Publications by authors named "Mohammad Kazem Koohi"

9 Publications

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Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to animals: an updated review.

J Transl Med 2020 09 21;18(1):358. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Pathobiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

COVID-19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) during late 2019. It has spread across the globe affecting nearly 21 million people with a toll of 0.75 million deaths and restricting the movement of most of the world population during the past 6 months. COVID-19 became the leading health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. In addition to the considerable COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in humans, several cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animal hosts (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) have been reported. Thus, the concern of pet owners is increasing. Moreover, the dynamics of the disease requires further explanation, mainly concerning the transmission of the virus from humans to animals and vice versa. Therefore, this study aimed to gather information about the reported cases of COVID-19 transmission in animals through a literary review of works published in scientific journals and perform genomic and phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from animal hosts. Although many instances of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, caution and further studies are necessary to avoid the occurrence of maltreatment in animals, and to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of the disease in the environment, humans, and animals. Future research in the animal-human interface can help formulate and implement preventive measures to combat the further transmission of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02534-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503431PMC
September 2020

In vivo toxicological evaluation of graphene oxide nanoplatelets for clinical application.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 22;13:4757-4769. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

NanoRegMed ltd, Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine Commercialization Centre, The London Bioscience Innovation Centre, London, UK.

Background: Graphene is considered as a wonder material; it is the strongest material on the planet, super-elastic, and conductive. Its application in biomedicine is huge, with a multibillion-dollar industry, and will revolutionize the diagnostic and treatment of diseases. However, its safety and potential toxicity is the main challenge.

Methods: This study assessed the potential toxicity of graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONs) in an in vivo animal model using systemic, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Normal saline (control group) or GONs (3-6 layers, lateral dimension=5-10 μm, and thickness=0.8-2 nm) at dose rate of 50, 150, or 500 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected into adult male Wistar rats (n=5) every 48 hours during 1 week to receive each animal a total of four doses. The animals were allowed 2 weeks to recover after the last dosing. Then, animals were killed and the blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. The organs including the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, intestine, brain, and heart were harvested for histopathological evaluations.

Results: The results showed GONs prevented body weight gain in animals after 21 days, treated at 500 mg/kg, but not in the animals treated at 150 or 50 mg/kg GONs. The biochemical analysis showed a significant increase in total bilirubin, with a significant decrease in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein in animals treated at 500 mg/kg. Nonetheless, other hematological and biochemical parameters remained statistically insignificant in all GONs treated animals. The most common histopathological findings in the visceral organs were granulomatous reaction with giant cell formation and accumulation of GONs in capsular regions. Also, small foci of neuronal degeneration and necrosis were the most outstanding findings in the brain, including the cerebellum.

Conclusion: In conclusion, this study shows that GONs without functionalization are toxic. The future study is a comparison of the functionalized with non-functionalized GONs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S168731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110298PMC
October 2018

Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2017 Dec 17;180(2):265-274. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Basic Science Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The haematocrit (HCT) significantly increased and blood coagulation time significantly reduced in the nano-zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P < 0.05). It seems that in the oral administration of nano-zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-017-1008-0DOI Listing
December 2017

Comparison of the Effects of Iron Oxide, as a New Form of Iron Supplement, and Ferrous Sulfate on the Blood Levels of Iron and Total Iron-Binding Globulin in the Rabbit.

