Publications by authors named "Mohammad Hadi Eskandari"

31 Publications

Natural flavor biosynthesis by lipase in fermented milk using in situ produced ethanol.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 May 18;58(5):1858-1868. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543 Singapore.

Abstract: Many flavoring agents on the market are extracted from natural sources or synthesized chemically. Due to the disadvantages of both methods, biotechnology is becoming a promising alternative. In this study, short chain ethyl esters with fruity notes were biosynthesized in UHT whole milk via coupling ethanolic fermentation with lipase (Palatase®) transesterification. , and were used for fermentation. Milk fat was esterified with in situ produced ethanol by adding lipase at 0, 8 and 24 h of fermentation. Viable cell counts and pH were monitored during 48 h fermentation period. Flavor active ethyl esters, ethanol and free fatty acids were analyzed using headspace SPME-GC. Free fatty acid levels were lower in samples than lactobacilli. produced higher amounts of ethanol and esters than lactic acid bacteria. Viable cell counts decreased after lipase application at 0 and 8 h, possibly due to fatty acid production. Addition of lipase at 24 h resulted in improved cell counts as well as ethanol and ester production in the case of . This study demonstrated that fermenting milk with alcohol producing cultures in conjunction with lipase application can be an alternative to artificial flavorings in fermented milks.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04697-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021648PMC
May 2021

Comparative phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-possibility effect on virus spillover.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Queensland Biosciences Precinct, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia.

Coronavirus disease 2019 has developed into a dramatic pandemic with tremendous global impact. The receptor-binding motif (RBM) region of the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors for infection. As ACE2 receptors are highly conserved within vertebrate species, SARS-CoV-2 can infect significant animal species as well as human populations. An analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genotypes isolated from human and significant animal species was conducted to compare and identify mutation and adaptation patterns across different animal species. The phylogenetic data revealed seven distinct phylogenetic clades with no significant relationship between the clades and geographical locations. A high rate of variation within SARS-CoV-2 mink isolates implies that mink populations were infected before human populations. Positions of most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 genotypes from the different hosts are mostly accumulated in the RBM region and highlight the pronounced accumulation of variants with mutations in the RBM region in comparison with other variants. These SNPs play a crucial role in viral transmission and pathogenicity and are keys in identifying other animal species as potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. The possible roles in the emergence of new viral strains and the possible implications of these changes, in compromising vaccine effectiveness, deserve urgent considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083239PMC
April 2021

A short overview of CRISPR-Cas technology and its application in viral disease control.

Transgenic Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Dr. John and Anne Chong Lab for Functional Genomics, Charles Perkins Centre, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) together with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins have catalysed a revolution in genetic engineering. Native CRISPR-Cas systems exist in many bacteria and archaea where they provide an adaptive immune response through sequence-specific degradation of an invading pathogen's genome. This system has been reconfigured for use in genome editing, drug development, gene expression regulation, diagnostics, the prevention and treatment of cancers, and the treatment of genetic and infectious diseases. In recent years, CRISPR-Cas systems have been used in the diagnosis and control of viral diseases, for example, CRISPR-Cas12/13 coupled with new amplification techniques to improve the specificity of sequence-specific fluorescent probe detection. Importantly, CRISPR applications are both sensitive and specific and usually only require commonly available lab equipment. Unlike the canonical Cas9 which is guided to double-stranded DNA sites of interest, Cas13 systems target RNA sequences and thus can be employed in strategies directed against RNA viruses or for transcriptional silencing. Many challenges remain for these approach, including issues with specificity and the requirement for better mammalian delivery systems. In this review, we summarize the applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in controlling mammalian viral infections. Following necessary improvements, it is expected that CRISPR-Cas systems will be used effectively for such applications in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-021-00247-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027712PMC
April 2021

