Publications by authors named "Mohammad Jafari"

190 Publications

Mapping soil salinity using a combined spectral and topographical indices with artificial neural network.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0228494. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Monitoring the status of natural and ecological resources is necessary for conservation and protection. Soil is one of the most important environmental resources in agricultural lands and natural resources. In this research study, we used Landsat 8 and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to monitor soil salinity in Qom plain. The geographical location of 72 surface soil samples from 7 land types was determined by the Latin hypercube method, and the samples were taken to determine the electrical conductivity (EC). Thirty percent of the data was considered as a validation set and 70% as a test set. In addition to the Landsat 8 bands, we used spectral indices of salinity, vegetation, topography, and drainage (DEM, TWI, and TCI) because of their impacts on soil formation and development. We used ANN with different algorithms to model soil salinity. We found that the GFF algorithm is the best for soil salinity modeling. Also, the TWI topography index and SI5 salinity index and NDVI vegetation index had the most effect on the outputs of the selected model. It was also found that flood plains and lowlands had the highest levels of salinity accumulation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228494PLOS
May 2021

Low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is associated with increased risk of uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia and its symptoms in adults.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran -

Background: Assessing the potential effects of a low- fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) diet on functional gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly upper gastrointestinal symptoms, is not clearly understood. The current study aimed at exploring the association of a diet low in FODMAPs with uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia (UCD) and functional dyspeptic symptoms in a large population of Iranian adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2987 adults. Dietary FODMAPs intake estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. UCD, early satiation, postprandial fullness and gastric pain were determined using a modified and validated version of the Rome III questionnaire.

Results: After controlling for various confounders, consumption of a diet low in FODMAPs was associated with increased risk of UCD in the whole population (OR=1.85; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.78; P=0.009) and women (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46, 3.95; P=0.004), but not in men. Higher consumption of a low-FODMAPs diet was related to increased risk of postprandial fullness (OR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.78; P=0.046). The inverse association between FODMAPs and epigastric pain tended to be significant after controlling for eating behaviors (OR=1.31; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.76; P=0.084). No significant association was observed for early satiation.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that consumption of a low-FODMAPs diet may increase the risk of UCD and postprandial fullness; however, well-planned randomized controlled trials and prospective cohorts are required to ascertain the effect of FODMAPs on upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5985.21.02852-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Association Between Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) and Vitamin D Binding Protein (VDBP) Genes Polymorphisms to Endometriosis Susceptibility in Iranian Women.

Reprod Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that has been reported to be associated with immune system dysfunction. On the other hand, the effect of Vitamin D as an immune modulator and its relation with several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been previously investigated. Moreover, several studies have reported the polymorphisms of VDR and VDBP genes can change the functions of these molecules. Therefore, these polymorphisms may be influential on endometriosis pathogenesis. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the association between VDR gene (FokI (F/f), BsmI (B/b), ApaI (A/a), TaqI (T/t)), and VDBP gene (GC*1S, GC*1F, and GC*2) polymorphisms with endometriosis in Iranian women population. This case-control study was performed on 120 women with endometriosis and 110 healthy women. ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP methods were used to inspect polymorphisms in VDR and VDBP genes, respectively. Based on the results, there was no statistically significant difference between the cases with endometriosis and control subjects in terms of genotypes and allele frequencies of VDR and VDBP gene polymorphisms. These data suggest that VDR and VDBP gene polymorphisms may have no role in endometriosis susceptibility in Iranian women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00598-zDOI Listing
May 2021

The effects of heat stress exposure on free amino acid concentrations within the plasma and the brain of heat-exposed chicks: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Therm Biol 2021 Apr 11;97:102872. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of heat stress exposure on the concentrations of amino acids within the plasma and the brain of chicks. Methodology: Five electronic databases including; PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and ProQuest were reviewed to find relative literature published until the March 8, 2019. A total of eight relative studies and 194 chicks were analyzed. The Random Effects model and the Fixed Effects model were performed. Using the Random Effects model for amino acids, a Standardized mean difference (SMD) of 2.05 and 1.46 was obtained for alanine and threonine concentrations respectively. This indicates a significant increase in the concentration of these amino acids within the plasma. An SMD of -2.68 and -2.46 was obtained for cysteine and proline concentrations respectively, this indicates a significant decrease in the concentration of these amino acids within the plasma. The pooled estimates regarding the effect of heat stress exposure on plasma amino acid concentrations for proline were -0.013. The SMDs obtained for amino acid concentrations within the brain (diencephalon) including leucine, methionine, valine and isoleucine were 1.799, 0.88, 2.11, 1.85, respectively, This indicates a significant increase in the concentration of these amino acids within the brain (P < 0.05). Comparing the SMD obtained for long-term heat exposure (two weeks) with the SMD obtained for short-term heat exposure shows that plasma amino acid concentrations including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, glycine, proline, phenylalanine and threonine had all decreased. The relationship between heat exposure and changes in the concentration of some amino acids in the plasma is an important scientific finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2021.102872DOI Listing
April 2021

Dapsone Ameliorates Colitis through TLR4/NF-kB Pathway in TNBS Induced Colitis Model in Rat.