Iran J Med Sci 2017 Jan;42(1):79-84

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Razi Institute for Drug Research, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Iron oxide is an important biological agent that has a key role in medical processes; however, the mechanism whereby it provides iron for human and animal cells and its biological uses remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of oral iron oxide on serum iron status and compare the results with those of iron sulfate as a reference salt. Fifteen adult rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 5 each: control group, iron sulfate group, and iron oxide group. The groups received doses of 3.3, 10, and 33 mg/kg in 3 experiments. Venous blood samples were obtained just before the oral administration of iron sulfate and iron oxide (3.3 mg/kg). More blood samples were taken 3 times at the time points of 1, 6, and 12 hours after the administration of the solutions. Serum was separated for the measurement of iron (Fe) and total iron-binding globulin (TIBG) with routine methods. One week later, the same experiment was repeated with 10 mg/kg of iron sulfate and iron oxide; and 1 week later after the second experiment, again the same experiment was repeated with 33 mg/kg of iron sulfate and iron oxide. The results showed that 33 mg/kg of iron sulfate 1 hour after treatment caused a significant difference in the Fe and TIBG levels between all the groups (P=0.014 for Fe and P=0.027 for TIBG). Our data showed that the absorption of iron oxide was similar to that of ferrous sulfate and in high doses was as useful as iron supplement.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337769PMC
January 2017

Attenuation of Withdrawal Signs, Blood Cortisol, and Glucose Level with Various Dosage Regimens of Morphine after Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice.

Iran J Med Sci 2016 Jan;41(1):53-8

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Morphine withdrawal usually results in unsuccessful outcomes. Despite partial benefits from alternative substances such as methadone, its use may not lead to the desired result due to the lack of mental tranquility during the withdrawal period. In this study, by means of an animal model, morphine itself was used to manage morphine dependence. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups, in which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 7 days (15-45 mg/kg). Afterwards, the animals received morphine for 14 days by either of the following regimens: Once daily 45 mg/kg (positive controls)Increasing the interval (each time 6 hours longer than the previous interval)Irregular interval in every 36, 12 and 24 hours until the 21(th) day12, 24, 36 hours decreasing doses (each time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). Negative controls received saline solution only. On day 22, total withdrawal index (TWI) was determined by injecting 3 mg/kg of naloxone. Thereafter, blood samples were taken for the measurement of cortisol and glucose levels. TWI significantly decreased in all test groups in comparison with the positive control animals (P<0.001). Cortisol levels significantly decreased when either the dosage or the administration frequencies were decreased on a regular and gradual basis (P<0.005). Blood glucose levels significantly decreased in animals that received decreasing doses of morphine (P<0.005). This study suggests that no other measures may be required in clinical practice except for changing the dosage regimen of morphine for the cessation of self-administration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4691271PMC
January 2016

Malathion induces anxiety in the male adult mouse.

Arch Med Sci 2013 Apr 10;9(2):368-71. Epub 2013 Feb 10.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The cholinergic nervous system and acetylcholine esterase are involved in chronic intoxication with organophosphorous insecticides. The present study aims to investigate the influence of the chronic toxicity of these chemicals on behaviors related to anxiety, using the elevated plus maze (EPM), in the male adult mouse.

Material And Methods: Either water or 1% concentration of malathion was applied dermally to the male adult mice (10 s, once daily for 28 days) and, on day 29, the EPM test was done.

Results: Time spent in the open arms (TSOA) in intoxicated animals was decreased by over 50% compared to the controls (p = 0.047). In contrast, time spent in closed arms was significantly higher in the malathion-exposed mice (p = 0.025). Percentage of open arm entries (OAE) was slightly smaller in the malathion-treated group in comparison to the control animals. Percentage of closed arm entries (CAE) in the treated group was slightly higher than the value in the control animals.

Conclusions: The results showed that chronic toxicity of malathion may lead to an anxiety-like behavior in the animal model used in this study. It is difficult to extend these findings to clinical situations. However, more experimental work in different animal species as well as epidemiological studies in human subjects in this regard are highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2013.33174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3648820PMC
April 2013

Amelioration of cardio-respiratory perturbations following Mesobuthus eupeus envenomation in anesthetized rabbits with commercial polyvalent F(ab')2 antivenom.

Toxicon 2012 Feb 17;59(2):249-56. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.