Hepatitis B core-based virus-like particles: A platform for vaccine development in plants.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2021 Mar 28;29:e00605. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a class of structures formed by the self-assembly of viral capsid protein subunits and contain no infective viral genetic material. The Hepatitis B core (HBc) antigen is capable of assembling into VLPs that can elicit strong immune responses and has been licensed as a commercial vaccine against Hepatitis B. The HBc VLPs have also been employed as a platform for the presentation of foreign epitopes to the immune system and have been used to develop vaccines against, for example, influenza A and Foot-and-mouth disease. Plant expression systems are rapid, scalable and safe, and are capable of providing correct post-translational modifications and reducing upstream production costs. The production of HBc-based virus-like particles in plants would thus greatly increase the efficiency of vaccine production. This review investigates the application of plant-based HBc VLP as a platform for vaccine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2021.e00605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937989PMC
March 2021

Build-Up of a 3D Organogel Network within the Bilayer Shell of Nanoliposomes. A Novel Delivery System for Vitamin D: Preparation, Characterization, and Physicochemical Stability.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 22;69(8):2585-2594. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria S/n, Madrid 28040, Spain.

The inherent thermodynamic instability of liposomes during production and storage has limited their widespread applications. Therefore, a novel structure of food-grade nanoliposomes stabilized by a 3D organogel network within the bilayer shell was developed through the extrusion process and successfully applied to encapsulate vitamin D. A huge flocculation and a significant reduction of zeta potential (-17 mV) were observed in control nanoliposomes (without the organogel shell) after 2 months of storage at 4 °C, while the sample with a gelled bilayer showed excellent stability with a particle diameter of 105 nm and a high negative zeta potential (-63.4 mV), even after 3 months. The development of spherical vesicles was confirmed by TEM. Interestingly, the gelled bilayer shell led to improved stability against osmotically active divalent salt ions. Electron paramagnetic resonance confirmed the higher rigidity of the shell bilayer upon gelation. The novel liposome offered a dramatic increase in encapsulation efficiency and loading of vitamin D compared to those of control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06680DOI Listing
March 2021

A Novel Fortified Dairy Product and Sarcopenia Measures in Sarcopenic Older Adults: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Apr 14;22(4):809-815. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Shiraz Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of daily consumption of fortified yogurt with beta-Hydroxy beta-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) and vitamins D and C on measures of sarcopenia, inflammation, and quality of life in sarcopenic older adults.

Design: In this 12-week randomized double-blind controlled trial, participants received either yogurt fortified with 3 g HMB, 1000 IU vitamin D, and 500 mg vitamin C in the intervention group (n = 33) or plain yogurt in the control group (n = 33).

Setting And Participants: A total of 66 older adults with sarcopenia recruited from the community in Shiraz, Iran.

Measures: Body composition, muscle strength, and functionality were measured using Dual-energy-X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), hydraulic handgrip dynamometer, and usual gait speed, respectively. Serum concentrations of vitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde, and insulin were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated using SF-12 questionnaire.

Results: Consumption of fortified yogurt was associated with improvement in handgrip strength [mean change (95% confidence interval) 4.36 (3.35-5.37) vs. 0.97 (-0.04 to 1.99)] and gait speed [0.10 (0.07-0.13) vs. 0.01 (0.00-0.04)] in the intervention group compared with the control group (P < .001). In addition, the results revealed a significant increase in vitamin D and IGF-1 levels in the intervention group (P < .001). The nutritional intervention significantly prevented any increase in the serum concentration of hs-CRP compared with the control group (P = .033). The results also showed a more significant decrease in the malondialdehyde level in the intervention group compared with the control (P = .008). Moreover, there were significant differences between the 2 groups regarding physical aspects of HRQoL (P = .035).

Conclusions And Implications: A novel dairy product fortified with HMB, vitamin D, and vitamin C not only could enhance muscle strength and functionality, but also modulate anabolic and inflammatory conditions as well as quality of life. This study suggested that specific nutritional interventions alone could be beneficial, especially for those who are unable to exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.08.035DOI Listing
April 2021

Quasi-species nature and differential gene expression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and phylogenetic analysis of a novel Iranian strain.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 11 13;85:104556. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Queensland Biosciences Precinct, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia.