Arch Med Res 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 13145-784, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Crohn's disease (CD), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), emerges with severe gastrointestinal (GI) tract inflammation, sometimes known as hostile abdomen. Conventional treatment of CD has several limitations such as insufficient response to treatment, and intolerable side effects of drugs. In addition, the high cost of biologic drugs prevents patients from continuing their treatment. Dapsone showed vigorous anti-inflammatory effects on the skin diseases, lung diseases and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. Hence, we decided to investigate the effect of dapsone on animal model of CD.

Methods: In this study, colitis was induced by instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) 100 mg/kg. Rats were treated with daily gavage of dapsone (10, 12.5 and 20 mg/kg). Seven days after induction of colitis, specimens were collected for pathological and molecular assessments.

Results: Dapsone (12.5 and 20 mg/kg) preserved the histologic architecture of the colon and prevented crypts irregularity. Additionally, it decreased tissue edema and hindered inflammatory cells infiltration. Besides, all doses of dapsone decreased tissue concentration of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ (INFγ). Western blot revealed that dapsone could attenuate inflammation via downregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and dephosphorylation of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB).

Conclusion: Based on these findings, dapsone attenuates inflammation and decreases TNF-α and INF-γ in animal model of CD. It acts through TLR4/NF-kB pathway to exert these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.03.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Beyond its anti-migraine properties, sumatriptan is an anti-inflammatory agent: A systematic review.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Sumatriptan is the first available medication from triptans family that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for migraine attacks and cluster headaches in 1991. Most of its action is mediated by selective 5-HT receptor agonism. Recent investigations raised the possibility of repositioning of this drug to other indications beyond migraine, as increasing evidence suggests for an anti-inflammatory property of sumatriptan. We performed a literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar using "inflammation AND sumatriptan" or "inflammation AND 5HT1B/D" as the keywords. Then, articles were screened for their relevance and those directly discussing the correlation between inflammation and sumatriptan or 5HT1B/D were included. Total references reviewed or inclusion/exclusion were 340 retrieved full-text articles (n = 340), then based on critical assessment 66 of them were included in this systematic review. Our literature review indicates that at low doses, sumatriptan can reduce inflammatory markers (e.g., interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-κB), affects caspases and changes cells lifespan. Additionally, nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide signaling seem to be regulated by this drug. It also inhibits the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide. Sumatriptan protects against many inflammatory conditions including cardiac and mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion, skin flap, pruritus, peripheral, and central nervous system injuries such as spinal cord injury, testicular torsion-detorsion, oral mucositis, and other experimental models. Considering the safety and potency of low dose sumatriptan compared to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications, it is worth to take advantage of sumatriptan in inflammatory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21819DOI Listing
April 2021

Reduced frequency of T helper 17 and T helper 1 cells and their association with critical coronavirus disease 2019.

APMIS 2021 May 31;129(5):271-279. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

There is very little knowledge about the immune responses, particularly cellular immunity to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of T helper (Th) cell subtypes, including Th1, Th17, and Treg cells, in moderate-to-severe and critical COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Twenty-nine moderate-to-severe and 13 critical patients confirmed for COVID-19, and 15 healthy subjects were included in this study. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing Th1 and interleukin-17A-producing Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood were measured with flow cytometry. The frequency of Th1 and Th17 was significantly decreased in critical patients compared to healthy subjects (aMD: -2.76 and - 2.34) and moderate-to-severe patients (aMD: -1.89 and - 1.89), respectively (p < 0.05). Differences were not significant between moderate-to-severe patients and healthy subjects for both Th1 (p = 0.358) and Th17 (p = 0.535), respectively. In contrast, significant difference was not observed between study subjects regarding the frequency of Treg cells. Patients with critical COVID-19 had a markedly lower Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios compared with the controls and moderate-to-severe cases. Our study showed a dysregulated balance of Th1 and Th17 cells and its relation to the severity of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.13129DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of tonal noise and task difficulty on electroencephalography and cognitive performance.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2021 Apr 5:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Ergonomics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran.

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of tonal noise and task difficulty on electroencephalography (EEG) and cognitive performance. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in the present study. Four noise signals were generated by four prominence tone levels (0, 2, 5 and 9) at background noise levels of 55 dBA and frequency of 500 Hz using the Test Tone Generator from Esser Audio (USA). The participants were asked to perform the tasks with low, moderate and high levels of difficulty while exposed to the noises in an acoustics laboratory. The values of reaction time, correct rate and missed numbers were recorded during each step. Moreover, the EEG signals were measured. The results showed that higher tone level and more task difficulty significantly decreased the correct rate, and increased the miss numbers. However, no significant effect was observed on reaction times. Furthermore, tone level and task difficulty significantly increased activity of the θ and β bands and decreased activity of the α band. Task difficulty and tone level could significantly affect the parameters of performance and the activity of EEG bands. Therefore, noise control can help sustain appropriate performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2021.1901432DOI Listing
April 2021

