Publications by authors named "Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi"

38 Publications

Genotoxic effect of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphalt workers.

EXCLI J 2021 16;20:686-697. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Research Center of Prevention and Epidemiology of Non-Communicable Disease, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Asphalt workers are at risk due to exposure to asphalt fumes containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The main purpose of this study was to measure the urinary metabolite of PAHs and to determine its effect on micronucleus (MN) formation as an indicator of genotoxic damage. In this cross-sectional study, the MN frequency in 48 male asphalt workers exposed to PAHs was measured and compared with 48 male non-exposed employees. PAHs exposure was evaluated by determining urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP). The mean concentrations of 1-OHP in the exposed and non-exposed groups were 0.58 ± 0.41 μmol/mol creatinine and 0.38 ± 0.25 μmol/mol creatinine, respectively. 1-OHP concentration was significantly higher in smokers compared with non-smokers in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Moreover, the mean MN frequency in the exposed group was significantly higher than in the non-exposed group. The MN frequency was significantly higher in asphalt workers with a work history of ≥ 15 years compared to workers with lower work history. In a fully adjusted model, there was a statistically significant association between exposure to PAHs, with MN and 1-OHP concentration, and between smoking status with 1-OHP. The findings of the present study indicated that occupational exposure to PAHs was associated with increased urinary 1-OHP as well as DNA damage in the asphalt workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2021-3487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056049PMC
March 2021

Investigation of the association between pesticide exposure and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Shahedieh population in Yazd.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to pesticides and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a cross-sectional study with a population of 9088, the data were collected through Persian Adult Cohort Questionnaire in Shahedieh area of Yazd, Iran. Based on the results, variables such as age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, and education level in the studied population had a significant association with the prevalence of diabetes. Although the obtained data in this study did not show a relationship between exposure to pesticides and the risk of developing T2D, further prospective studies are needed to determine the association between exposure to pesticides and the development of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13821-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Short-term exposure to extreme temperature and risk of hospital admission due to cardiovascular diseases.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 Apr 5;31(3):344-354. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Occupational Health Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , Yazd, Iran.

: Numerous epidemiological studies have reported relevance of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases with short-term exposure to environmental temperature. In this study, we examined the hypothesis between temperature indices and hospital admission because of cardiovascular diseases. : The daily number of CVDs was obtained from all hospitals of the Sabzevar city. A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) following a quasi-Poisson distribution with distributed lag non-linear model (dlnm) was selected as a modeling framework for time-series analysis. : The overall CVD risk comparing the 1st percentile and the 99th percentile relative to the mean temperature (at lag 0) was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.11: 1.61), and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10: 1.64), respectively. For all indicators, the extremely cold effects persisted for the initial 7 days. : Our results suggest that extremely cold and extremely hot temperatures increase the relative risk of cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2019.1663496DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between ambient ozone pollution and mortality from a spectrum of causes in Guangzhou, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 31;754:142110. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China; JNU-QUT Joint Laboratory for Air Quality Science and Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China; Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Joint Laboratory of Collaborative Innovation for Environmental Quality, Guangzhou 511443, China. Electronic address:

Ambient ozone (O) has emerged as an important public health issue worldwide. Previous studies found an association between O and cardiorespiratory mortality. However, evidence was limited regarding the risk of O on mortality from other diseases. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between O and mortality from a broad spectrum of diseases in Guangzhou, China, which has experienced a rapid increase in O concentration over the past decades. Daily data were obtained on cause-specific mortality, air pollutant concentrations and weather conditions during 2013-2018. A generalized additive model with quasi-Poisson regression was applied to examine the association between O and mortality from 10 broad causes and 26 refined subcategories, with adjustment of long-term and seasonal trends, weather conditions, public holidays and days of the week. We found that the threshold concentrations of O were 40 μg/m for all-cause, non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Mortality risk increased monotonically with O concentrations above the threshold. Per 10 μg/m increase of O at lag 0-3 days was associated with 0.54% (95%CI: 0.34-0.74%), 0.56% (95%CI: 0.36-0.76%), 0.59% (95%CI: 0.30-0.88%), 0.78% (95%CI: 0.33-1.24%) and 0.52% (95%CI: 0.21-0.83%) elevated risk of death from all causes, non-accidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and neoplasms, respectively. Among the subcategories, the largest effect estimate was observed in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The elderly suffered from a higher mortality risk from O. Stringent emission control strategies and multi-sectoral collaborations are needed to reduce the detrimental impact of O on vulnerable populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142110DOI Listing
February 2021

Air pollution exposure and bladder, kidney and urinary tract cancer risk: A systematic review.