A novel coronavirus related to severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the genetic mutations across the SARS-CoV-2 genome being recently investigated, its transcriptomic genetic polymorphisms at inter-host level and the viral gene expression level based on each Open Reading Frame (ORF) remains unclear. Using available High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) data and based on SARS-CoV-2 infected human transcriptomic data, this study presents a high-resolution map of SARS-CoV-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) hotspots in a viral population at inter-host level. Four throat swab samples from COVID-19 infected patients were pooled, with RNA-Seq read retrieved from SRA NCBI to detect 21 SNPs and a replacement across the SARS-CoV-2 genomic population. Twenty-two RNA modification sites on viral transcripts were identified that may cause inter-host genetic diversity of this virus. In addition, the canonical genomic RNAs of N ORF showed higher expression in transcriptomic data and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR compared to other SARS-CoV-2 ORFs, indicating the importance of this ORF in virus replication or other major functions in virus cycle. Phylogenetic and ancestral sequence analyses based on the entire genome revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is possibly derived from a recombination event between SARS-CoV and Bat SARS-like CoV. Ancestor analysis of the isolates from different locations including Iran suggest shared Chinese ancestry. These results propose the importance of potential inter-host level genetic variations to the evolution of SARS-COV-2, and the formation of viral quasi-species. The RNA modifications discovered in this study may cause amino acid sequence changes in polyprotein, spike protein, product of ORF8 and nucleocapsid (N) protein, suggesting further insights to understanding the functional impacts of mutations in the life cycle and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487081PMC
November 2020

Fortified whey beverage for improving muscle mass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a single-blind, randomized clinical trial.

Respir Res 2020 Aug 17;21(1):216. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: The development of effective nutritional supports for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) is still challenging. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of daily consumption of fortified whey on inflammation, muscle mass, functionality, and quality of life in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.

Methods: A single-blind, randomized trial study was performed on patients with COPD (n = 46). Participants in the intervention group (n = 23) daily received 250 ml of whey beverage fortified with magnesium and vitamin C for 8 weeks. Any changes in inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin- 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)) were the primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes were fat-free mass, handgrip strength, malnutrition, glutathione and malondialdehyde serum concentrations, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Body composition and muscle strength were measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and hydraulic hand dynamometer, respectively. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) was also calculated.

Results: At the end of the study, 44 patients were analyzed. There were significant decreases in IL-6 concentrations in the intervention group compared to the control group. Also, FFMI, body protein, and handgrip strength increased significantly in the intervention group with significant changes between two groups. Moreover, improvement in health-related quality of life was observed in the intervention group compared to the control group. There were no significant changes in other study variables.

Conclusions: This novel nutritional intervention decreased inflammatory cytokines levels, improved indices of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength, and ultimately, increased HRQoL in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Thus, it is suggested to do further studies to assess the effects of nutrition intervention on COPD progression.

Trial Registration: IR.SUMS.REC.1396.85 ( https://www.irct.ir/ ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01466-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430110PMC
August 2020

Study on hydrophobic modification of basil seed gum-based (BSG) films by octenyl succinate anhydride (OSA).

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Sep 8;219:155-161. Epub 2019 May 8.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in the characteristics of basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.) seed gum (BSG) films after modification with octenyl succinate anhydride (OSA) at different OSA:BSG weight ratios (WRs) of 0, 0.01 and 0.03. HPLC analysis revealed that the amount of added OS groups was 0%, 0.28%, and 1.01%, respectively. The introduction of OS groups along the BSG backbone was also confirmed by FT-IR and NMR analysis. XRD results revealed no significant change of physical state after modification. The contact angle (i.e., hydrophobicity) of modified BSG films was higher than that of control film. A decrease in the film solubility in water (29%) and water vapor permeability (50%), but an increase in density (14.28%) and opacity (21.37%) was observed after modification at the WR of 0.03. Also, the results showed that modification with OSA had no significant influence on the film thickness, moisture content and color properties. BSG modification with OSA at the WR of 0.03 significantly increased the flexibility and ultimate strength of respective films. The results of this study showed that OSA-modified BSG is a good candidate for developing edible films and coating with relatively high resistance to water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.05.024DOI Listing
September 2019

Incorporation of pomegranate rind powder extract and pomegranate juice into frozen burgers: oxidative stability, sensorial and microbiological characteristics.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Mar 2;56(3):1174-1183. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo, Brazil.