CFD simulation for dispersion of benzene at a petroleum refinery in diverse atmospheric conditions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Atmospheric parameters play a vital role in the dispersion of air pollutants. Benzene is a confirmed human carcinogen. It is also a neurotoxin and an irritant compound. The objective of this study was to examine the CFD simulation by Fluent16 software to simulate and analyze the effect of atmospheric conditions on the dispersion of benzene in eight different scenarios in a petroleum refinery. According to the results of this study, the highest and lowest impacts of atmospheric parameters occurred on spring days and autumn nights, respectively. Wind direction did not have a significant effect on the benzene distribution due to the artificial ceiling of piping installations in the computational domain. However, the wind speed had a critical role in the benzene dispersion. The maximum concentration occurred at 36- to 37-m distance from the inlet boundary for all scenarios except winter nights. On winter nights, this distance increased to 38 m. Benzene concentrations were the highest at their sources of release. They decreased after the artificial ceiling of the pipelines was at 5.5- to 7-m height where the air displacement was not sufficient, and therefore, leading to a gradual reduction in concentration. The accumulation of benzene concentration in the small domain was noticeable compared to the benzene concentration distributed in the total computational domain, and the authors recommended control measures in this domain. This study demonstrated CFD simulation methodology could enable the investigators to predict the benzene concentration dispersion in the atmosphere of a petroleum refinery plant. These findings can be used by occupational health engineers for health risk assessment of refinery personnel involved with maintenance operations and engineering control systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12254-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Centrifuge-free dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with thin-film microextraction for the preconcentration of molinate in real samples by ion mobility spectrometry.

Talanta 2021 Apr 30;225:122027. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.

A tandem microextraction method, centrifuge free dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and thin-film microextraction (DLLME-TFME), was used for analyzing molinate in environmental samples by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Considering the IMS as a competitive detection system, coupling these two popular sample preparation methods reduces the effect of solvent interference and improves the sensitivity of the technique. Trichloromethane and methanol were used as the extraction, and dispersive solvents for the DLLME method and electrospun polyacrylonitrile/copper-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid fibers were used as a sorbent in the TFME method. Some effective experimental variables influencing the extraction efficiency of an analyte such as type and volume of dispersive and extraction solvents, solution pH, ionic strength, sonication time, and extraction time were studied. The linear dynamic range of 0.5-50 μg L and the limit of detection of 0.1 μg L were obtained under optimized conditions. The relative standard deviations for intra-and inter-day analysis were calculated less than 10%. The present method was used for the determination of molinate in different real samples such as agricultural wastewater, well water, river water, and apple, and the recovery was obtained between 82% and 113%, for the spiked samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.122027DOI Listing
April 2021

Soot particle morphology and nanostructure with oxygenated fuels: A comparative study into cold-start and hot-start operation.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 24;275:116592. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

International Laboratory of Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia; Biofuel Engine Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia.

This study investigates the morphology and nanostructure of soot particles during cold-start and hot-start engine operation of a diesel engine using oxygenated fuels. The soot samples were analysed using transmission electron microscopy. The oxygen content in the fuel was varied between 0 and 12%. The results showed that the primary particles during cold-start have significantly smaller size when compared to hot-start engine operation. The addition of oxygenated fuels also resulted in smaller sized primary particles. Smaller radius of gyration and higher fractal dimension of soot aggregates during cold-start would mean smaller aggregate size with a more compact structure. Shorter fringes with a higher inter-fringe spacing for cold-start would mean lower graphitisation of soot particles that could be related to higher oxidation reactivity of soot particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116592DOI Listing
April 2021

Aquaporins and diseases pathogenesis: From trivial to undeniable involvements, a disease-based point of view.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aquaporins (AQPs), as transmembrane proteins, were primarily identified as water channels with the ability of regulating the transmission of water, glycerol, urea, and other small-sized molecules. The classic view of AQPs involvement in therapeutic plan restricted them and their regulators into managing only a narrow spectrum of the diseases such as diabetes insipidus and the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion. However, further investigations performed, especially in the third millennium, has found that their cooperation in water transmission control can be manipulated to handle other burden-imposing diseases such as cirrhosis, heart failure, Meniere's disease, cancer, bullous pemphigoid, eczema, and Sjögren's syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30318DOI Listing
February 2021

Pronounce expression of Tim-3 and CD39 but not PD1 defines CD8 T cells in critical Covid-19 patients.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 4;153:104779. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: During viral infection, inhibitory receptors play a key role in regulating CD8 T-cell activity. The objective of this research was to investigate programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein-3 (TIM-3), and CD39 exhaustion markers in CD8 T cells of new coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Methods: A total of 44 patients with COVID-19 (17 subjects in a critical group and 27 patients in a non-critical group) and 14 healthy controls, who were admitted to Hospitals in Babol, were recruited to the study. In subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we compared the phenotype of CD8 T lymphocytes, expressing PD-1, TIM-3, or CD39, both alone and in various combinations.

