Publications by authors named "Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Core-shell chitosan/PVA-based nanofibrous scaffolds loaded with Satureja mutica or Oliveria decumbens essential oils as enhanced antimicrobial wound dressing.

Int J Pharm 2021 Mar 26;597:120288. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Wounds are prone to bacterial infections, which cause a delayed healing process. Regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance to common antibiotics, using natural antimicrobial agents can be beneficial. Chitosan is a biological polymer, which has shown partial antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In this study, core-shell nanofibrous scaffolds composed of chitosan (CS)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the core and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/ maltodextrin (MD) as the shell were developed. Satureja mutica (S. mutica) or Oliveria decumbens (O. decumbens) essential oil (EO) was encapsulated into the core of the produced scaffolds. The broth microdilution analysis showed significant antimicrobial activity of the EOs. The SEM analysis indicated that the unloaded and loaded core-shell scaffolds with S. mutica or O. decumbens EO had a uniform, beadless structure with fiber mean diameters of 210 ± 50, 250 ± 45, and 225 ± 46 nm, respectively. The CS/PVA-PVP/MD and CS/PVA/EO-PVP/MD scaffolds indicated suitable mechanical properties. The addition of the studied EOs enhanced the antioxidant activity of the scaffolds. The antimicrobial test of produced scaffolds showed that loading of 10% S. mutica or O. decumbens EO could broaden the microbicidal activity of the CS/PVA-PVP/MD scaffolds. These results revealed that the CS/PVA/EO-PVP/MD nanofibrous scaffolds are promising candidates for wound dressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120288DOI Listing
March 2021

Development of pre-emergence herbicide based on Arabic gum-gelatin, apple pectin and savory essential oil nano-particles: A potential green alternative to metribuzin.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 4;167:756-765. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Institute of Biotechnology, Shiraz University, School of Agriculture, Shiraz, Iran.

This study was conducted as a plot experiment to investigate the phytotoxicity effects of nano-encapsulated savory essential oil (EO) when it is incorporated separately into carbohydrate and protein natural polymers (Arabic gum-gelatin, apple pectin and gelatin) and two cross-linkers including one poly acid and one enzyme (citric acid and transglutaminase enzyme). Each product was tested as a pre-emergence herbicide against amaranth and tomato. The evaluations also involved determining the stability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and release properties of the prepared formulations. Coating the savory EO with cross-linked biopolymers enhanced its stability and herbicidal activity, compared to the EO nano-emulsion without any polymer or cross-linker. Among the tested formulations, the strongest inhibitory effect against amaranth germination and growth was caused by Arabic gum-gelatin and apple pectin biopolymers at the concentration of 3 ml/L of EO, when cross-linked with citric acid. These two treatments had slight effects on tomato seedlings, however. The suppressive ability of the formulations was almost similar and comparable to the chemical herbicide metribuzin (1.75 g/L). In conclusion, Arabic gum-gelatin and apple pectin cross-linked by citric acid containing savory EO can be considered as potential, green and safe replacements for metribuzin in organic tomato production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.007DOI Listing
January 2021

A natural post-emergence herbicide based on essential oil encapsulation by cross-linked biopolymers: characterization and herbicidal activity.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 16;27(36):45844-45858. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