This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics of incorporated pomegranate juice (PJ) and pomegranate rind powder extract (PRPE) into meat burgers. The peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and metmyoglobin content for different burgers during 90 days storage at - 18 °C were evaluated. Total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical scavenging activity (RSA or IC50) for PJ and PRPE were measured as 18.90 (mg/mL), 4380 ppm, 0.136 (mg/mL) and 0.40 (mg/mL), 5598 ppm, 0.084(mg/mL), respectively. Incorporation of PRPE with a high concentration of TPC resulted in less oxidation of lipid in comparison with other formulations. The highest and lowest scores in the sensory analysis and total acceptance at the 90th day corresponded to burgers containing PJ and control, respectively. Butylated hydroxytoluene may be substituted in whole or part with PJ and PRPE due to their desired effects on burgers' properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03580-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423249PMC
March 2019

Development of highly stable colloidal dispersions of gelled-oil nanoparticles loaded with cuminaldehyde.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Apr 7;541:65-74. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

The main objective of this work was to develop an aqueous dispersion of gelled-oil nanoparticles as a novel carrier for cuminaldehyde. A hot emulsification process followed by cooling to room temperature was used to prepare gelled-oil nanoparticles in the presence of monoglyceride as organogelator. The effects of monoglyceride (10% and 15% w/w of the total lipid phase) and cuminaldehyde (0, 500 and 1000 mg/L) concentrations on different characteristics (e.g. droplet size, zeta potential, physical stability, rheology, encapsulation efficiency, release behavior and morphology) of the colloidal dispersions were studied during 28-d storage. The average droplet size of freshly prepared samples was within the range of 117-138 nm with a relatively narrow distribution. Large negative ζ-potential values (-38 to -55 mV) were a proof for the kinetic stability of the colloidal dispersions. Samples which were prepared with 10% monoglyceride showed a higher physical stability over a period of 90 d. Non-Newtonian (shear-thinning) and solid-like viscoelastic properties were observed due to particle-particle interactions. The results of the temperature ramp test confirmed that the droplets were in the gelled state. An increase in the organogelator concentration decreased the interfacial tension and contact angle. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs confirmed the formation of spherical nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of cuminaldehyde in gelled-oil nanoparticles was 73-87%. In-vitro release profiles exhibited that the release of cuminaldehyde from gelled-oil nanoparticles in the simulated gastric fluid was lower than its release in the simulated intestinal fluid. Moreover, the release was increased by decreasing the concentration of organogelator. The obtained colloidal dispersions have the potential to be utilized as effective encapsulation systems for poorly water-soluble nutraceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.01.010DOI Listing
April 2019

Quality and microbial properties of symbiotic bread produced by straight dough and frozen part-baking methods.

J Texture Stud 2019 04 8;50(2):165-171. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Symbiotic bread was produced by straight dough and frozen part-baking methods using inulin as a prebiotic (0-7.5% in straight dough method and 5% in frozen part baked bread) and GanedenBC 30 as a probiotic. With addition of inulin, dough water absorption and softening reduced, but dough development time and stability time increased. Inulin prevented excessive moisture loss during bread storage and enhanced crust darkness and crumb firmness while reduced bread volume. Increasing the frozen storage time (up to 56 days) had no effect on bread moisture content, but it reduced volume and increased firmness and crust lightness. Samples produced by straight dough method had acceptable levels of probiotic (7.45, 6.45, and 7.43 log cfu/g, respectively) complying with the WHO recommendation. Frozen storage had no effect on the probiotic content of the samples and it increased to 7.35 log cfu/g (above the minimum recommended level) after re-baking and storage at room temperature. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Symbiotic foods are products that contain both probiotics (useful bacteria) and prebiotics (carbohydrate source for probiotics). Development of symbiotic bread is required to add variety to the existing types of functional breads and satisfy costumers particularly those avoiding dairy products which are traditionally enriched with probiotics. Part-baked bread industry is growing rapidly around the world; however, to remain in the market it requires innovation to satisfy consumers' demand for healthy products. This research can find practical application for ordinary and part-baked bread industry to produce bread with improved health benefits and acceptable quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12386DOI Listing
April 2019