Results: The findings showed that the percentage of CD8 cells was significantly lower in patients. Critical and non-critical patients were more likely than healthy controls to have an escalated frequency of CD8 TIM-3, CD8 CD39, and CD8 TIM-3 CD39 cells. No significant differences were observed between all groups in the CD8 PD-1 cell counts. There was also no difference between three groups regarding the counts of CD8 TIM-3 PD-1, CD8 PD-1 CD39, and CD8 TIM-3 PD-1 CD39 cells. The counts of non-exhausted cells were significantly lower in critical and non-critical individuals compared to the healthy individuals' value.

Conclusion: Patients, infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), altered exhausted CD8 T lymphocytes with CD39 and TIM-3 exhaustion markers, which may account the dysregulated immune response found in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857983PMC
April 2021

Decreased Frequency of CD8HLA-G T Cell in the Peripheral Blood of Primary Unexplained Infertile Females.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Infertility and Health Reproductive Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Most of the findings have focused on the importance of CD4HLA-G and CD8HLA-G regulatory T cells (Treg) during pregnancy. It has been demonstrated that these HLA-G T cell subsets could induce maternal immune tolerance against semi-allogenic conceptus during pregnancy. There are only a few experiments regarding the Treg cells in the context of unexplained infertility (UI). Thirty-five participants including 18 primary unexplained infertile and 17 fertile females were enrolled in this study. A total of 3-5 ml blood samples were taken, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated by using Ficoll. Using a flow cytometer, the frequency of CD4HLA-G and CD8 HLA-G T cells was assessed in the peripheral blood samples of primary unexplained infertile and fertile females. Our results showed that the frequency of CD8HLA-G Treg cells was significantly lower in primary unexplained infertile females than fertile females (P = 0.048). Although the frequency of CD4HLA-G Treg cells in the primary unexplained infertile females was lower than fertile females, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.25). Regarding the important role of CD8HLA-G Treg cells during pregnancy and its decrease in females with primary UI, it seems that reduced CD8 HLA-G Treg cells could be a leading immunological factor in the context of infertility. Nevertheless, more researches are needed in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00431-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Molting method alternative and detection of estrogen receptors by immunohistochemical methods on molted layers.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jan 7;53(1):96. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pathology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Three experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of different molting methods on the growth performance, detection of estrogen receptors (ERs), and immunohistochemical properties of some tissues in pre-, during, and post-molting of layers. In experiment 1, 302 Hy-line W-36 were reared from 75 to 76 weeks. In experiment 2, a total of 252 Hy-line W-36 were randomly allocated to 7 groups, with 6 replications and 6 birds in each. Hens fed in the E and D groups reached 30% of loss weight sooner (P < 0.05). Egg production was also sooner stopped in the FW group than in other ones (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, after inducing molting, each group in experiment 2 was divided into 2 groups with and without Humulus lupulus (Hop). The E group feed intake was increased, as compared to groups F and C (P < 0.05). A significant increase in egg weight was found by applying Hop and molting methods (P < 0.05). Days for return to the initial egg production and 10% egg laying were significantly decreased in the birds fed by Hop in the E and D groups (P < 0.05). The W-D, N-D, W-E, and N-E groups sooner returned to 50% egg laying, in comparison to other treatments (P < 0.05). Plasma estrogen and ERs were decreased by the molting programs, as compared with pre-molting; however, Hop increased their post-molting. After the molting period, egg production and ERs were increased significantly, as compared with the pre-molting period. To conclude, the white button mushroom residual, through decreasing ERs, could be used successfully for forced molting, and Hop could lead to a good performance by increasing ERs in the second laying cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02509-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry Expression of CK7, HMWK and PSA in High-Grade Prostatic Adenocarcinoma and Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma.

Iran J Pathol 2021 13;16(1):33-39. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background & Objective: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy in males, and the urothelial bladder carcinoma is also prevalent. The histological characteristic of these two tumors is very similar in high-grade cases, and their differentiation is difficult. This study was performed to compare the immunohistochemistry panel of high-grade prostate adenocarcinomas and high-grade urothelial bladder carcinomas.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 36 cases of prostate adenocarcinoma and 36 urothelial bladder carcinoma samples were collected from the pathology department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamedan. For each sample, expression of Cytokeratin 7, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and Prostate-specific antigen markers was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Comparison of expression of these markers in high-grade bladder tumors and prostate tumors was made by SPSS 25 using Chi-square test.

Results: In this study, the Cytokeratin 7 positivity was seen in 88.9% of bladder cancer versus 27.8% of prostate cancer samples. High-molecular-weight cytokeratin positive immunoreactivity was noted in 55.6% of bladder cancer and 5.6% of prostate cancer samples. Prostate-specific antigen marker showed positive results in 94.4% of prostate cancer samples, but no positivity was evident in those of bladder cancer.

Conclusion: A panel of immunohistochemical stains can be used to differentiate high-grade prostate adenocarcinoma from urothelial bladder carcinoma in those cases which are challenging to diagnose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/ijp.2020.123998.2353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691713PMC
November 2020

Covalent triazine-based framework-grafted functionalized fibrous silica sphere as a solid-phase microextraction coating for simultaneous determination of fenthion and chlorpyrifos by ion mobility spectrometry.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Jan 2;188(1). Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.