This work describes efforts to encapsulate savory (Satureja hortensis L.) essential oil (EO) with different natural polymers (i.e., Arabic gum/gelatin (AGG), apple pectin (AP), gelatin (G)) and, as a separate set of experiments, with bio cross-linkers (i.e., citric acid and transglutaminase enzyme). The phytotoxic activity of encapsulated savory EO on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and amaranth weed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) was investigated. The micro-capsules were evaluated in terms of size, polydispersity, stability, encapsulation efficiency, morphology, and release properties. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model operated when EO was being released from the micro-capsules. Carvacrol (52.5%) and γ-terpinene (30.2%) comprised the main constituents of the savory EO. Based on the results, encapsulating the EO with cross-linked biopolymers increased the stability and herbicidal activity of EO, as compared to simple EO emulsions. Maximum toxicity injuries (MTI) were caused by encapsulations of apple pectin, cross-linked with APe enzyme (15 ml/L) on both plant species. MTI were observed 2 days after using the micro-encapsulated herbicides (MCHs). However, the injury caused by MCHs on tomato was not significant. The lowest values of fresh weight (2.80 g), chlorophyll a (0.194 mg/g Fw), and total chlorophyll content (0.219 mg/g Fw) of amaranth occurred in response to APe (15 ml/L). Moreover, using AP(e) (10 ml/L) caused the lowest values of starch (0.444 mg/g Fw) and flavonoid contents (4.18 mg Cat/g Fw) in amaranth which measured as 59% and 90% reductions, respectively, in comparison with the control. The highest values of MDA (0.0109 nmol/g Fw) and HO (0.0432 μmol/g Fw) were observed in amaranth plants treated with AP(e) (10 ml/L). In summary, cross-linked apple pectin can perform well in slow release delivery systems of agrochemicals. It can be recommended for use in the production of commercial, EO-based natural herbicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10405-yDOI Listing
December 2020

Chemical compositions and antifungal activities of against and species.

Curr Med Mycol 2019 ;5(4):20-25

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Despite the various applications of species, there are limited data in this domain. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to investigate the essential oil (EO) biological activity of species in Iran.

Materials And Methods: The EO of flowers was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical compositions of the EO were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were measured by means of the broth microdilution method. The estimation of antibiofilm and cytotoxic activities was also accomplished using the tetrazolium salt and MTT assays, respectively.

Results: A total of 26 components were identified in the EO with linalool as the main constituent (28.46%). A MIC range value of 0.25-8 μL/mL was obtained against all of the tested fungi. The EO inhibited the biofilm development of the tested strains at a concentration of 4-8 μL/mL. Cytotoxicity (IC) of EO against the HeLa cell was greater than the MIC concentration (6.49 μL/mL).

Conclusion: Based on the findings, it was concluded that the EO of has the potential for further use as an antifungal agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/cmm.5.4.2162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034783PMC
January 2019

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes stimulate growth, redox reactions and biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites in Thymus daenensis celak. in vitro.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 6;249:126069. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, 38156-8-8349, Arak, Iran. Electronic address:

This research was aimed at determining the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on seed germination, seedling growth parameters and secondary metabolite (SM) production of Thymus daenensis in vitro. Seeds were aseptically cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) with various concentrations of MWCNTs (0, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 μg ml). Seed germination and morphological changes in seedlings were measured. The measurements were aimed at quantifying the total phenolic contents (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC), antioxidant activities and the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), dehydrogenase (DHA) and peroxidase enzyme (POD) of the seedling extract. Seedling biomass and seedling height grew significantly as the MWCNTs level increased. The biomass and height peaked at 250 μg ml (0.41 ± 0.01 gr FW, 5.99 ± 0.55 cm) and then rapidly decreased to 0.040 ± 0.1 gr FW and 1.42 ± 0.24 cm in response to 1000 μg ml, 30 days after the treatment. Additionally, SM and the analyses of enzyme activity revealed that the highest amounts of TPC (6.70 ± 0.06 mg GAE g DW), TFC (8.19 ± 0.01 mg QUE g DW), antioxidant activities (73.88 ± 0.47%) and maximum PAL activity (1.25 ± 0.08 mM cm g FW) were detected in plants grown on MS media fortified with 250 μg ml MWCNTs. The results reveal that MWCNTs in low doses (250 μg ml) can encourage the production of biomass, elicit more SM from seedlings and enhance the biosynthesis of antioxidants. TEM images showed that MWCNTs could cross the plant cell wall and enter the cellular cytoplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126069DOI Listing
June 2020

The Lethal Effect of a Nano Emulsion of Essential Oil on Protoscoleces and Germinal Layer of Hydatid Cysts.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Apr-Jun;14(2):214-222

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: New scolicidal agents and novel therapeutic drugs are essential for better management of the zoonotic infection, hydatid disease. This study evaluated the effect of a nanoemulsion (NE) of essential oil (SHEO) on protoscoleces and germinal layer of hydatid cysts.