Immunotherapy is the only specific treatment for scorpion sting. In the present study, protective effects of polyvalent antivenom against hemodynamic disturbances, biomarkers (troponin T, creatinine kinase isoenzyme MB, Lactate dehydrogenase) changes, electrocardiogram abnormalities and histopathological complications in heart and lung induced by Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom was investigated in anesthetized rabbits. Twenty four rabbits were randomized into four equal groups: six rabbits in control group received 1 ml ultra-pure water subcutaneously (group 1). Group two received LD50 of venom (4.5 mg/kg). In the third and fourth groups, 5 ml of scorpion antivenom was administrated intravenously simultaneous with venom injection and 60 min following envenomation, respectively. Results of the present study indicate significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters following envenomation in the second group of animals. Venom injection caused edema, myocytolysis, coagulation necrosis, hemorrhage in heart as well as edema, hemorrhage and vascular thrombus in lungs. Although envenomed rabbits presented rises in LDH and TnT but no alteration in CK-MB was observed. Electrocardiogram monitoring of rabbits showed ST elevation and inverted T waves. Simultaneous administration of antivenom and venom prevented entirely the clinical signs, hemodynamic disturbances, markers changes, ECG abnormalities and histopathological damages. Delayed immunotherapy gradually ameliorated clinical signs, hemodynamic disturbances and markers changes related to envenomation. Histopathological evaluation showed slight alterations such as mild myocytolysis in heart and mild edema in lung following delayed immunotherapy. In conclusion, scorpion antivenom administration has preventive, neutralizing and curative properties for M. eupeus scorpion envenomation, if it would be applied at optimum time, dose and route.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.11.004DOI Listing
February 2012

Development of DNA-designed avian IgY antibodies for quantitative determination of bovine interferon-gamma.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2011 Feb 22;163(3):338-45. Epub 2010 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran,

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a cytokine produced by sensitized T lymphocytes, is one of the key elements in defining T helper 1 lymphocyte immune responses. Quantitative evaluation of IFN-γ expression could provide an important analytical tool for measurement of cell-mediated immunity and investigating immune responses to infectious diseases. Method of DNA-designed avian IgY antibodies was used for production of monospecific polyclonal antibodies that allows quantification of the recombinant bovine IFN-γ protein. IFN-γ cDNA was subcloned and expressed in mammalian expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1(+)) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus promoter. Chickens were immunized by plasmid DNA, and egg yolk antibodies extracted from eggs were collected after immunization. IgY-specific antibodies were evaluated by an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant IFN-γ. Based on the results, developed bovine IFN-γ capture ELISA could detect up to 1 ng/ml of IFN-γ by 64-fold diluted IgY. Monospecific anti-bovine IFN-γ antibodies generated in chickens are useful for quantifying different concentrations of recombinant bovine IFN-γ, which is expressed in cell culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-010-9042-9DOI Listing
February 2011

A novel molecular assay to discriminate transcriptional effects caused by xenoestrogens.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2007 Sep 17;276(1-2):45-54. Epub 2007 Jul 17.

Institute for Hormone and Fertility Research, University of Hamburg, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

A phenotypic definition of the term estrogen has become increasingly problematic due to the multiple modes of estrogen action which can now be defined by differing nuclear and membrane receptors for the classic ligand, 17beta-estradiol, and by the multiple signalling pathways that are consequently addressed. This has led to the term xenoestrogen being largely determined by whatever assay system is used for its definition. Here we describe a novel and simple matrix for a transfection system using MBA-MD231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells as hosts. This matrix is able to vary the type of nuclear estrogen receptor used, and by varying the promoter-reporter construct between one using a classic estrogen response element (ERE) enhancer, and one using an enhancer element derived from the bovine oxytocin gene promoter binding an orphan nuclear receptor, direct classical effects can be neatly discriminated from non-classical and non-genomic actions of test substances. This assay matrix has been used to examine a selection of phytoestrogens and xenobiotics, thereby providing new information on the mechanism of action of some of these substances in breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2007.06.008DOI Listing
September 2007
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