A novel covalent triazine-based framework (CTF)-grafted phenyl-functionalized fibrous silica nanosphere, KCC-1 (named as RS-2) was synthesized via a simple and effective Friedel-Crafts approach. The microporous CTF with fluorene backbone was coupled and grown uniformly on the surface of phenyl-functionalized KCC-1 to prepare a hybrid extended porous framework. The prepared materials were characterized, and FE-SEM and TEM images revealed a flower-like structure for RS-2. The synthesized RS-2 showed excellent thermal stability, so the weight loss was about 30% at 800 °C. RS-2 was applied as a new coating in the solid-phase microextraction procedure to extract chlorpyrifos and fenthion pesticides from water, wastewater, and fruit samples, before determining by corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometry. Some experimental factors affecting the extraction yield of the analytes, including ionic strength, stirring rate, sample pH, extraction temperature, and extraction time, were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the linear dynamic ranges were 0.1-10 μg L and 1.0-70 μg L, and the limits of detection were 0.05 and 0.55 μg L for chlorpyrifos and fenthion, respectively. The proposed method showed recovery values in the range 86-117% with a precision of 3.0-7.1% for real samples. Covalent triazine-based framework (CTF)-grafted phenyl-functionalized fibrous silica nanosphere (named as RS-2) was synthesized. RS-2 was applied as a sorbent for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of chlorpyrifos and fenthion from fruit and water samples followed by corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-04685-xDOI Listing
January 2021

The persistent pandemic of violence against health care workers.

Am J Manag Care 2020 12 1;26(12):e377-e379. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Mailbox 7483, San Antonio, TX 78229. Email:

Violence against health care workers is an ever-present threat that has been increasing over the past several years. The majority of physicians and nurses report that they have been victims of workplace violence at least once throughout their careers. Such violent attacks negatively affect the delivery, quality, and accessibility of health care. Certain factors such as substance abuse and intense emotions increase an individual's risk of committing an act of workplace violence against a health care worker. Encountering violent individuals has legal implications and can compromise the moral framework of physicians. With action from institution administrations, advocates, leaders, and government, this issue that detrimentally affects health care can be combatted and reduced. By implementing required staff training, increasing security, strengthening the doctor-patient relationship, using medical chaperones, and reforming policy, positive changes can be made to protect health care workers and the health care system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.37765/ajmc.2020.88543DOI Listing
December 2020

Protective effect of modafinil on skin flap survival in the experimental random-pattern skin flap model in rats: The role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and nitric oxide pathway.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The brain-stimulating agent modafinil acts through nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K) channels, involved in the skin flap survival (SFS). The main aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of modafinil on SFS in rats through the involvement of NO pathway and K channels.

Methods: Using controlled experiment study design, we enrolled a sample of Wistar male rats. Different doses of modafinil (10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before the surgery. L-NAME (non-selective nitric oxide synthase [NOS] inhibitor), aminoguanidine (inducible NOS inhibitor), and 7-nitroindazole (neuronal NOS inhibitor) were administered prior to modafinil. The role of K channels was determined by coadministering glibenclamide (K channel blocker) or cromakalim (K channel opener) with modafinil. The predictor variables were administration of different doses of modafinil, and the coadministration of modafinil with L-NAME, aminoguanidine, 7-nitroindazole, glibenclamide, and cromakalim. The main outcome variables included the percentage of necrotic area (PNA) in flap tissues, histopathological results, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and nitrite concentrations. Appropriate statistics were computed considering p-value ≤ 0.05 significant.

Results: Modafinil 25 mg/kg was the most effective dose (PNA: 26 [95% CI: 19-33]) vs. control (PNA: 81 [95% CI: 71-92]) (p< 0.001). All NOS inhibitors significantly reversed the protective effect of modafinil (p< 0.001). Non-effective dose of cromakalim had a synergistic effect with the sub-effective dose of modafinil (10 mg/kg), while glibenclamide reversed the effect of modafinil 25 mg/kg (p< 0.001).

Conclusions: Modafinil increases SFS mediated by NO pathway and K channels, which could therefore be a target to improve SFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2020.10.084DOI Listing
November 2020

Sildenafil beyond erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension: Thinking about new indications.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 2;35(2):235-259. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 13145-784, Iran.

Sildenafil, approved two decades ago, is the inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). First of all, it was designated for angina pectoris, but soon it showed a wonderful efficacy in erectile dysfunction (ED) and then pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Due to the distribution of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in almost all organs, maybe it effects other diseases. Hence, a great number of investigations began to understand the role of PDEi in different organs. Preliminary research on sildenafil in cell culture and animal models has yielded promising results. Soon, a greater number of animal researches and clinical trials joined them. The results disclosed sildenafil can have beneficial effects in each organ such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, and intestines. Furthermore, it has significantly improved the prognosis of organ ischemia in various animal models. Clinical trials in several diseases, such as recurrent spontaneous miscarriage, fatty liver disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), heart failure, and premature ejaculation (PE) brought promising results. Although some clinical trials are available on the effects of sildenafil on various diseases, further studies on humans are needed to consolidate the ultimate effects of sildenafil. The aim of this review was to describe the effects of sildenafil on each organ and explain its mechanisms of action. Further, other PDE inhibitors such as tadalafil and vardenafil have been briefly discussed in parts of this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12633DOI Listing
April 2021