Methods: This study was conducted from July to October 2016 in Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to identify the main components of SHEO. To determine the scolicidal power of the NE of SHEO, live protoscoleces of hydatid cysts were exposed to two concentrations (1 and, 2 mg/mL) of the NE and incubated at 37 °C for 10 and 20 min. To evaluate the anti-hydatid effect of the NE of SHEO, the collected hydatid cysts from the abdominal cavities of the experimentally infected mice were immersed in the NE (0.5 mg/ml) and incubated at 22 °C for 24 h.

Results: Carvacrol and γ-terpinene were the major components of the SHEO. NE of SHEO at the concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/mL showed 100% scolicidal power after 20 and 10 min respectively. Exposure of the hydatid cysts to the NE of SHEO resulted in crumpling of their germinal layer and detachment of this layer from the laminated layer.

Conclusion: NE of SHEO showed a strong scolicidal activity as well as a profound lethal effect on the germinal layer of hydatid cysts. Accordingly, this product may be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery. Furthermore, it may be used as a therapeutic tool for treatment of hydatid disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737361PMC
September 2019

Study of two-stage ohmic hydro-extraction of essential oil from Artemisia aucheri Boiss.: Antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics.

Food Res Int 2018 05 27;107:462-469. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The effect of two-stage ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (TSOH) on the extraction and characteristics of essential oils (EOs) from the Artemisia aucheri Boiss. was studied, and the results were compared to conventional hydrodistillation (HD). According to the results, the yield of EOs obtained through TSOH was almost 30% higher than those extracted by HD in nearly one-quarter of a time used by the HD. Scanning electron micrographs of A. aucheri leaves showed almost complete eruption of EO glands and their surrounding area in TSOH extraction method, hence achieving higher yield. The components of the EOs obtained through TSOH were only slightly different from those of HD. GC/MS analysis indicated some differences in the quantity of the main components, too. The main components of EOs were identified as Thymol, Linalool, Geraniol, Camphor, and 1, 8-Cineole, Davana ether and Cis-Davanone. Thymol (~17%) and Cis-Davanone (~23%) were the highest quantity in the EOs extracted from TSOH and HD, respectively. The variation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the EOs may be attributed to these differences in the percentage of the main components. The radical scavenging activity of the EOs obtained by TSOH was almost twice that of HD. Based on antimicrobial activity assays, the EOs were efficient against S. aureus (a Gram-positive), E. coli (a Gram-negative), and S. cerevisiae (yeast). However, the efficacy was higher in gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The results indicate TSOH has a potential to produce EOs from herbal plants at a faster rate, higher yield, being probably more efficient in terms of energy although having similar antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.059DOI Listing
May 2018

In vitro and in vivo antihydatid activity of a nano emulsion of Zataria multiflora essential oil.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Oct 15;114:308-312. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Horticultural Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

In in vitro process of this study, protoscoleces of the hydatid cysts were exposed to two concentrations of nano emulsion (NE) of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZMEO) (1 and 2mg/mL) for 10 and 20min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using 0.1% eosin staining. For in vivo studies, sixteen laboratory mice were infected intraperitoneally by 1500 live protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were divided into treatment and control groups. The mice of treatment group received the NE of ZMEO (20mg/kg) orally via their drinking water while the mice of control group received no treatment. Two months after the start of treatment, all of the mice were necropsied and the hydatid cysts were collected. Subsequently, the numbers, sizes and weights of the collected cysts were compared between the mice of two groups. The results of in vitro scolicidal assays showed that the scolicidal power of NE of a ZMEO at concentration of 1mg/mL was 88.01%, and 100% after 10 and 20min respectively. NE of ZMEO showed 100% scolicidal power at a concentration of 2mg/mL after 10min (comparing to 4.46% for the control group). The results of in vivo studies revealed that the size of the largest cysts as well as the total number of the cysts were significantly lower in the mice treated with NE of ZMEO (P<0.05). In conclusion, NE of ZMEO may be considered as a natural scolicidal agent and a potential therapeutic tool for treatment of hydatid disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.06.003DOI Listing
October 2017

In vitro ovicidal activity of seeds extract on the eggs of .

