivo studies were performed. The results indicated that all nanocomposite fibers were smooth and bead-free. With increasing the lignin content, the water contact angle decreased while in vitro degradation, water uptake, and Young's modulus increased compared to the PCL fibers. Cell viability, and differentiation along with neurite length extension were promoted by increasing lignin content. The neural markers expression for differentiated cells were upregulated by the increase of lignin percent. In vivo investigation also demonstrates that sample groups incorporating 15% lignin nanoparticles showed better regeneration among others. Therefore, PCL with 15% of lignin nanoparticles shows great potential to be applied for nerve regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.073DOI Listing
September 2020

Immune checkpoints in hematologic malignancies: What made the immune cells and clinicians exhausted!

J Cell Physiol 2020 12 7;235(12):9080-9097. Epub 2020 May 7.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hematologic malignancies comprise a considerable part of cancers with high mortality at any age. Since the introduction of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the overall survival of patients dramatically increased. The main goal of HSCT is the induction of a graft-versus-leukemia effect to eradicate the residual cancer cells and also reconstitute a healthy immune system for patients. However, relapse is a nettlesome challenge of HSCT. Like many other tumors, hematologic cancer cells induce immune exhaustion leading to immune escape and relapses after HSCT. Besides malignant cells, inhibitory cells such as tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells express various inhibitory receptors capable of inducing exhaustion in immune cells, especially T and natural killer cells. The significance of immune checkpoint blocking in tumor regression in clinical trials led to the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine. Here, we reviewed the clinical roles of immune checkpoints in hematologic malignancies and post-HSCT relapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29769DOI Listing
December 2020

Human platelet antigen 1-6, 9 and 15 in the Iranian population: An anthropological genetic analysis.

Sci Rep 2020 05 4;10(1):7442. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are membranous glycoproteins considered as alloantigens due to their polymorphisms. HPA-incompatibility in multiple pregnancies or blood transfusion can induce the development of alloantibodies leading to thrombocytopenia. The frequency of HPAs varies among populations, so that deep knowledge of HPA frequencies will help us to reduce those incompatibilities. Herein, we studied the allele and genotype frequencies of HPA1-6, HPA9, and HPA15 among the Iranians with intra- and inter-populations analyses on 36 worldwide populations with diverse ethnicities. The analysis shows that the HPA2 and HPA5 have the greatest differences in genotype distribution between the Iranians and other nations, although similar to other populations, the sole allele found in HPA4, 6, and 9 is "a". Despite other HPAs, the most frequent allele in HPA15 is "b", which is also abundant in HPA3. Hierarchical clustering indicates the highest degree of global similarity in HPA genotype frequency among Iranian, Argentinian, Brazilian, and German Turkish populations. Our findings can be applied to decrease the risk of alloimmunizations and platelet disorders, especially in neonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64469-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198494PMC
May 2020

Breast cancer: Biology, biomarkers, and treatments.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jul 29;84:106535. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Recombinant Proteins Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

During the past recent years, various therapies emerged in the era of breast cancer. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in which genetic and environmental factors are involved. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are the main player in the aggressiveness of different tumors and also, these cells are the main challenge in cancer treatment. Moreover, the major obstacle to achieve an effective treatment is resistance to therapies. There are various types of treatment for breast cancer (BC) patients. Therefore, in this review, we present the current treatments, novel approaches such as antibody-drug conjugation systems (ADCs), nanoparticles (albumin-, metal-, lipid-, polymer-, micelle-based nanoparticles), and BCSCs-based therapies. Furthermore, prognostic and predictive biomarkers will be discussed also biomarkers that have been applied by some tests such as Oncotype DX, Mamm αPrint, and uPA/PAI-1 are regarded as suitable prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106535DOI Listing
July 2020

CT Findings of Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pneumonia.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020 07 14;215(1):W9. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.23212DOI Listing
July 2020