Machine learning and multispectral data-based detection of soil salinity in an arid region, Central Iran.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Nov 12;192(12):759. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

In recent years, indirect methods have been used to estimate soil salinity in agricultural lands. In this research, the electrical conductivity of 93 soil samples from 0 to 30 cm and 0 to 100 cm was measured using the hypercube technique at Sharifabad-Saveh Plain, Iran. Land area parameters such as TWI, TCI, STP, DEM, and LS were used as topographic variables and spatial indices of salinity and vegetation were derived from Landsat 8 images. Soil salinity off crops and gardens was determined at 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm. The data were divided into two series: the training set (70%) and the test set (30%). In order to model and predict salinity, models such as an artificial neural network (ANN), integration of neural network and genetic algorithm (ANN-GA), PLSR, and decision tree (DT) were used. The results of the models' evaluation based on MSE and R indices showed that the ANN-GA model has the highest accuracy in predicting soil properties. This model improved the accuracy of soil salinity prediction by 28%, 42%, and 23% in 0-30 cm and by 20%, 28%, and 25% at 100 cm than ANN, PLSR, and DT. The result showed the 2 dS/m EC at alfalfa and cucurbits farmlands while pistachio orchards have low salinity and bare lands have moderate and high salinity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08718-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Ivermectin Increases Random-Pattern Skin Flap Survival in Rats: The Novel Role of GABAergic System.

J Surg Res 2021 03 14;259:431-441. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Ivermectin (IVM) was first used as an antiparasitic agent; however, the role of this drug evolved into a broad spectrum. Many mechanisms have been proposed, including interaction with the GABAergic system. Considering the presence of GABA receptor in the skin tissue and its role in ischemia-reperfusion I/R injury, we aimed to evaluate the effect of IVM through GABA receptors on random-pattern skin flap survival.

Methods: Sixty Wistar male rats were used. Multiple doses of IVM (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally before the surgery. Baclofen (selective GABA agonist) and bicuculline (selective GABA antagonist) were administered in combination with IVM to assess the role of the GABAergic system. Histopathological evaluations, immunohistochemical staining, quantitative assessment of IL-1β and TNFα, and the expression of GABA α1 subunit and GABA R1 receptors were evaluated in the skin tissue.

Results: IVM 0.05 mg/kg could significantly increase flap survival compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1 mg/kg) had synergistic effect with the subeffective dose of IVM (0.01 mg/kg) (P < 0.001), whereas bicuculline 1 mg/kg reversed the effect of IVM (0.05 mg/kg) (P < 0.001). IVM 0.05 mg/kg could also decrease the IL-1β and TNFα levels and increase the expression of GABA α1 subunit and GABA R1 receptors in the flap tissue compared with the control group.

Conclusions: IVM could improve skin flap survival, probably mediated by the GABAergic pathway. Both GABA and GABA receptors are involved in this process. This finding may repurpose the use of old drug, "Ivermectin."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.09.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Sumatriptan alleviates radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats by inhibition of NF-kB and ERK activation, prevention of TNF-α and ROS release.

Arch Oral Biol 2020 Nov 16;119:104919. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 13145-784, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Oral mucositis caused by radiation therapy is a common problem in cancer patients, especially those with head and neck cancer. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have attempted to find a drug to alleviate oral mucositis. Sumatriptan, is conventionally used to treat migraine attack and cluster headache. Recently, low doses have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we aimed to measure the effect of sumatriptan on experimental radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

Material And Methods: This study evaluates the use of sumatriptan 0.3 and 1 mg/kg in radiation-induced oral mucositis. In order to induce oral mucositis, six rats from each group received 8-Gy of X-ray in a single session. Likewise, three rats from each group received 26-Gy of X-ray. The latter dose of X-ray was used for inducing severe mucositis and apoptosis evaluation by TUNEL assay, while the first dose was used for histopathological and molecular assessments. On 8th day after irradiation, specimens were collected from their tongues for histology, TUNEL and molecular assessments.

Results: Radiation caused mucosal atrophy, derangement of the tissue and vasodilation. Sumatriptan significantly decreased histopathological score and alleviated mucosal atrophy. As well, there was no evidence of vasodilation in the sumatriptan group. Likewise, sumatriptan decreased the increased level of NF-kB and prevented its activation as well as ERK phosphorylation. In addition, Sumatriptan-treated rats had lower tissue level of TNF-α, reactive oxygen species and fewer apoptotic cells in TUNEL assay.

Conclusion: Based on study results, sumatriptan mitigate radiation-induced oral mucositis by inhibiting NF-kB, ERK and limiting the release of TNF-α, oxidative stress factor and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104919DOI Listing
November 2020

The silent presence of Mycoplasma hominis in patients with prostate cancer.

Pathog Dis 2020 10;78(7)

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Fahmideh Street, Hamadan, Iran, 65178.