J Parasit Dis 2017 Jun 29;41(2):467-472. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71345-1731 Iran.

seeds extract has been previously reported to have antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovicidal activity of the methanolic extract of seeds against the eggs of The phenolic compounds of the methanolic extract of seeds were identified by HPLC analysis. Catechin, rutin, p-Coumaric acid, chloregenic acid and hesperetin were found to be the major phenolic compounds. eggs were collected from the gall bladder of naturally infected sheep. The eggs were exposed to two concentrations of seeds extract (1 and 3 mg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. To investigate the effect of the seeds extract on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that eggs were susceptible to the methanolic extract of seeds. Following 24 h exposure of the eggs to seeds extract with concentrations of 1 and 3 mg/mL, the miracidial formation reduced to 5 and 2.2 % respectively (compared with 60 % for the control group). Following 48 h of exposure of the eggs to seeds extract with 1 mg/mL concentration, the miracidial formation reduced to 0.5 %. In this exposure time, no miracidial formation was observed in the eggs exposed to seeds extract with concentration of 3 mg/mL. Therefore, the results of this study indicated that seeds extract has high ovicidal activity against the eggs of . Accordingly, this extract may have the potential flukicidal activity against the immature and mature .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-016-0830-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447607PMC
June 2017

Natural herbicide activity of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil nanoemulsion on the seed germination and morphophysiological features of two important weed species.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Aug 28;142:423-430. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The aim of the present study was to obtain an oil/water (O/W) nanoemulsion (NE) containing garden savory (Satureja hortensis) essential oil (EO) and evaluating its herbicidal activity against Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the EO. Carvacrol (55.6%) and γ-terpinene (31.9%) were the major EO components. Low energy method was applied, allowing achievement of EO nanodroplets. The NE also presented low polydispersity, and the mean droplet was below 130nm even after storage for 30d. Laboratory tests showed that the NE at different concentrations (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1000μL.L) significantly (P≤0.05) reduced the germination indices and the seedling's growth in dose-response. The inhibitory effect was the greatest at 800μL.L NE. Overall, root length was more inhibited as compared to shoot length. Post-emergence application of NE at different concentrations (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000μL.L of EO) on 2-4 true leaves' stage of the weeds caused significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the growth factors in dose-dependent manner. Complete lethality was observed by 4000μL.L NE sprayed on the weeds. Spraying of NE significantly (P≤0.05) reduced chlorophyll content in the tested weeds. Increasing in relative electrolyte leakage (REL) 1 and 5d after treatment represented significant cell membrane disruption and increased cell membrane permeability. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures confirmed NE droplet size and demonstrated membrane destruction. The study approved that the NE of S. hortensis EO has herbicidal properties as it has high phytotoxic effect, and interferes with the germination, growth and physiological processes of the weeds. The production of NE from S. hortensis EO is a low energy method that offers a promising practical natural herbicide for weed control in organic agricultural systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.04.041DOI Listing
August 2017

Antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils from Iranian aromatic plants against common causes of oral infections.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Feb 19;8(2):e17766. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases.

Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections.

Materials And Methods: The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods.

Results: The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity.

Conclusions: The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.17766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4353034PMC
February 2015

Chemical Compositions and Antimicrobial Activities of Ocimum sanctum L. Essential Oils at Different Harvest Stages.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Jan 6;8(1):e13720. Epub 2014 Dec 6.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Essential Oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and represent a natural source to treat infections and prevent food spoilage. Their chemical composition might be affected by the environmental condition and the developmental growth stages of the plant.

Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the variations in chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the EOs of Ocimum sanctum L. at different stages of harvesting.

Materials And Methods: The oils constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effects of three different harvest stages of O. sanctum EOs against most common causes of food-borne were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

Results: The analysis of the EOs indicated that eugenol was the major compound of the EOs at all developmental stages which reached its maximum level at the second stage. The results showed that the tested EOs exhibited antimicrobial activities against all of the examined pathogens at concentrations of 0.125-32 µL/mL, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was only inhibited by high concentrations of the floral budding and full flowering EOs. EO distilled from the second developmental growth stage (floral budding) of O. sanctum exhibited the strongest antibacterial activities against the food borne bacteria.

