Publications by authors named "Mohammad Hassan Zuhair"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Serum Concentration of Thyroid Hormones Long-Term after Sulfur Mustard Exposure.

Iran J Public Health 2019 May;48(5):949-955

Endocrine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite several reports on the clinical manifestations of sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication, there is no study on serum concentrations of thyroid hormones long-term after SM exposure. In this study, the changes in thyroid functioning parameters 20 yr after SM exposure were evaluated.

Methods: This study is a part of a larger historical cohort study conducted in 2007 following 20 years of the exposure to SM, called Sardasht-Iran cohort study (SICS). We (SICS) comprised an SM-exposed group from Sardasht City, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran (n=169 as hospitalized group and n=203 as non-hospitalized exposed group); and control participants were selected from Rabat, a town near Sardasht (n=126). Peripheral blood samples were taken in fasting state and then the sera were separated. T4, T3, TSH, antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) concentrations in the sera were measured by the ELISA method.

Results: The mean of T3 concentration was significantly higher in the exposed than control group (0.88 ± 0.26 nmol/L vs 0.8 ± 0.25 nmol/L, <0.001). The levels of TSH, T4, and T3up were not significantly different between the exposed and control groups. Thyroglobulin level was significantly higher in the exposed non-hospitalized group (56.07 ± 140.22 μg/L vs 17.66 ± 41.49 μg/L, =0.004), but the level of anti-Tg and anti-TPO showed no significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusion: More studies are needed on the alterations in thyroid hormones, their gene expressions, and mechanisms involved in SM exposure to clarify the causes of these alterations.
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May 2019

Evaluation of synergistic therapeutic effect of shark cartilage extract with artemisinin and glucantime on visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019 Feb;22(2):146-153

Department of Virology, Iranian Blood Transfusion, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Because leishmaniasis is related to the impaired functioning of T-cells, the use of an immunomodulator can increase the efficacy of antileishmanial therapy in visceral leishmaniasis. In this study, we used shark cartilage extract with artemisinin and glucantime against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, and evaluated the synergistic therapeutic effect.

Materials And Methods: The culturing method and quantitative real-time PCR by using the kDNA gene was used to detect parasite loads in the spleen and liver. INF-γ and IL-4 cytokine levels and survival rates were assayed.

Results: The drug therapy with target drugs reduced parasite burden in the spleen and liver significantly. Although parasite burden was lower in the artemisinin treated group than in the glucantime treated group (<0.05). The mice survival rate records, throughout the experimental period, showed highly significant survival rates in the test groups compared to the control group (<0.001). The results of cytokine assay in mice treated with glucantime-shark cartilage extract combination indicated significant increases of IFNγ and IL-4 (<0.05). Although the increase of IFNγ was more notable than IL-4. The synergistic therapeutic effect is shown in all groups except in the group treated with shark cartilage extract-artemisinin combination. The IFN-γ in glucantime-shark cartilage extract combination treated group was higher than in other groups (<0.05). The survival rate in this group was more than in other groups too (<0.05).

Conclusion: Combination therapy with shark cartilage extract as an immunomodulator can increase antileishmanial effects of antimony drugs in VL treatment.
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February 2019

Polyurethane/siloxane membranes containing graphene oxide nanoplatelets as antimicrobial wound dressings: in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2017 May 6;28(5):75. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-331, Tehran, Iran.