Environ Pollut 2020 Dec 20;267:115328. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

University Rennes 1, Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail), UMR_S 1085, F-35000, Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to outdoor air pollution has been linked to lung cancer, and suspicion arose regarding bladder, kidney, and urinary tract cancer (urological cancers). However, most of evidence comes from occupational studies; therefore, little is known about the effect of exposure to air pollution on the risk of urological cancers in the general population.

Method: We systematically searched Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles investigating the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and the risk of urological cancer (incidence or mortality). We included articles using a specific air pollutant (PM, PM, …) or proxies (traffic, proximity index …). We assessed each study's quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and rated the quality of the body of evidence for each pollutant-outcome with the GRADE approach. The different study methodologies regarding exposure or outcome prevented us to perform a meta-analysis.

Results: twenty articles (four case-control, nine cohort, and seven ecologic) met our inclusion criteria and were included in this review: eighteen reported bladder, six kidney, and two urinary tract. Modeling air pollutants was the most common exposure assessment method. Most of the included studies reported positive associations between air pollution and urological cancer risk. However, only a few reached statistical significance (e.g. for bladder cancer mortality, adjusted odds-ratio of 1.13 (1.03-1.23) for an increase of 4.4 μg.m-3 of PM). Most studies inadequately addressed confounding, and cohort studies had an insufficient follow-up.

Discussion: Overall, studies suggested positive (even though mostly non-significant) associations between air pollution exposure and bladder cancer mortality and kidney cancer incidence. We need more studies with better confounding control and longer follow-ups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115328DOI Listing
December 2020

Association of greenspace exposure with telomere length in preschool children.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 21;266(Pt 1):115228. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Exposure to greenspace has been associated with a wide range of health benefits; however, the available evidence on the association of this exposure with telomere length (TL), an early marker of ageing, is still scarce. We investigated the association of greenspace exposure with TL in a sample of 200 preschool children (aged 5-7 years) residing in Sabzevar, Iran (2017). We comprehensively characterized different aspects of greenspace exposure encompassing residential, kindergarten, and total (including both residential and kindergarten) surrounding greenspace (using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), residential and kindergarten distance to green spaces, time spent in private gardens and public green spaces, and the number of plant pots at home. Relative leukocyte TL (LTL) in blood samples of the study participants was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We applied mixed effects linear regression models with kindergarten and qPCR plate as random effects, to estimate the association of indicators of greenspace exposure (one at a time) with LTL, controlled for relevant covariates. We observed an inverse association between distance from home and kindergarten to green spaces larger than 5000 m and LTL. Moreover, higher total surrounding greenspace at 300m and 500m buffers and higher surrounding greenspace at 300m buffer around kindergarten and home were associated with longer LTL. Furthermore, longer time spent (h/week) in the public green spaces was associated with longer LTL. Our findings for residential and kindergarten distance to any green space (regardless of the size), residential surrounding greenspace at 100m and 500m buffers, kindergarten surrounding greenspace at 100m buffer, time spent in private gardens (h/week) and the number of plant pots at home were not conclusive. Our findings were generally suggestive for a positive association between greenspace exposure and LTL in preschool children. More studies are needed to confirm these findings in other settings with different climates and populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115228DOI Listing
November 2020

Socioeconomic - related inequalities in overweight and obesity: findings from the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Feb 11;20(1):214. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Overweight and obesity are major health concerns worldwide, with adverse health consequences during the life span. This study measured socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among Iranian adults.

Methods: Data were extracted from 129,257 Iranian adults (aged 35 years and older) participated in the Prospective Epidemiologic Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN) in 14 provinces of Iran in 2014. Socioeconomic-related inequality in overweight and obesity was estimated using the Concentration Index (C). The C further decomposed to find factors explaining the variability within the Socioeconomic related inequality in overweight and obesity.

Results: Of the total number of participants, 1.98, 26.82, 40.76 and 30.43% had underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity respectively. The age-and sex standardized prevalence of obesity was higher in females than males (39.85% vs 18.79%). People with high socioeconomic status (SES) had a 39 and 15% higher chance of being overweight and obese than low SES people, respectively. The positive value of C suggested a higher concentration of overweight (0.081, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.074-0.087) and obesity (0.027, 95% CI; 0.021-0.034) among groups with high SES. There was a wide variation in socioeconomic-related inequality in overweight and obesity rate across 14 provinces. The decomposition results suggested that SES factor itself explained 66.77 and 89.07% of the observed socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among Iranian adults respectively. Following SES, province of residence, physical activity, using hookah and smoking were the major contributors to the concentration of overweight and obesity among the rich.

Conclusions: Overall, we found that overweight and obesity is concentrated among high SES people in the study population. . Accordingly, it seems that intersectional actions should be taken to control and prevent overweight and obesity among higher socioeconomic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8322-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014739PMC
February 2020

Occupational hand dermatitis in car repair workers.