Conclusions: Considering the wide range of antimicrobial activities of the examined EOs, they might have the potential to be used to manage infectious diseases or extend the shelf life of food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.13720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4344766PMC
January 2015

Preventive and therapeutic effects of Zataria multiflora methanolic extract on hydatid cyst: an in vivo study.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Sep 15;205(1-2):107-12. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Department of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz, Iran.

The phenolic compounds of Zataria multiflora extract, were identified by HPLC analysis. Gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and quercetin were found to be the major phenolic compounds. Eighty healthy laboratory Balb/C mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1500 viable protoscoleces and were divided into prevention (40 mice) and therapeutic (40 mice) groups. To prove the preventive effect of Z. multiflora extract on development of hydatid cyst, the 40 infected animals were allocated into three treatment groups including Z. multiflora (4 g/l in drinking water for 8 months), albendazole (150 mg/kg BW/day for 10 days) and untreated (control) group. To estimate the therapeutic effect of Z. multiflora extract on the hydatid cyst, after 8 months of infection, the infected mice were allocated into three experimental treatment groups including Z. multiflora (8 g/l in drinking water for 30 days), albendazole (300 mg/kg BW/day for 20 days) and untreated (control) group. At the end of the treatment period, all mice were euthanized and necropsied, the hydatid cysts were carefully removed, weighed and their size were recorded. Weight and size of the hydatid cysts significantly decreased (p<0.05) upon the treatment with Z. multiflora extract in both prevention and therapeutic groups. The germinal layer of the hydatid cysts recovered from the treated mice, either from the prevention or therapeutic group, were completely damaged at ultrastructural level by scanning electron microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.07.006DOI Listing
September 2014

In vivo study of the efficacy of the aromatic water of Zataria multiflora on hydatid cysts.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 Oct 28;58(10):6003-8. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aromatic water (AW) of Zataria multiflora. Thymol (66.9%), carvacrol (15.2%), and carvone (7.3%) were found to be the major EO constituents. Eighty laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscolices and were divided into prevention (40 mice) and therapeutic (40 mice) groups. To prove the preventive effect of the Z. multiflora AW on development of hydatid cysts, the 40 infected mice were allocated into three treatment groups, including the albendazole group (10 mice that received 150 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days), the Z. multiflora AW group (15 mice that received 20 ml/liter in drinking water for 8 months), and a control group (15 mice that received no treatment). To estimate the therapeutic effect of the Z. multiflora AW on the hydatid cyst, after 8 months of infection, the 15 remaining mice were allocated into three experimental treatment groups of five animals each, including the albendazole group (300 mg/kg/day for 20 days), Z. multiflora AW group (40 ml/liter in drinking water for 30 days), and control group (no treatment). All mice were then euthanized, and the sizes and weights of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. The weights and sizes of the hydatid cysts significantly decreased upon treatment with the Z. multiflora AW in both the preventive and therapeutic groups (P < 0.05). The results of scanning electron microscopy also showed considerable damage in the germinal layer of the hydatid cysts recovered from the treated animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02963-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187908PMC
October 2014

Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

J Food Sci Technol 2014 Jan 8;51(1):142-7. Epub 2011 Sep 8.

Food Science and Technology Department, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0484-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857403PMC
January 2014

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of nepeta cataria L. Against common causes of oral infections.

J Dent (Tehran) 2013 May 31;10(4):329-37. Epub 2013 May 31.

Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products from natural resources such as essential oils and plant extracts. Nepeta cataria L. is a member of the mint family (Labiatae) with several medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) from N. cataria leaves against pathogens causing oral infections.

Materials And Methods: The chemical composition of EOs from N. cataria was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24-48 h (fungi) or at 37°C for 24 h (bacteria).