Preserving wounds from bacterial and fungal infections and retaining optimum moist environment over damaged tissue are major challenges in wound care management. Application of wound dressings with antimicrobial activity and appropriate wound exudates handling ability is of particular significance for promoting wound healing. To this end, preparation and evaluation of novel wound dres1sings made from polyurethane/siloxane network containing graphene oxide (GO) nanoplatelets are described. The particular sol-gel hydrolysis/condensation procedure applied for the preparation of dressings leads to an appropriate distribution of GO nanoplatelets in the dressing membranes. The crosslinked siloxane domains and the presence of GO nanoplatelets within polymeric chains offered necessary mechanical strength for dressings. Meanwhile, a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties in dressing backbone enabled suitable wound exudate management. Therefore, both of physical protection from external forces and preservation of moist environment over wound were attained by using the designed dressings. Widespread antimicrobial activity against gram-positive, gram-negative and fungal strains was recorded for the dressing with the optimum amount of GO, meanwhile, very good cytocompatibility against fibroblast cells was noted for these dressings. In vivo assay of the GO containing dressing on rat animal model reveals that the dressing can promote wound healing by complete re-epithelization, enhanced vascularization and collagen deposition on healed tissue.
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May 2017

Association between Acne and Serum Pro-inflammatory Cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) in Mustard Gas-Exposed Patients: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Feb;20(2):86-91

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, I.R. Iran.

Background: Acne vulgaris is a very common chronic inflammatory disorder, yet its pathogenesis is not clearly understood. As part of the SICS, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between the incidence of acne vulgaris in SM-exposed subjects (20 years after the exposure) and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) in an attempt to better understand the pathogenesis of long-term skin disorders of these individuals.

Methods: Serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) were measured using sandwich ELISA technique.

Results: The median of serum levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and RANTES were significantly higher in the exposed patients with acne than those without acne (P = 0.05, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively). There was no significant difference in serum levels of IL-1α, IL-1Ra and IL-6 between the exposed subgroups.

Conclusion: We found a positive association between serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) and acne among SM-exposed population.
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February 2017

STAT3 is Overactivated in Gastric Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

Cell J 2016 17;17(4):617-28. Epub 2016 Jan 17.

Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Sciences Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Gastric cancer (GC) is widely associated with chronic inflammation. The pro inflammatory microenvironment provides conditions that disrupt stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The signal transducer and activator of transcrip- tion-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway is involved in inflammation and also contributes to the maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ESCs) pluripotency. Here, we have investi- gated the activation status of STAT3 in GC stem-like cells (GCSLCs).

Materials And Methods: In this experimental research, CSLCs derived from the human GC cell line MKN-45 and patient specimens, through spheroid body formation, character- ized and then assayed for the STAT3 transcription factor expression in mRNA and protein level further to its activation.

Results: Spheroid cells showed higher potential for spheroid formation than the pa- rental cells. Furthemore, stemness genes NANOG, c-MYC and SOX-2 were over expressed in spheroids of MKN-45 and in patient samples. In MKN-45 spheroid cells, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers CDH2, SNAIL2, TWIST and VIMENTIN were upregulated (P<0.05), but we observed no change in expression of the E-cadherin epithelial marker. These cells exhibited more resistance to docetaxel (DTX) when compared with parental cells (P<0.05) according to the MTS assay. Al- though immunostaining and Western blotting showed expression of the STAT3 pro- tein in both spheroids and parents, the mRNA level of STAT3 in spheroids was higher than the parents. Nuclear translocation of STAT3 was accompanied by more intensive phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3) in spheroid structures relative to the parent cells accord- ing to flow cytometry analysis (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The present findings point to STAT3 over activation in GCSLCs. Com- plementary experiments are required to extend the role of STAT3 in stemness fea- tures and invasion properties of GCSCs and to consider the STAT3 pathway for CSC targeted therapy.
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February 2016

In-vitro Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity and Toxicity of Artemether with Focus on its Apoptotic Effect.