AIMS Public Health 2019 17;6(4):577-586. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Yazd Rural Water and Waste Water Company, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Exposure to used gasoline engine oils during oil change and other automobile repair services is common for many mechanics, electrical technicians, and other car service workers. We aimed to determine the prevalence of hand dermatitis in car repair workers with different specialty and actual dermal exposure hazards in the workplace.

Methods: We examined the dermal problems in 153 male car repair workers and compared it to 140 office workers. Exposed and control groups were administered a Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire. Dermal exposure score also was calculated.

Results: The prevalence of hand dermatitis in car repair workers (19.0%) was significantly higher than office worker (7.9%) [OR: 2.74, (95% CI = 1.31, 5.73)] and also higher than general population. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis was significantly higher in exposed group that had hand dermatitis compared with those who had no hand dermatitis (P < 0.001). The highest hand dermatitis as well as actual dermal exposure was observed in the mechanics and transmission technician respectively.

Conclusion: Car repair workers have an elevated prevalence of hand dermatitis in comparison with office workers. The most important risk factors for hand dermatitis among car repair workers are atopic dermatitis and the next the level of skin exposure to potential skin hazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2019.4.577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940577PMC
December 2019

The effect of canola oil compared with sesame and sesame-canola oil on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: Design and research protocol of a randomized, triple-blind, three-way, crossover clinical trial.

ARYA Atheroscler 2019 Jul;15(4):168-178

Associate Professor, Nutrition and Food Security Research Center AND Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Both canola and sesame oils consumption have been associated with favorable effects on cardio-metabolic biomarkers. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has compared their effects on cardiovascular risk factors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of canola, sesame, and sesame-canola oils consumption on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: This study was a randomized, triple-blind, three-way, crossover clinical trial. The study participants included 102 individuals with T2DM. Their spouses were also included in the study. The participants were entered into a 4-week run-in period. After that, their regular dietary oil was replaced with canola, sesame, or sesame-canola oils (a blend of sesame and canola oils) in three 9-week phases, which were separated by two 4-week washout periods (sunflower oil was consumed during the run-in and the washout periods). Dietary, physical activity, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were assessed at the beginning, in the middle (week 4-5), and at the end of each treatment phase. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Serum, plasma, buffy coat, and whole blood samples were extracted and kept at -80 ºC for further analysis. Serum fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were selected as the primary outcomes.

Results: 102 participants with T2DM were randomly assigned to one of the 6 rolling methods. Through them, 93 individuals (91.2%) completely participated in all phases.

Conclusion: The present study will provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the effect of canola, sesame, and sesame-canola oil on cardio-metabolic markers in adults with and without T2DM. This trial will also provide a good medium for the investigation of gene-dietary oils interaction in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i4.1940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884729PMC
July 2019

Hearing Thresholds Changes after MRI 1.5T of Head and Neck.

Radiol Res Pract 2019 17;2019:8756579. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Industrial Diseases Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 89138-14389, Iran.

Introduction: Exposure to high intensity noise produced by MRI is a cause for concern. This study was conducted to determine the temporary and permanent effects of exposure to noise created by performing MRI on the hearing threshold of the subjects using conventional and extended high frequency audiometry.

Methods: This semiexperimental study was performed on 35 patients referred to Shahid Rahnemoun Hospital for head and neck MRI due to different clinical conditions. The hearing threshold of patients was measured before, immediately after, and 24 hours after performing 1.5 Tesla MRI using conventional and extended high frequency audiometry. SPSS version 18 was used to compare the mean hearing thresholds before and after MRI using paired T test and repeated measures analysis.

Results: Comparison of auditory thresholds in conventional and extended high frequencies before and immediately after MRI showed a significant shift at 4 KHz (P = 0.008 and P = 0.08 for right and left ears), 6 KHz (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 for right and left ears), and 14 KHz (P =0.03 and P = 0.31 for right and left ears). However, there was no significant difference between audiometric thresholds before and 24 hours after MRI.

Conclusion: Noise due to 1.5 Tesla MRI can only cause transient threshold shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8756579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601493PMC
June 2019