Results: The analysis of the EOs indicated that 4a-α, 7-α, 7a-β-nepetalactone (55-58%), and 4a-α, 7-β, 7a-α-nepetalactone (30-31.2%) were the major compounds of the EOs at all developmental stages. The tested EOs exhibited antimicrobial activities against the tested bacteria at concentrations of 0.125-4 μL/mL. Moreover, the oils entirely inhibited the growth of Candida species at a concentration less than 1 μL/mL.

Conclusion: Based on these results, the EO of N. cataria can possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent in the treatment and control of oral pathogens.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3875507PMC
May 2013

In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012 Aug;2(8):616-20

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71345-1731, Iran.

Objective: To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant.

Methods: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining.

Results: : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group).

Conclusions: The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60107-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609354PMC
August 2012

Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L.

ISRN Pharm 2012 13;2012:718645. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71441-65186, Iran.

Variations in quantity and quality of essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of cultivated Mentha piperita were determined. The EO of air-dried sample was obtained by a hydrodistillation method and analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the EO was investigated by broth microdilution methods as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A biofilm formation inhibition was measured by using an XTT reduction assay. Menthol (53.28%) was the major compound of the EO followed by Menthyl acetate (15.1%) and Menthofuran (11.18%). The EO exhibited strong antifungal activities against the examined fungi at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8.0 μL/mL. In addition, the EO inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis at concentrations up to 2 μL/mL. Considering the wide range of the antifungal activities of the examined EO, it might be potentially used in the management of fungal infections or in the extension of the shelf life of food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/718645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3532871PMC
January 2013

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils from Nepeta cataria L. against Common Causes of Food-Borne Infections.

ISRN Pharm 2012 17;2012:591953. Epub 2012 Jun 17.

Center of Basic Research in Infectious Disease, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-45794, Iran.

Nepeta cataria L. is traditionally consumed as a food additive. The effects of three different harvest stages of N. cataria essential oils (EOs) against most common causes of food-borne infections were evaluated by broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The chemical composition of the EOs from N. cataria has been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The analysis of the EOs indicated that 4a-α,7-α,7a-β-nepetalactone (55-58%) and 4a-α,7-β,7a-α-nepetalactone (30-31.2%) were the major compounds of the EOs at all developmental stages. The results showed that the tested EOs exhibited antimicrobial activities against the food-borne pathogens at concentrations of 0.125-2 μL/mL. Based on these results, the EO of N. cataria can possibly be used in food products as a natural preservative agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/591953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3385634PMC
August 2012

In vitro lethal effect of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.) essential oil on hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

Vet Parasitol 2012 Jun 28;187(1-2):203-8. Epub 2011 Dec 28.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345-1731, Iran.

Various chemical scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. Since ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) has been shown to have a number of medicinal properties, in this study the scolicidal effect of the essential oil (EO) from the fruits of this herbal plant was investigated. Ajowan EO was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the EO. Protoscoleces were exposed to various concentrations of EO (3, 5 and 10mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. A total of 18 compounds representing 99.54% of the total oil, were identified. Thymol (50.07%), γ-terpinene (23.92%), and p-cymene (22.9%) were found to be the major EO constituents. While the mortality rate of protoscolices in the control group was 6.67%, scolicidal power of ajowan EO at concentration of 3mg/mL was 31.34, 35.98, 45.17, and 51.58% after 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, respectively. The EO at concentration of 5mg/mL killed 51.89, 72.20, 88.64, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, respectively. One hundred percent scolicidal activity was observed with ajowan EO at concentration of 10mg/mL after 10 min of exposure. The results of this study revealed that the EO of ajowan is rich in thymol, γ-terpinene and p-cymene, has high scolicidal power and it may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.12.025DOI Listing
June 2012

Antioxidant, nitric oxide scavenging and malondialdehyde scavenging activities of essential oils from different chemotypes of Zataria multiflora.

Nat Prod Res 2012 4;26(22):2144-7. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Institute of Biotechnology, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran.