The Exercise Training Modulatory Effects on the Obesity-Induced Immunometabolic Dysfunctions.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 19;13:785-810. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Reduced physical activity rate in people's lifestyle is a global concern associated with the prevalence of health disorders such as obesity and metabolic disturbance. Ample evidence has indicated a critical role of the immune system in the aggravation of obesity. The type, duration, and production of adipose tissue-released mediators may change subsequent inactive lifestyle-induced obesity, leading to the chronic systematic inflammation and monocyte/macrophage (MON/MФ) phenotype polarization. Preliminary adipose tissue expansion can be inhibited by changing the lifestyle. In this context, exercise training is widely recommended due to a definite improvement of energy balance and the potential impacts on the inflammatory signaling cascades. How exercise training affects the immune system has not yet been fully elucidated, because its anti-inflammatory, pro-inflammatory, or even immunosuppressive impacts have been indicated in the literature. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms triggered by exercise can suggest a new approach to combat meta-inflammation-induced metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarized the obesity-induced inflammatory pathways, the roles of MON/MФ polarization in adipose tissue and systemic inflammation, and the underlying inflammatory mechanisms triggered by exercise during obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S234992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090203PMC
March 2020

The Performance of Quality Metrics in Assessing Error-Concealed Video Quality.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2020 Mar 31. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

In highly-interactive video streaming applications such as video conferencing, tele-presence, or tele-operation, retransmission is typically not used, due to the tight deadline of the application. In such cases, the lost or erroneous data must be concealed. While various error concealment techniques exist, there is no defined rule to compare their perceived quality. In this paper, the performance of 16 existing image and video quality metrics (PSNR, SSIM, VQM, etc.) evaluating errorconcealed video quality is studied. The encoded video is subjected to packet loss and the loss is concealed using various error concealment techniques. We show that the subjective quality of the video cannot be necessarily predicted from the visual quality of the error-concealed frame alone. We then apply the metrics to the error-concealed images/videos and evaluate their success in predicting the scores reported by human subjects. The errorconcealed videos are judged by image quality metrics applied on the lossy frame, or by video quality metrics applied on the video clip containing that lossy frame; this way, the impact of error propagation is also considered by the objective metrics. The measurement and comparison of the results show that, mostly though not always, measuring the objective quality of the video is a better way to judge the error concealment performance. Moreover, our experiments show that when the objective quality metrics are used for the assessment of the performance of an error concealment technique, they do not behave as they would for general quality assessment. In fact, some newly developed metrics show the correct decision only about 60% of the time, leading to an unacceptable error rate of as much as 40%. Our analysis shows which specific quality metrics are relatively more suitable for error-concealed videos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.2984356DOI Listing
March 2020

The Effects of Fibrin-icariin Nanoparticle Loaded in Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) Acid Scaffold as a Localized Delivery System on Chondrogenesis of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells.

Adv Biomed Res 2020 25;9. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Nowadays, cartilage tissue engineering is the best candidate for regeneration of cartilage defects. This study evaluates the effect of fibrin/icariin (ICA) nanoparticles (F/I NPs) on chondrogenesis of stem cells.

Materials And Methods: F/I NPs were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering DLS. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-F/I NP scaffold was fabricated and assessed by scanning electron microscope. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were seeded on scaffold and induced for chondrogenesis. After 14 days, cell viability and gene expression were analyzed by the 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MTT assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: The size and surface charge of F/I NP were about 28-30 nm and - 17, respectively. The average of pore size of PLGA and PLGA-fibrin/ICA was 230 and 340 μm, respectively. Cell viability of differentiated cells in P/F group was higher than others significantly ( ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ICA upregulated cartilaginous-specific gene expression. Furthermore, the results of the expression of type I collagen revealed that ICA downregulated this gene significantly ( < 0.01).

Conclusions: The results indicated that F/I NP could be a potential factor for chondrogenesis of stem cells and downregulation of fibrocartilage marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_143_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059457PMC
February 2020