Effects of PM and NO on the 8-isoprostane and lung function indices of FVC and FEV in students of Ahvaz city, Iran.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Mar 12;26(3):473-480. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between PM and NO pollutants and oxidative stress marker (8-isoprostane) and lung function tests (FVC and FEV) in healthy children who were living and studying in three different areas of Ahvaz city including A: Naderi site with high traffic, A: Alavi Alley site with average traffic, and A: Ein 2 site with low traffic (a rural area on the suburb of Ahvaz). 30 students in the 12-13 year-old range were selected from each studied zone (1, 2 and 3 sites) during three months of year. Of each student, one sample was taken every two weeks to measure 8-isoprostane of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Air pollution data were collected from three air quality monitoring stations. Also, the relationship between air pollution and 8-isoprostane as well as lung function tests were determined using generalized estimating equations (GEE). The mean concentration of PM and NO in A, A and A areas were 116, 92 and 45 (μg/m) also 77, 53 and 14 (ppb) respectively. Among all studied students, there was a significant correlation between the increase of mean concentration of PM and NO in 1-4 before sampling day, increased 8-isoprostane concentration and decreased FEV, while there was no significant correlation between them and decreased FVC. In A site, an increase in IQR (13 μg/m) PM and IQR (6.5 ppb) NO on 1-4 days before sampling was associated with 0.38 unit (95% CI: 0.11, 0.65) and 1.1 unit (95% CI: 0.85, 1.35) increase in 8-isoprostane concentration, also decreased 121 ml and 190 ml FEV, respectively. Results showed that the short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution can decrease the values of lung function indices and increase the oxidative stress. It may adversely affect children's lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408680PMC
March 2019

Carbon load in airway macrophages, DNA damage and lung function in taxi drivers exposed to traffic-related air pollution.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 11;26(7):6868-6876. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

To evaluate the potential applicability of carbon load in airway macrophages as a marker of exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and its association with parameters of comet assay as a marker of DNA damage, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the group of taxi drivers in Iran. One hundred four male taxi drivers with at least 1-year job history were randomly selected from registered drivers in the taxi union. Airway macrophages were obtained via sputum induction, and then the area of airway macrophages occupied by carbon was measured. DNA damage was determined by comet assay. PFTs were measured by the spirometer. Most of the participants (89.4%) were non-smoker. In this study, 52.7% of non-smoker participants were able to give a sample of sputum with macrophage. Carbon content of airway macrophages was 0.2 μm. There was no significant difference in pulmonary function and comet assay parameters in terms of smoking status. There was an inverse correlation between carbon load with each of comet assay and PFTs parameters, although not statistically significant. This study identified that long-term exposure to TRAP can be a risk factor for pulmonary disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04179-1DOI Listing
March 2019

Environmental extreme temperature and daily preterm birth in Sabzevar, Iran: a time-series analysis.

Environ Health Prev Med 2019 Jan 5;24(1). Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Occupational Health Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Objectives: Most of the studies on the effect of heat stress on preterm birth (PTB) are conducted in temperate climates. Evidence on this effect in hot and arid countries with low and middle income is limited. This paper describes the short-term effect of exposure to the hot and cold environment on a daily number of PTB in Iran.

Methods: The daily number of PTB was obtained from all hospitals of the city. Meteorological and air pollution data from 2011 to 2017 were obtained from a metrological station in the city. A semi-parametric generalized additive model following a quasi-Poisson distribution with the distributed lag non-linear model was selected as a modeling framework for time-series analysis to simultaneously model the short-term and lagged effect of heat stress on PTB in the Sabzevar city.

Results: The minimum and maximum daily temperature were - 11.2 and 45.4 °C respectively. The highest risk estimate at extreme cold temperature was found for apparent temperature (relative risk (RR) 1.83; 95% CI 1.61: 2.09). This pattern was seen for both models. For extreme hot temperatures, the model with mean temperature showed the highest risk increase for both the main model and air pollution adjusted model (RR 1.36; 95% CI 1.25: 1.49). The lowest risk estimate in extremely cold conditions was found in the model with mean temperature. However, for extremely hot temperature conditions, the lowest risk estimate was found for both maximum and apparent temperature.

Conclusion: Obstetricians working in semi-arid areas should be aware of the influence of environmental extreme temperature on the incidence of PTB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-018-0760-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320631PMC
January 2019

Environmental and behavioral determinants affecting the association of airway macrophages carbon load with distance to major roads and traffic density.

Chemosphere 2019 Feb 8;217:680-685. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Biomarkers are promising indicators to evaluate human exposure to air pollutants and to predict the health outcomes. Area of Airway macrophages that is occupied by Black Carbon could be used as a biomarker of personal long term exposure to traffic related air pollution. Association of airway macrophages carbon load with weighted average distance and environmental and subject-specific behavior are considered in this study. Sputum samples were taken from 160 healthy adult women and airway macrophages carbon load (AMCL) were determined in 93 subjects, which represent a success rate of 62% in sputum induction. Nearest distance of the subjects to major roads and average weighted distance were calculated for each subject. A questionnaire was field according to general and behavioral characteristics of the participants. There was not any significant difference (P-value >0.05) between induced and non-induced subjects. Subjects with indoor kitchen without separation wall, passive smokers and those with longer presence time in high traffic streets showed higher carbon area. Weighted average distance had a better association (β = -0.186, 95%CI: -0.139, -0.230, P-value = 0.00) with AMCL than nearest distance to major roads (β = -0.155, 95%CI: -0.109, -0.201, P-value = 0.19). Association of Weighted average distance with AMCL was interrupted in subjects with a garage connected to house environment, those with IK kitchen, those with a hood above the stove and passive smokers. The findings indicated that more generation and distribution of indoor air pollutants can completely enhance the internal exposure and indoor pollution has the same importance as outdoor pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.049DOI Listing
February 2019