Iran J Pharm Res 2013 ;12(4):903-9

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Artemisinin and its derivatives are very important new class of antimalarial drugs. One of the most important artemisinin derivatives is artemether. The antiparasitic activity of artemether as a derivative of artemisinin is related to endoperoxide bridge in its structure. The aim of this study was the evaluation of antileishmanial effect of artemether, with more focus on its apoptotic effect. In this study we used artemether in concentration of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL for promastigote assay, promastigote proliferation measurements by MTT assay, detection of apoptotic cells by Flow cytometry analysis and DNA ladder assay. The application of artemether, promastigote IC50 was measured as 25 μg/mL. The percentage of apoptotic promastigotes by using 25 μg/mL of artemether was 42.28. The results of present study showed that artemether has inhibition effect on intracellular and extracellular growth of Leishmania major. Promastigotes of Leishmania major undergo apoptosis after exposure to artemether.
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February 2014

Purif ied Protein Fraction of Garlic Extract Modulates Cellular Immune Response against Breast Transplanted Tumors in BALB/c Mice Model.

Cell J 2013 5;15(1):65-75. Epub 2013 May 5.

1. Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran ; 2. Department of Regenerative Biomedicine at Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum) has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenesis, and immunomodulatory properties that modulate anti-tumor immunity and inhibit tumor growth. In this study we have examined the effect of a protein fraction isolated from fresh garlic on anti-tumor response and intra-tumor lymphocyte infiltration.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study a protein fraction was purified from fresh garlic bulbs using ultra-filtration, followed by chromatofocusing, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Anti-tumor activity was assessed by intra-tumor injection of the protein fraction and garlic extract, itself, into groups of 5 mice each. The percentage of peripheral blood and intra-tumor CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Unpaired student's t test using the SPSS program was applied for all statistical analyses.

Results: Garlic extract included different type of proteins with different molecular weight. One of protein's fraction was immunomodeulator and was composed of three single polypeptides, with molecular masses of ~10-13 kDa and different isoelectric points (pI). These molecules augmented the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response compared to the control group. Intra-tumor injection of the fraction provoked a significant increase in the CD8(+) subpopulation of T-lymphocytes, as well as a decrease in tumor size. The fraction increased peripheral blood CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in treated animals.

Conclusion: The data confirms that protein fractions purified from fresh garlic bulbs augment CD8(+) T-cell infiltration into the tumor site, inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently than garlic extract. These findings provide a basis for further investigations on the purified polypeptide as a useful candidate for immunomodulation and tumor treatment.
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May 2013

Evaluation of The Number of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Treg Cells in Normal Mice Exposed to AFB1 and Treated with Aged Garlic Extract.

Cell J 2013 5;15(1):37-44. Epub 2013 May 5.

1. Department of Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suppresses the immune system. To decrease such suppressive effects on the immune system, a wide range of herbal medicines like garlic are utilized. Biological activities of garlic in vitro and in vivo have also been verified. Our previous studies demonstrated that aged garlic (dry garlic bulbs preserved in the freezer for six months at -20˚C) have increased immunostimulator fractions and reduced immunosuppressor fractions. This study focuses on the immunosuppressor activity of AFB1 and immunostimulator activity of aged garlic extract (AGE) through the evaluation of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP(+) regulator cell (Treg) counts and the pattern of cytokine production in Balb/c normal mice.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental research, AFB1 was separated from Aspergillus flavus (PTCC 5004) by HPLC and AGE prepared using the Mantis method. The Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) test was carried out to determinate the effectiveness of different doses of AGE and AFB1, which can both have an effect on the immune system. Subsequent experiments were carried out on 20 Balb/c mice to estimate the effects of AGE and AFB1 on the number of Treg cell in 4 groups: 10 µl/kg/day of AFB1 and AGE diluents were administered for 4 consecutive days to group 1. AFB1, 2. control, 3. AGE + AFB1 and 4. AGE via intraperitoneal (IP) route, respectively. Mice were sacrificed and splenocytes harvested and the percentage of splenic Treg cells was measured by flow cytometry analysis. The ELISA method was utilized to measure Cytokine production.

Results: The findings reveal that AGE increased the level of IFN-λ and IL-4 cytokines produced by splenocytes stimulated by specific tumor antigen and decreased the number of Treg cells in the spleen (p<0.05). AFB1 increased the number Treg cells in the spleen and decreased cytokine production (p<0.05). In groups 2 (control) and 4 (AGE) the number of Treg cells decreased (p value<0.05) whereas in groups 1 and 3 the number of Treg cells increased (p<0.05).