Background: Mycoplasma hominis, an opportunistic pathogen in human genitourinary tract, can cause chronic infection in the prostate. Intracellular survival of M. hominis leads to a prolonged presence in the host cells that can affect the cell's biological cycle. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of M. hominis DNA in prostate tissue of Iranian patients with prostate cancer (PCa) in comparison to a control group with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Methods: This research was a retrospective case-control study using 61 archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of prostate tissue from patients with PCa and 70 FFPE blocks of patients with BPH. Real-time PCR, targeting two different genes, 16S rRNA and yidC, in the M. hominis genome was performed for all specimens.

Results: Out of 61 blocks of prostate biopsy from patients with PCa, eight samples (13%) were positive for M. hominis, while the bacterium was not detected in any of the 70 blocks of patients with BPH (P value, 0.002).

Conclusions: The high frequency of M. hominis in patients with PCa likely shows a hidden role of the organism in prostate cancer during its chronic, apparently silent and asymptomatic colonization in prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftaa037DOI Listing
October 2020

Neuroprotective Effect of Intravitreal Single-Dose Lithium Chloride after Optic Nerve Injury in Rats.

Curr Eye Res 2021 Apr 4;46(4):558-567. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Lithium is an old drug to control bipolar disorder. Moreover, it presents neuroprotective effects and supports neuronal plasticity. The aim of this study was to evaluate neuroprotective effect of intravitreal lithium after optic nerve injury.

Methods: Three dosages of lithium chloride, including 2 pmol, 200 pmol, and 2 nmol, were injected intravitreally after rat optic nerve injury. Proteins expression were assessed by western blot. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites were measured by Griess test. Visual evoked potential (VEP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement were performed after trauma induction, in addition to H & E and TUJ1 staining of ganglion cells.

Results: Western blot depicted lithium can significantly increase antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level and reduce -ERK, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proapoptotic proteins such as Bax level in retinal tissue and Griess test reflected that NO metabolites level decreased in lithium treated eyes ( < .05). While, OCT showed no significant changes ( = .36 and = .43 comparing treated group with trauma) in retinal ganglion cell layer thickness after lithium injection, VEP P2 wave amplitude increased significantly ( < .01) in lithium-treated eyes and its latency reduced ( < .05 for N1 wave and < .01 for P2 wave). Tuj1 antibody-labeled retinal ganglion cells analyzing showed that the number of retinal ganglion cells were significantly higher in lithium treated eyes compared to untreated eyes with optic nerve injury.

Conclusion: It seems intravitreally lithium has optic nerve neuroprotective effects by various mechanisms like overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, suppressing proinflammatory molecules and proapoptotic factors, and decreasing nitric oxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2020.1808999DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationship between risk perception and occupational accidents: a study among foundry workers.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2019 Nov 28;94(1):24. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Proteomics Research Center and Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Risk perception is an effective factor in the determining of the incidence of unsafe behaviors and the occurrence of occupational accidents in the workplace.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between risk perception and occupational accidents among foundry workers in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all male workers in a foundry unit were initially selected (n = 245). After applying the study criteria and dismissing incomplete returned questionnaires, only 109 workers were included in the study. The General Health Questionnaire and the Flynn et al. Risk Perception Questionnaire were used to assess the mental health and risk perception of workers, respectively. Data regarding the occupational accidents of workers were also extracted from the accidents' records of the foundry. Workers with a record of occupational accidents during 2013-2016 were compared with workers without an occupational accident record.

Results: Findings showed that a one-unit increase in the risk perception score resulted into an increase of approximately 33% in the odds of the occurrence of occupational accidents, but this rate was not significant (p = 0.695). In addition, the study found no significant relation between the risk perception score and the frequency of occupational accidents (Spearman's r = 0.003, p = 0.977).

Conclusion: There is no statistically significant relationship between risk perception and occupational accidents among foundry workers in Tehran, Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42506-019-0025-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364689PMC
November 2019

Involvement of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Sep 20;882:173265. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Brain and Spinal Injury Repair Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is caused by an abrupt cessation of blood flow to the small intestine. Reperfusion is the return of blood flow to the ischemic bowel. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species, local inflammatory response, and may lead to the patient's death. Pre-treatment of the intestinal may reduce the high mortality associated with AMI. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT1B) and 5-HT1D receptors have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in different experimental studies. We aimed to investigate the potential involvement of these receptors in intestinal I/R injury. Firstly, we assessed the expression and localization of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in the enteric nervous system using an immunofluorescence-based method. Intestinal I/R in rats was induced by 30 min occlusion of superior mesenteric artery and reperfusion for 2 h. Rats were randomly divided in different control and I/R groups (n = 6) receiving either vehicle, sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D receptors agonist; 0.1 mg/kg), GR127,935 (5-HT1B/1D receptors antagonist; 0.1 mg/kg) and combination of sumatriptan (0.1 mg/kg) + GR127,935 (0.1 mg/kg) before determination of biochemical and histological parameters. In the enteric nervous system, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors were expressed 17% and 11.5%, respectively. Pre-treatment with sumatriptan decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) level by 53%, and significantly decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels, lipid pereoxidation, neutrophil infiltration, and level of pro-inflammatory markers in the serum. Histopathologic studies also showed a remarkable decrease in intestinal tissue injury. These findings suggest that sumatriptan may inhibit intestinal injury induced by I/R through modulating the inflammatory response by activation of 5-HT1B/1D receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173265DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of hydroxychloroquine on prevention of COVID-19 virus infection among healthcare professionals: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):467. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Comparison of the effect of hydroxychloroquine with placebo to prevent infection from the COVID -19 virus among healthcare professionals TRIAL DESIGN: Single centre, 2-arm, double-blind randomised (ratio 1:1) placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Treatment staff who are in contact with patients and have at least 3 shifts a week in Arash hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in Iran and who consent to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria include: History of COVID -19 virus infection, clinical symptoms such as fever, nausea, dyspnea and myalgia in the past two months, history of underlying diseases hypersensitivity to hydroxychloroquine and G6PD enzyme deficiency.