Air pollution and telomere length in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jan 8;244:636-647. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Telomere length (TL) has been suggested to be a surrogate for cellular ageing, and a record of cumulative inflammation and oxidative stress over life. An emerging body of evidence has associated exposure to air pollution to changes in TL. To date there is no available systematic review of literature on this association. We aimed to systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of published studies on the relationship between air pollution and TL in adults. Electronic databases were systematically searched for available English language studies on the association between air pollution and TL published up to 1 July 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted following MOOSE guidelines. The heterogeneity in the reported associations was assessed using Cochran's Q test and quantified as I index. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's regression. Our search identified 19 eligible studies including 11 retrospective and eight prospective studies of which, four had excellent quality, ten had good quality and five had fair quality. Meta-analysis result of two studies on long-term exposure to PM showed an inverse association between these exposures and TL (for 5 μg/m PM-0.03 95% CI; -0.05, -0.01). Meta-analysis of short-term exposure to PM with three studies and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) with two studies revealed a direct association between these exposures and TL (0.03 95% CI; 0.02, 0.04 and 0.10 95% CI; 0.06, 0.15 respectively). No statistically significant relationship between exposure to PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and TL were observed. We observed suggestive evidence for associations between air pollution and TL with potentially different direction of associations for short- and long-term exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.130DOI Listing
January 2019

Occupational exposure to particulate matters and telomere length.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 27;25(36):36298-36305. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Occupational Health Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Little is known about the possible association between occupational exposure to mineral particulate matters and change in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as a hallmark of aging. The present study studied the relationship between occupational exposures to mineral dust and LTL in the exposed group of workers and compared to non-exposed workers. One hundred and ten male workers (80 exposed and 30 non-exposed) from different units of a ceramic factory were recruited in the study. Personal air samples were collected in the breathing zone of the workers for inhalable and respirable fractions. Relative LTL was measured in blood genomic DNA using the quantitative real-time PCR method and expressed as telomere/single copy gene ratio. Exposure to inhalable and respirable dusts in the exposed group was 22.66 ± 52.38 and 2.54 ± 9.34 mg/m respectively. Inhalable and respirable exposure values were highly correlated (r = 0.43; p < 0.001). Exposure to respirable and inhalable particles in 38.75% and 8.75% of exposed workers was higher than threshold limit value respectively. Mean LTL in the exposed workers (0.64 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than the non-exposed workers (0.73 ± 0.07) (p < 0.001). Despite the significant difference in exposure intensity according to working units in the exposed group, there was no significant difference in LTL according to the working units (p = 0.60). In the adjusted regression models, but not crude models, marginally significant and positive association was found between both size fractions and LTL. The observed effect size for respirable particles was five times of that found for the inhalable fraction (beta 0.005 and 0.001 respectively). Mineral dust-and not only traffic-related air pollutant exposure-could be regarded as a risk factor in the process of cell aging. Our findings imply that early biological aging, as reflected in telomere shortening, may mediate the effects of occupational air pollution exposure on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3486-9DOI Listing
December 2018

Mortality and morbidity due to exposure to ambient particulate matter.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 8;165:307-313. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Occupational Health Research Center, Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

The aim of this study was to investigate spatial variation and health risk of the exposure to PM (particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less) and PM (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less) in Sabzevar, Iran. PM and PM were measured during three campaigns from April to November 2017, in 26 sampling points. Spatial analysis was performed using kriging and autocorrelations (Moran's index) model in Arc GIS software. Relationship between exposure to the PM and PM and their health impacts were investigated by AirQ 2.2.3 software. The mean concentrations (and standard deviation) of PM and PM over the entire study period were 32.54 (37.28) and 42.61 (47.76) μg/m, respectively, which were higher than the guideline of World Health Organization. According to the spatial analysis, the maximum concentrations of PM and PM were around the main highway (beltway) which placed all over the south of Sabzevar. According to the Moran's index, the emission patterns for PM (Z-score = 2.53; P-value = 0.011) and PM (Z-score = 2.82; P-value = 0.004) were clustered. The attributable percentage (AP) of total mortality related to PM and PM were 3.544% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.623-4.447%) and 2.055% (95% CI: 1.379-2.721%) per increasing each 10 μg/m of these pollutants, respectively. According to observed results, it is suggested that the beltway and other pollution sources, such as industries, should be placed at a greater distance from the city, to reduce PM amounts in residential areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.012DOI Listing
December 2018