Conclusion: This study indicated that AGE is able to alter the cytokine production in normal mice into a Th1 protective pattern which is beneficial to the immune system in general and anti-tumor immunity in particular. AFB1 is able to alter the cytokine production into a Th2 protective pattern. Therefore, AGE might be used as herbal medicine with few side effects as compared to chemotherapy in treating cancers caused by substances like AFB1.
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May 2013

A clinicopathological approach to sulfur mustard-induced organ complications: a major review.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2013 Oct 16;32(4):304-24. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Context: Sulfur mustard (SM), with an old manufacturing history still remains as potential threat due to easy production and extensive effects.

Objectives: Increasing studies on SM indicates the interest of researchers to this subject. Almost all human body organs are at risk for complications of SM. This study offers organ-by-organ information on the effects of SM in animals and humans.

Methods: The data sources were literature reviews since 1919 as well as our studies during the Iraq-Iran war. The search items were SM and its all other nomenclatures in relation to, in vivo, in vitro, humans, animals, eye, ocular, ophthalmic, lungs, pulmonary, skin, cutaneous, organs and systemic. Amongst more than 1890 SM-related articles, 257 more relevant clinicopathologic papers were selected for this review.

Results: SM induces a vast range of damages in nearly all organs. Acute SM intoxication warrants immediate approach. Among chronic lesions, delayed keratitis and blindness, bronchiolitis obliterans and respiratory distress, skin pruritus, dryness and cancers are the most commonly observed clinical sequelae.

Conclusion: Ocular involvements in a number of patients progress toward a severe, rapid onset form of keratitis. Progressive deterioration of respiratory tract leads to "mustard lung". Skin problems continue as chronic frustrating pruritus on old scars with susceptibility to skin cancers. Due to the multiple acute and chronic morbidities created by SM exposure, uses of multiple drugs by several routes of administrations are warranted.
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October 2013

Evaluation of the Effect of the 47 kDa Protein Isolated from Aged Garlic Extract on Dendritic Cells.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2012 Mar;15(2):745-51

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Garlic (Allium sativum) is known as a potent spice and a medicine with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer, and anticoagulant. One of the major purified garlic protein components is the 47 kDa protein. In this study, the effect of 47 kDa protein extracted from aged garlic (AGE) was evalua.

Materials And Methods: Forty seven kDa protein was purified from AGE by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration. SDS-PAGE was used to determine the molecular weight and purity of the isolated protein. DCs were purified from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to the plastic dish. The 47 kDa protein isolated from AGE was added to DCs medium during the overnight culture and the expression of DC surface markers was assessed via flowcytometry.

Results: The 47 kDa protein-treated DCs lowered the expression of DC maturation markers including: CD40, CD86 and MHC-II in comparison with non-treated DCs; (median of 41% versus 47%, 84% versus 91% and 83% versus 90%, respectively) but we observed no statistical difference between the two groups.

Conclusion: Upon treatment with DCs with 47 kDa protein, DCs down regulated the expression of costimulatory and MHC-II surface molecules, which is similar to tolerogenic DC phenotype. According to the results of the present study, we found that 47 kDa protein purified from AGE can be considered as a potential candidate to generate tolerogenic DCs in vitro.
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March 2012

Heat shock proteins enriched-promastigotes of Leishmania major inducing Th2 immune response in BALB/c mice.

Iran Biomed J 2012 ;16(4):209-17

Hybridoma Lab., Dept. of Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Heat shock proteins (HSP) are highly conserved molecules with many immunological functions. They are highly immunogenic with important role in cancer immunotherapy and in vaccine development against infectious diseases. As adjuvant, HSP can augment the immunogenicity of weak antigens and can stimulate antigen presenting cells. Although vaccines have been successful for many infectious diseases, progress in leishmaniasis has not been achieved. In this report, the protective effect of HSP-enriched soluble leishmania antigen (SLA) was determined.

Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized 3× with HSP-enriched SLA and SLA alone and 10 days after final boost. They were infected with 106 stationary phase promastigote of Leishmania major and immunological responses were followed until nine weeks.

Results: No significant differences were observed in lymphocyte proliferation, footpad swelling, parasite burden, nitric oxide or IL-12 cytokine between HSP-enriched or SLA groups. Although the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β, IgG1 and IgG2b were increased in both groups, IFN-γ was significantly higher in SLA group and IgG2a in HSP-enriched SLA.

Conclusion: These results indicate that HSP direct the immune system towards Th2 pattern and does not have protective role in L. major infection.
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June 2013

Evaluation of the tear and serum levels of IL-8 in sulfur mustard intoxicated patients 20 years after exposure.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2012 Jun 4;31(2):132-7. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, P. O. Box: 14155-7435.

Purpose: Delayed keratitis is the most dangerous ocular complication of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the role of tear and serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in SM exposed subjects.

Design And Methods: In this historical cohort study, the experimental group included 370 participants who had been exposed to SM 20 years prior. Data were compared with those of 128 unexposed participants as the control group. After completing a thorough systemic and ocular examination, serum IL-8 levels in all exposed and controls were compared. According to the statistical calculation, tear IL-8 levels, were compared in randomly selected 48 exposed and 37 controls. Based on the ocular findings, the selected subjects were divided into two subgroups, normal subjects include those participants who had no ocular signs and abnormal subjects, were those who had at least one or more ocular signs.

Results: Bulbar conjunctiva and limbal tissues evaluation in all participants showed a significantly higher number of abnormalities in exposed group than in the control group (P=0.004 and P=0.048 respectively). Serum IL-8 levels in all exposed were significantly lower than the matched controls (P=0.002). Tear IL-8 levels in the selected exposed were significantly lower than in the selected controls (P=0.030). In exposed group with normal conditions of the lids, bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, tear status, limbus, slit lamp findings and final ophthalmic assessment, tear IL-8 levels were significantly lower than in the matched controls (P=0.022, 0.037, 0.027, 0.050, 0.039, 0.029, 0.045 respectively). With respect to the global ophthalmic assessment, tear fluid IL-8 levels in the abnormal controls were significantly lower than in the normal controls (P=0.049), but this decrease in secretion of tear IL-8 were not encountered in abnormal exposed (P=0.415).

Conclusion: Tear IL-8 secretion was significantly inhibited in the unexposed controls with ocular surface abnormalities, while these inhibitory responses were not encountered in SM-exposed cases with ocular surface abnormalities.
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June 2012

Sardasht-Iran cohort study of chemical warfare victims: design and methods.

Arch Iran Med 2009 Jan;12(1):5-14

Department of Immunology, Medical Faculty, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Insights into long-term clinical consequences of sulfur mustard have emerged from some investigations but less is known about the basic and molecular mechanisms of these complications. Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study is a comprehensive historical cohort study on Sardasht chemical victims' population which was designed to find out the long-term complications of sulfur mustard exposure and the basic mechanisms underlying clinical manifestations. This paper describes the design and methodology of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Methods: In Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study, 500 individuals including 372 subjects from Sardasht, as the exposed group, and 128 subjects from Rabat, as the unexposed age-matched control group were evaluated. The exposed group was divided into two groups based on the severity of clinical complications at the time of exposure. Different samples including blood, sputum, saliva, tear, urine, and semen were collected for immunologic, hematologic, biochemical, and other laboratory analysis. Data were gathered from medical records, clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and questionnaires for psychological and lifestyle situations.

Conclusion: The important distinctions setting this study apart from the previous ones are discussed. The Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study provides important information on various aspects of long-term consequences of sulfur mustard exposure. This database will provide a better position to suggest guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of delayed complications in the patients exposed to sulfur mustard.
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January 2009