Effect of Probiotics Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus plantarum on Lipid Profile and Feces Bacteria of Rats Fed Cholesterol-Enriched Diet.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2019 12;11(4):1163-1171

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans on serum lipid profile and lowering potential of probiotic in hypercholesterolemic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) control group, fed standard commercial diet; (2) HC group, fed high-cholesterol diet; (3) HC + LP group, fed high-cholesterol diet and gavaging of L. plantarum; and (4) HC + BC group fed high-cholesterol diet and gavaging of B. coagulans. After 28 and 50 days, serum lipid profile; serum ALT and AST; the body and organ weights; fecal total count; Enterobacteriaceae, L. plantarum, and B. coagulans counts; and blood glucose tolerance were measured. We observed that levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and atherogenic index in serum were significantly lower in the HC + probiotic groups. Also, serum ALT and AST were significantly decreased in probiotic-treated groups. In addition, we found that feeding of a high-cholesterol diet for 50 days produced significant increases in the body weight, in addition to the fact that the administration of L. plantarum and B. coagulans has considerably reduced the body weight gain. B. coagulans and L. plantarum can survive passing through the upper-gastrointestinal tract after oral feeding to the rats and colonized in their colon. These bacteria could be exploited as a potential biotherapeutic remedy to reduce TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, and atherogenic index in hypercholesterolemic condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-018-9480-1DOI Listing
December 2019

Antibacterial Effect of Essential Oils against Spoilage Bacteria from Vacuum-Packed Cooked Cured Sausages.

J Food Prot 2018 08;81(8):1386-1393

1 Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, and.

Nonfermented sausages, which have a pH of around 6.0, a low salt concentration, and high moisture with a water activity higher than 0.95, are highly perishable. In this study, culture-dependent techniques and 16S rDNA approaches were used to identify the presumptive spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sliced vacuum-packed cooked sausage during storage at 4°C. The antibacterial properties of essential oils (EOs) from the medicinal plants Carum carvi, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Curcuma longa, Citrus medica, and Eugenia caryophyllata against isolated LAB were also investigated. A total of 106 colonies were obtained on de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium after storage of sausages samples, and 16 isolates were identified from conventional morphological analysis of the bacterial populations. DNA extraction and 16S rDNA analysis indicated that Lactobacillus curvatus, Weissella viridescens, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus dextrinicus, Lactobacillus sakei, and Pediococcus dextrinicus were the main spoilage LAB. The antibacterial properties of EOs against isolated LAB were indicated by inhibition zones on culture plates of 7.8 to 31 mm, depending on the susceptibility of the tested LAB strain. The MICs and MBCs of five EOs were determined. The most effective EO against the LAB was C. zeylanicum followed by C. carvi and C. medica, and the least effective EO was C. longa. The EO from C. zeylanicum had the highest antimicrobial activity (lowest MICs) against LAB, with EO MICs of 4.66 to 5.33 μL/mL. The most susceptible isolate was L. mesenteroides, with a MIC of 4.66 μL/mL for the C. zeylanicum EO. These data indicate that the EO from C. zeylanicum could be used as a natural preservative for vacuum-packed emulsion-type sausage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-474DOI Listing
August 2018

Kefir Accelerates Burn Wound Healing Through Inducing Fibroblast Cell Migration In Vitro and Modulating the Expression of IL-1ß, TGF-ß1, and bFGF Genes In Vivo.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2019 09;11(3):874-886