Correction to: Environmental Noise Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Problems in Children: a Systematic Review.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2018 09;5(3):396

Department of Hygiene and Ecomedicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv, 15-A Vassil Aprilov Blvd., 4002, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

The first author's name should should be "Fariba Zare Sakhvidi".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-018-0210-3DOI Listing
September 2018

Environmental Noise Exposure and Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Problems in Children: a Systematic Review.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2018 09;5(3):365-374

Department of Hygiene and Ecomedicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv, 15-A Vassil Aprilov Blvd., 4002, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Purpose Of Review: We systematically summarized and evaluated evidence on association between traffic noise exposure and indicators of neurodevelopmental and mental health problems.

Recent Findings: Twelve studies on 10 unique populations were reviewed. Different outcomes, mostly measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and its subscales, were reported. Overall bias in each study was acceptable, but the quality of evidence for specific outcomes was "low" to "very low," according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Data supporting the harmful effect of noise on neurodevelopmental and mental health in children are heterogeneous and limited. Direction of potentially harmful effect was most consistent for road traffic noise and total SDQ score and hyperactivity/inattention. At this point, there is only suggestive evidence that road traffic noise might lead to neurodevelopmental problems in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-018-0208-xDOI Listing
September 2018

Association between noise exposure and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Res 2018 10 10;166:647-657. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: The prevalence of diabetes is on rise worldwide and environmental factors are being increasingly recognized to be involved in this rise. An emerging body of evidence has evaluated the impact of long-term exposure to noise on diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need to synthesize this evidence.

Objectives: To systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of the available evidence on the association between long-term exposure to transport and occupational noise exposure and diabetes mellitus.

Methods: Selected databases were searched for available evidence published till September 13th, 2017 following MOOSE guidelines. The quality of articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis was applied to abstract combined estimates for diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure. We evaluated the heterogeneity applying Cochran's Q test and quantified it using I statistic. Meta-regressions were conducted to identify sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot and Egger's test.

Results: Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria of which nine including five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and two case-control studies with a total number of 444460 adult participants and 17430 diabetes mellitus cases included in meta-analyses. We observed a 6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3%, 9%) increase in the risk of diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure regardless of its source. Source-specific analyses were suggestive for stronger associations for air traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29 per 5 dB increase in exposure) flowed by road traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12). We observed some indications of publication bias; however the findings were robust after trim and fill test. Meta-regression analyses showed that the adjustment in general, and not specifically related to air pollution, could predict the between-study heterogeneity in reported associations.

Conclusions: The results indicate an increased risk of diabetes mellitus associated with noise exposure, mainly related to air and road traffic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.011DOI Listing
October 2018

Environmental determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure at home, at kindergartens and during a commute.

Environ Int 2018 09 14;118:266-273. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Research and Clinical Center for Infertility, Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

The aim of this study was to assess the potential health risk of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at home and kindergarten for pre-school children. The urine samples were taken from 200 pre-school children aged 5-7 years and analyzed for 1-OHP as a biomarker of PAHs. Mixed effect models were applied to investigate the association between effective environmental parameters (mode of transport, distance to major roads, traffic density, greenness, tobacco exposure, home ventilation, and grill foods) and urinary 1-OHP levels. A Monte-Carlo simulation technique was applied to calculate the risk of exposure to PAHs and to check the uncertainty of input variables and the sensitivity of the estimated risk. The median and inter quartile range (IQR) of 1-OHP was 257 (188.5) ng L. There was a positive significant association between distance from the kindergartens to the green space with surface area ≥5000 m and 1-OHP concentration (β = 0.844, 95% CI: 0.223, 1.46, P-value = 0.009). Also, urinary 1-OHP was found to be inversely associated with the time the window was open at the home (β = -12.56, 95% CI: -23.52, -1.596, P-value = 0.025) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a 100 m buffer around the homes. The mean (9.76 E-3) and 95th percentile (3.28 E-2) of the hazard quotient (HQ) indicated that the concentration of urinary 1-OHP is at a safe level for the target population (HQ < 1). According to the sensitivity analysis results, the concentration of 1-OHP is the most influential variable in the estimated risk. Our findings indicated that the proximity of homes and kindergartens to green space areas and their remoteness from the main streets and heavy traffic areas are associated with reduced exposure to PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.06.006DOI Listing
September 2018