The antioxidant, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging and malondialdehyde (MDA) scavenging activities of different Zataria multiflora (ZM) chemotype essential oils (EOs) were investigated. The main components are: ZM1 (carvacrol, p-cymene), ZM2 (carvacrol, p-cymene), ZM3 (carvacrol, p-cymene), ZM4 (linalool), ZM5 (carvacrol, p-cymene, thymol), ZM6 (thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpienene), ZM7 (thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpienene) and ZM8 (carvacrol, linalool, p-cymene, thymol). The antioxidant capacities were estimated to be 863 ± 55, 619 ± 27, 876 ± 32, 38 ± 9, 649 ± 50, 595 ± 40, 696 ± 41 and 618 ± 9 µg ascorbic acid equivalents per millilitre for ZM1 to ZM8, respectively. The NO scavenging values were estimated to be 54 ± 1.2, 50 ± 1.4, 63 ± 1, 0.60 ± 0.1, 53 ± 0.7, 53 ± 1.5, 38 ± 1.1 and 46.5 ± 3 µg ascorbic acid equivalents per millilitre for ZM1 to ZM8, respectively. The MDA scavenging values were estimated to be 19 ± 1, 9 ± 1, 24 ± 1, 1.6 ± 0.6, 12 ± 1, 11.7 ± 1, 10 ± 1 and 12.5 ± 1.3 µg ascorbic acid equivalents per millilitre for ZM1 to ZM8, respectively. Among these EOs, ZM3 with carvacrol and p-cymene had higher antioxidant, NO scavenging and MDA scavenging properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.631136DOI Listing
April 2013

Influence of growth phase on the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activities of Satureja hortensis.

Nat Prod Commun 2011 Aug;6(8):1173-8

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

The variations in quantity and quality of essential oils (EOs) from the aerial parts of cultivated Satureja hortensis were determined at different stages of harvesting. The EOs of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was investigated by broth microdilution methods. The amount of EOs (w/w, %) were 2.3, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.8% at floral budding, full flowering, immature fruit, and ripened fruit stages, respectively. gamma-Terpinene was the major compound of the EO at all developmental stages, except the ripened fruit stage when it was replaced by carvacrol (46.4%). The EOs exhibited strong antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria. Moreover, the EOs either inhibited or killed the examined yeasts at concentrations ranging from 0.03-8.0 microL/mL. Considering the wide range of antimicrobial activities of the examined EOs, they might have potential to be used in the management of infective agents.
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August 2011

Effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil on oxidative stability of sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

Nat Prod Res 2012 8;26(15):1458-63. Epub 2011 Aug 8.

Food Science and Technology Department, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study, the application of various concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%) of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (EO) was examined on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) during storage at 60°C. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses of the oils revealed that carvacrol (87.7%) was the major component of EO. Peroxide value and anisidine value measurements in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effects in comparison to BHA. Oil samples supplemented with EO concentration of 0.08% were the most stable during storage (p < 0.05). EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of 31.5 ± 0.6 µg mL⁻¹. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.606220DOI Listing
November 2012

Essential oil analysis and phytotoxic activity of two ecotypes of Zataria multiflora Boiss. growing in Iran.

Nat Prod Res 2010 Oct;24(17):1598-609

Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

This study was conducted to assess the allelopathic effect of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of two different ecotypes (ECTPs A and B) of Zataria multiflora Boiss. with the aim of evaluating their in vitro germination and growth inhibition potential. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the oils revealed that carvacrol and linalool (77.4% and 90.6%) were the two major oil components in ECTPs A and B, respectively, which were regarded as two different chemotypes. Other important volatile compounds found in ECTP A were α-pinene (2.7%), p-cymene (7.9%) and γ-terpinene (3.5%). However, in ECTP B these compounds were in lesser amounts and γ-terpinene was not detected. The inhibitory effects of both EOs of ECTPs at concentrations of 0, 80, 160, 320 and 640 µL L⁻¹ on the seed germination and seedling growth of four noxious weeds were evaluated. A significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in germination rate, seedling length, root and stem fresh and dry weights were observed by ECTPs; the highest suppressing effect was observed at 320 and 640 µL L⁻¹. The results reported in this study suggest that herbicidal properties of the two ECTP oils could be attributed to their major components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786411003754280DOI Listing
October 2010