Department of Food Science and Technology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Kefir is a natural probiotic compound with a long history of health benefits which can improve wound healing. This study investigated the regeneration potential of kefir in vitro scratch assay and in vivo burn wound in rat model. Cytotoxicity of different concentrations of kefir was evaluated by colorimetric methylthiazoltetrazolium assay. A scratch wound experiment was performed to investigate the ability of kefir in reducing the gap of wounds in a dose-dependent manner, in vitro. The standardized kefir was incorporated into silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and applied on burn wounds in vivo, and was compared with the SSD and negative control groups after 7, 14, and 28 days of treatment. The wound sites were then removed for histopathological and morphometric analyses, assessment of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), dry weight, and hydroxyproline contents. Kefir enhanced proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells and 12.50, 6.25, and 3.12 μL/mL concentrations showed better effects on the scratch assay. Kefir resulted in reduction of IL-1β and TGF-β1 expression at day 7 compared to the negative control. Kefir also reduced the expression of IL-1β at days 14 and 28 and stimulated bFGF at day 28. It significantly improved the dry matter and hydroxyproline contents in the burn wounds. Kefir also resulted in enhanced angiogenesis and elevated migration and proliferation of fibroblasts and improved fibrous connective tissue formation in the wound area. The morphometric results indicated significant global contraction values in the kefir-treated wounds compared to other groups. Taken together, the findings suggest that kefir has considerable ability to accelerate healing of the burn wounds. Therefore, kefir may be a possible option to improve the outcomes of severe burns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-018-9435-6DOI Listing
September 2019

Effect of probiotic and prebiotic vs placebo on psychological outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

Clin Nutr 2019 04 24;38(2):522-528. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetic, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Disturbance in the equilibrium of the gut microbiota has been involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Probiotics have the potential to healthfully modulate the gut microbiome. Prebiotics could also be effective by stimulation of growth of some bacterial species in the gut microbiota.

Objective: The aim of this double blind clinical trial, was to compare the effect of supplementation with the probiotic and prebiotic on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score as a primary outcome as well as the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and tryptophan/branch chain amino acids (BCAAs) ratio as secondary outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Design: One hundred and ten depressed patients were randomly assigned to receive the probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum), prebiotic (galactooligosaccharide) or placebo for 8 weeks. Serum tryptophan and BCAAs were measured by HPLC, and kynurenine by ELISA kit. Dietary intake and physical activity of the participants were recorded at baseline.

Results: A total of 81 subjects (aged 36.5 ± 8.03 y; mean (95% CI), 2.27 (1.76-2.93) y of depression duration) completed the trial (28 in the probiotic group, 27 in the prebiotic group, and 26 in the placebo group). From baseline to 8 weeks, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in BDI score (17.39-9.1) compared to the placebo (18.18-15.55) and prebiotic (19.72-14.14) supplementation (p = 0.042). Inter-group comparison indicated no significant differences among the groups in terms of serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and tryptophan/BCAAs ratio. However, the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio decreased significantly in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group after adjusting for serum isoleucine (p = 0.048). In addition, the tryptophan/isoleucine ratio increased significantly in the probiotic group when compared to the placebo group (p = 0.023).

Conclusion: Overall, 8 weeks of probiotic supplements to subjects with MDD resulted in an improvement in BDI score compared with placebo whereas no significant effect of prebiotic supplementation was seen. Study was registered in IRCT.ir under IRCT2015092924271N1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of microbial transglutaminase on physicochemical properties, electrophoretic patterns and sensory attributes of veggie burger.

J Food Sci Technol 2017 Jul 19;54(8):2203-2213. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Department of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of microbial-transglutaminase (MTGase 0-0.75%)/sodium-caseinate (SC 0-2%) as crosslinker agents on proximate analysis, binding properties (expressible moisture and shrinkage), texture analysis, electrophoretic patterns, instrumental color, and sensory properties of veggie burgers. Addition of SC and MTGase positively affected shrinkage and expressible moisture. It also increased hardness, springiness, chewiness, and cutting-force of burgers. Presence of SC had no effects on cohesiveness of burgers. Total protein and ash of samples were increased by treatment with SC. The lightness (L*) of samples was significantly decreased by 0.75% MTGase. No significant influence of SC on samples color parameters was observed. The results indicated that distinct protein bands were not formed on the SDS-PAGE of burger samples and resulted in a smearing pattern on the gel. When soy-protein was incubated with MTGase, a progressive decrease in the intensity of the bands corresponding to the subunits 7S and 11S globulins was observed concomitant with disappearance of A3 and B3 bands. Electrophoresis pattern of gluten was slightly changed after MTGase treatment. There were significant differences in color, taste, appearance, mouth feel, and overall acceptability between treated and control samples. Results suggest that production of veggie burgers using MTGase alone or in combination with SC brings about covalent cross-linking between homologous and heterologous proteins to form high-molecular weight polymers, thereby improving the mechanical properties of veggie burgers and profoundly increases the acceptability of the end product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2614-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5502009PMC
July 2017

Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Jun 5;17(1):291. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes oxidative stress and has toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two probiotics along with a prebiotic in preventing the toxic effects of cadmium in rats.

Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups namely control, cadmium only, cadmium along with Lactobacillus plantarum (1 × 109 CFU/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff) and cadmium along with Bacillus coagulans (1 × 109 spore/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff). Cadmium treated groups received 200 μg/rat/day CdCl2 administered by gavage. During the 42-day experimental period, they were weighed weekly. For evaluation of changes in oxidative stress, the levels of some biochemicals and enzymes of serum including SOD, GPX, MDA, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and creatinine, and also SOD level of livers were measured at day 21 and 42 of treatment. The cadmium content of kidney and liver was determined by using atomic absorption mass spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's post hoc test.

Results: Treatment of cadmium induced rats with synbiotic diets significantly improved the liver enzymes and biochemical parameters that decreased AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and metal accumulation in the liver and kidney and increased body weight, serum and liver SOD values in comparison with the cadmium-treated group. No significant differences were observed with MDA and GP values between all groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: This study showed that synbiotic diets containing probiotics (L. plantarum and B. coagulans) in combination with the prebiotic (inulin) can reduce the level of cadmium in the liver and kidney, preventing their damage and recover antioxidant enzymes in acute cadmium poisoning in rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1803-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5460540PMC
June 2017

The effect of proteolytic activity of starter cultures on technologically important properties of yogurt.

Food Sci Nutr 2017 05 29;5(3):525-537. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Food Hygiene School of Veterinary Medicine Shiraz University Shiraz Iran.

In this study, the effects of proteolytic activity of yogurt starter bacteria on physicochemical and technological properties of yogurt were investigated. Moreover, impact of proteolytic activity and production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) on the performance of each strain were screened. In order to compare the textural properties of yogurt samples, four parameters were evaluated: syneresis, water-holding capacity, cohesiveness, and hardness. Results showed that strains with high proteolytic activity had lower acidifying activity during fermentation and storage. Samples containing EPS-producing starter cultures had low proteolytic activity except samples K, L, and M. These differences related to nature and characteristics of each strain. Counts of starter cultures in samples produced using strains with high proteolytic activity were higher than other samples. Textural analysis data showed significant differences ( < .05) among strains in the four tested parameters. Strains with high proteolytic activity showed lower texture properties than other samples. Evaluation of sensory characteristics also showed samples prepared using strains with low or medium proteolytic activity and produced with EPS-producing strains have higher overall acceptability than other samples. Accordingly, microbial, physicochemical, and sensory properties of produced yogurts confirm that proteolytic activity is one of the most effective factors in quality of product and performance of each strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5448425PMC
May 2017

Characterization of basil seed gum-based edible films incorporated with Zataria multiflora essential oil nanoemulsion.

Carbohydr Polym 2017 Jun 28;166:93-103. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Biomolecular Engineering Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Direct introduction of essential oils (EOs) into biopolymer-based packaging materials faces various challenges such as insolubility and loss of activity. The aim of this study was increasing the bioactivity of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZMEO) through first making a nanoemulsion and then immobilizing within basil seed gum (BSG)-based film network. ZMEO (nano)emulsions were prepared using high intensity ultrasound approach at 150W and various sonication times (0, 2.5, 5 and 10min). An increase in the antibacterial activity of ZMEO nanoemulsion was observed by decreasing the nanoemulsion droplet size. Increasing nanoemulsion concentration in BSG film matrix improved the mechanical properties. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the presence of ZMEO nanoemulsions resulted in significant changes in the microstructure of BSG films. Antimicrobial films were effective against potential foodborne pathogens. This innovative incorporation of EOs into biopolymer-based films may have implications in extending the shelf life of food products through retarding the release of volatile constituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.02.103DOI Listing
June 2017

Evaluating the Effects of Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation on Antifungal and Radical Scavenging Activities of Oliveria decumbens and Chaerophyllum macropodum Essential Oils.