The PERSIAN Cohort: Providing the Evidence Needed for Healthcare Reform.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11):691-695. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the past, communicable diseases caused the highest mortality in Iran. Improvements in socioeconomic status and living standards including access to safe drinking water, along with the inception of Health Houses in the 1980s, have changed disease patterns, decreasing the spread of and deaths from infectious and communicable diseases. The incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), however, have now increased in Iran, accounting for nearly 80% of deaths and disabilities. Without interventions, NCD are predicted to impose a substantial human and economic burden in the next 2 decades. However, Iran's health system is not equipped with the necessary policies to combat this growth and must refocus and reform. Therefore, in the year 2013, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education funded a well-designed nationwide cohort study-Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN)-in order to assess the burden of NCD and investigate the risk factors associated with them in the different ethnicities and geographical areas of Iran. The PERSIAN Cohort, which aims to include 200000 participants, has 4 components: Adult (main), Birth, Youth and Elderly, which are being carried out in 22 different regions of Iran. Having an enormous dataset along with a biobank of blood, urine, hair and nail samples, the PERSIAN Cohort will serve as an important infrastructure for future implementation research and will provide the evidence needed for new healthcare policies in order to better control, manage and prevent NCD.
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November 2017

Oxidative stress and DNA damage in the cord blood of preterm infants.

Mutat Res 2017 12 10;824:20-24. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Preterm birth infants are more susceptible to oxidative stress and aftermaths unwanted outcomes such as DNA damage due to hyperoxic stress. In this study, we compared the DNA strand breaks as one of the results of DNA oxidation in white blood cells, malondialdehyde (oxidative stress marker), catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, and total antioxidant capacity (markers of antioxidant defense) in a cord blood plasma of a group of preterm (n=25) and full term births (n=25). The primary DNA damage and plasma oxidative stress markers were significantly higher in a preterm group (p<0.05). Cord plasma activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in preterm infants (p≤0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the cord blood total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity and malondialdehyde in preterm and term infants. Among the oxidative stress markers, the malondialdehyde concentration showed the strongest effect size (1.54; 95%CI: 0.9-2.17). For comet parameters, the most powerful effect size was observed for tail length (5.24; 95% CI: 4.05-6.42). However, tail DNA percent and tail moment were also significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Significant negative correlation was observed between comet assay parameters and birth weight and gestational age when all cases and controls entered into the analysis. There was no significant association between the levels of oxidative stress markers and early DNA damage in cord blood plasma with future nutritional tolerance in preterm infants. In the present study, the primary DNA damage and plasma oxidative stress markers significantly were increased in a preterm group. Preterm babies are more prone to the outcomes related to the early DNA damage. Tail DNA percent does not depend on experimental conditions as other parameters (tail length and thus also tail moment) and can be used for comparison with other studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2017.10.003DOI Listing
December 2017

Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure.

Int J Occup Environ Med 2017 10;8(4):224-231

Department of Occupational Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen.

Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied.

Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×). Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory.

Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage.

Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijoem.2017.1089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679606PMC
October 2017

Oxidative stress and early DNA damage in workers exposed to iron-rich metal fumes.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Apr 1;24(10):9645-9650. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Occupational exposure to metal fumes occurs routinely in many occupational settings. The inflammatory response to fumes and metals after exposure could lead to an increase in reactive oxygen species and level of DNA damage. In this study, the level of early DNA damage and oxidative stress was evaluated in a group of steel company (n = 30) and compared to the non-exposed (n = 28) subjects. All DNA damage markers in workers were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison with controls (p < 0.001). Stratified analysis based on smoking showed no significant differences between smoking and comet assay parameters. There was no significant difference between workers and controls in terms of HCT, TIBC, iron, and ferreting. However, HB in controls was significantly lower than exposed group (p < 0.001). A significant increase in catalase activity and MDA serum levels were observed in workers in comparison with controls. These findings suggest for the potential genotoxic effect of iron reach dust. Due to recent findings on the predictive potential of comet assay for cancer development, further, researches should be conducted to investigate the possible biochemical mechanism of such finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8657-6DOI Listing
April 2017

Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Crystalline Silica Dust by SPME-GC-MS.

J Res Health Sci 2016 ;16(3):153-161

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Research Centre for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Silicosis is considered an oxidative stress related disease that can lead to the development of lung cancer. In this study, our purpose was to analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dust and compare peak area of these compounds with silicosis patients and healthy volunteers (smokers and nonsmokers) groups.

Methods: In this cross sectional case-control study, the exhaled breath of 69 subjects including workers exposed to silica (n=20), silicosis patient (n=4), healthy non-smoker (n=20) and healthy smoker (n=25) were analyzed. We collected breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags. The VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Personal exposure intensity was measured according to NIOSH 7601 method. Respiratory parameters were measured using spirometry.