Intervention And Comparator: Intervention group: Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tablet of Amin Pharmaceutical.

Control Group: placebo which is completely similar in form and taste to 200 mg hydroxychloroquine tablet and is manufactured by the same factory (Amin Pharmacy). The dosage is two tablets daily, once a week for one to three months (based on the duration of the Coronavirus epidemic in Tehran).

Main Outcomes: Confirmed COVID-19 virus infection using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is the primary outcome. The time period for measuring the primary outcome is any infection within the trial period up to one month after taking the last dose.

Randomisation: The randomized block allocation method was developed using Stata version 15 software by an independent researcher, using a block size of six. Allocation to the two treatment groups will be conducted by this researcher using paper labels (random 10-digit codes) in a 1:1 ratio t The labels will be attached to the drug packages in order of randomization. Drug packages will be arranged in a box according to the randomization list.

Blinding (masking): Participants and caregivers are blinded to group assignment and the data will be analyzed by an independent statistical expert who is unaware of the treatment allocation.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): A total of 282 participants will be randomised with 141 participants the Hydroxychloroquineeach intervention group and 141 participants to the placebo control group TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version number is 99-1-101-47091 and the approval ID is IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1399.001 and recruitment began April 7, 2020, and is anticipated to be complete by August 7, 2020.

Trial Registration: The name of the trial register is Iranian registry of clinical trial (IRCT), registration number is IRCT20120826010664N6, date of trial registration is April 7, 2020, FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04439-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267750PMC
June 2020

Effects of a short-term mindfulness-based stress reduction program on the quality of life of women with infertility: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

Complement Ther Med 2020 May 13;50:102403. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Fertility, Infertility and Perinatology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Although some programs based on mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) have been suggested to promote quality of life (QoL) in different conditions, limited studies have addressed their potential effects in women with infertility. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of an MBSR program on the QoL of women with infertility.

Materials And Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 36 women with infertility, who were selected by consecutive sampling from the Infertility Center of Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran. Women either participated in the MBSR program or received routine consultation in eight two-hour group sessions once a week. Women's QoL was measured using the 36-item short-form health survey before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. The intention-to-treat analysis, with multiple imputation for missing data, was also performed.

Results: The mean changes in the total score of QoL and its subscales (except for "social functioning" and "bodily pain") were significant compared to the baseline both at immediately after and one month after the intervention in favor of the experimental group (P<0.001 in most cases). Twenty four and six adverse events were recorded in the experimental and control groups, respectively.

Conclusion: Short-term MBSR program seem to be potentially effective in improving the QoL of women with infertility. Further studies are needed to determine the generalizability of our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102403DOI Listing
May 2020

Multiple instance learning combined with label invariant synthetic data for guiding systematic prostate biopsy: a feasibility study.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2020 Jun 30;15(6):1023-1031. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Purpose: Ultrasound imaging is routinely used in prostate biopsy, which involves obtaining prostate tissue samples using a systematic, yet, non-targeted approach. This approach is blinded to individual patient intraprostatic pathology, and unfortunately, has a high rate of false negatives.

Methods: In this paper, we propose a deep network for improved detection of prostate cancer in systematic biopsy. We address several challenges associated with training such network: (1) Statistical labels: Since biopsy core's pathology report only represents a statistical distribution of cancer within the core, we use multiple instance learning (MIL) networks to enable learning from ultrasound image regions associated with those data; (2) Limited labels: The number of biopsy cores are limited to at most 12 per patient. As a result, the number of samples available for training a deep network is limited. We alleviate this issue by effectively combining Independent Conditional Variational Auto Encoders (ICVAE) with MIL. We train ICVAE to learn label-invariant features of RF data, which is subsequently used to generate synthetic data for improved training of the MIL network.

Results: Our in vivo study includes data from 339 prostate biopsy cores of 70 patients. We achieve an area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, and balanced accuracy of 0.68, 0.77, 0.55 and 0.66, respectively.

Conclusion: The proposed approach is generic and can be applied to several other scenarios where unlabeled data and noisy labels in training samples are present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-020-02168-1DOI Listing
June 2020