Results: Seventy percent and 100% of the exposures to crystalline silica dust exceeded from 8 h TWA ACGIH TLVs in case and positive control groups, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between dust exposure intensity and FEV1/FVC when exposure and positive control groups were studied in a group (r2=-0.601, P<0.001). Totally, forty VOCs were found in all exhaled breath samples. Among the VOCs, the mean of peak area acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane, pentad cane, 2-propanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were higher in exhaled breath of the workers exposed to silica and silicosis patient compared to the healthy smoker and nonsmoker controls. In some cases the difference was significant (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The analysis of some VOCs in exhaled breath of subjects is appropriate biomarker to determine of exposure to silica.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191029PMC
May 2017

Applicability of the comet assay in evaluation of DNA damage in healthcare providers' working with antineoplastic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Occup Environ Health 2016 01 25;22(1):52-67. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

e Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

Background: Unintended occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ANDs) may occur in medical personnel. Some ANDs are known human carcinogens and exposure can be monitored by genotoxic biomarkers.

Objective: To evaluate the obstacles to obtaining conclusive results from a comet assay test to determine DNA damage among AND exposed healthcare workers.

Methods: We systematically reviewed studies that used alkaline comet assay to determine the magnitude and significance of DNA damage among health care workers with potential AND exposure. Fifteen studies were eligible for review and 14 studies were used in the meta-analysis.

Results: Under random effect assumption, the estimated standardized mean difference (SMD) in the DNA damage of health care workers was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.15-2.71, p < 0.0001). The resulting SMD was reduced to 1.756 (95% CI: 0.992-2.52, p < 0.0001) when the analysis only included nurses. In subgroup analyses based on gender and smoking, heterogeneity was observed. Only for studies reporting comet moment, I2 test results, as a measure of heterogeneity, dropped to zero. Heterogeneity analysis showed that date of study publication was a possible source of heterogeneity (B = -0.14; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: A mixture of personal parameters, comet assay methodological variables, and exposure characteristics may be responsible for heterogenic data from comet assay studies and interfere with obtaining conclusive results. Lack of quantitative environmental exposure measures and variation in comet assay protocols across studies are important obstacles in generalization of results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10773525.2015.1123380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4894275PMC
January 2016

Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

Adv Prev Med 2015 12;2015:467498. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/467498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620287PMC
November 2015

Simultaneous effects of noise exposure and smoking on OAEs.

Noise Health 2015 Jul-Aug;17(77):233-6

Department of Occupational Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Noise is one of the most pervasive hazardous factors in the workplace. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most common disorder related to noise exposure. Smoking is probably associated with hearing loss. The simultaneous effect of noise and smoking on hearing is a recent concern. In this study, we assessed the simultaneous effect of noise and smoking on standard pure tone audiometry (PTA) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DP-OAEs). This was an historical cohort study on 224 workers exposed to noise who were divided into two groups: Smokers and nonsmokers. DP-OAE response amplitudes were assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 19) using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. One hundred and five subjects were smokers (case group) and 119 individuals were nonsmokers (control group). All the subjects were exposed to 91.08 + 2.29 dBA [time-weighted average (TWA) for an 8 h work shift]. Mean DP-OAE response amplitude at frequencies higher than 1,000 Hz was significantly higher in the smokers than the nonsmokers. This study showed that smoking can aggravate the effect of noise on hearing in DP-OAEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.160716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4900486PMC
September 2015

Exhaled breath malondialdehyde, spirometric results and dust exposure assessment in ceramics production workers.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2015 ;28(1):81-9

Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran (Faculty of Health, Department of Occupational Health).

Introduction: The study aimed at measuring exhaled breath malondialdehyde (EBC-MDA) in workers exposed to dust containing silica and at its comparison with the non-exposed control group.

Material And Methods: The cross sectional, case-control study (N = 50) was performed in a tile and ceramics production factory in Yazd, Iran. EBC-MDA was quantified in exhaled breath of the participants by a lab made breath sampler. Exposure intensity was measured according to the NIOSH 0600 method in selected homogeneous exposure groups. Additionally, spirometry test was conducted to investigate a correlation between EBC-MDA and spirometric findings in the exposed workers.

Results: There was no difference in the observed exposure intensities of silica containing dust in different units. However, "coating preparation" was the unit with the highest concentration of dust. Although, the level of EBC-MDA in the cases was slightly higher than in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant (U = 252, p = 0.464). A significant and positive correlation was found between dust exposure intensity in working units and the measured EBC-MDA of workers (r = 0.467, N = 25, p = 0.027). There were also no statistically significant differences among job categories in the exposed group for the values of FEV1% (F(3, 44) = 0.656, p = 0.584), FVC% (F(3, 44) = 1.417, p = 0.172), and FEV1/FVC% (F(3, 44) = 1.929, p = 0.139).

Conclusions: The results showed a significant correlation between respirable dust exposure intensity and the level of EBC-MDA of the exposed subjects. However, our results did not show a significant correlation between lung function decreases and EBC-MDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00262DOI Listing
December 2016