J Food Prot 2017 Apr 3:783-791. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran 71441-65186 (ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5173-1178 [M.-T.G.]).

In this study, radical scavenging and antifungal activities of Chaerophyllum macropodum and Oliveria decumbens essential oils (EOs) extracted with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were evaluated in comparison with the same EOs extracted by conventional hydrodistillation (HD). The final EO yields that were obtained using HD (after 150 min) and MAHD (after 45 min) were 1.72 and 1.67% for C. macropodum and 8.10 and 7.91% for O. decumbens, respectively. There were no significant differences between the final EO yields extracted with HD and MAHD, but MAHD could significantly reduce the duration of the extraction operation. Average rates of EO accumulation (grams per minute) with MAHD were at least three times higher than with HD. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of EOs indicated that there were no significant differences between the composition of EOs extracted by HD and MAHD. Both plants showed high radical scavenging activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.430 to 0.431 mg/mL for C. macropodum and 0.142 to 0.146 mg/mL for O. decumbens. Antifungal activity was performed against six fungal species, including Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus oryzae , Penicillium chrysogenum , Trichoderma harzianum, Byssochlamys spectabilis, and Paecilomyces variotii. A. niger and A. oryzae were the most resistant fungi, and T. harzianum was the most susceptible. Evaluation of MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration values showed that the O. decumbens EOs were very active against all the tested fungi, which can be attributed to the high amounts of oxygenated terpenes in the EO content. Therefore, MAHD as a fast extraction technique did not have any adverse effects on chemical composition, radical scavenging activity, and antifungal activity of C. macropodum and O. decumbens EOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-428DOI Listing
April 2017

Erratum to: Effect of Probiotic Bacillus Coagulans and Lactobacillus Plantarum on Alleviation of Mercury Toxicity in Rat.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2017 06;9(2):214

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-017-9257-yDOI Listing
June 2017

Effect of Probiotic Bacillus Coagulans and Lactobacillus Plantarum on Alleviation of Mercury Toxicity in Rat.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2017 09;9(3):300-309

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans) against mercury-induced toxicity using a rat model. Mercury (Hg) is a widespread heavy metal and was shown to be associated with various diseases. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, mercury-only, each probiotic-only, and mercury plus each probiotic group). Hg-treated groups received 10 ppm mercuric chloride, and probiotic groups were administrated 1 × 10 CFU of probiotics daily for 48 days. Levels of mercury were determined using cold vapor technique, and some biochemical factors (list like glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), creatinine, urea, bilirubin, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST)) were measured to evaluate changes in oxidative stress. Oral administration of either probiotic was found to provide significant protection against mercury toxicity by decreasing the mercury level in the liver and kidney and preventing alterations in the levels of GPx and SOD. Probiotic treatment generated marked reduction in the levels of creatinine, urea, bilirubin, ALT, and AST indicating the positive influence of the probiotics on the adverse effects of Hg in the body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-016-9250-xDOI Listing
September 2017

The effects of orally administered Bacillus coagulans and inulin on prevention and progression of rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

Food Nutr Res 2016 15;60:30876. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Probiotics have been considered as an approach to addressing the consequences of different inflammatory disorders. The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic inulin also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota.

Objective: In the present study, an in vivo model was conducted to investigate the possible influences of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin, both in combination and/or separately, on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using arthritis-induced rat model.

Design: Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six experimental groups as follows: 1) control: normal healthy rats fed with standard diet, 2) disease control (RA): arthritis-induced rats fed with standard diet, 3) prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin, 4) probiotic (PRO): RA+ 10(9) spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin and 10(9) spores/day B. coagulans, and 6) treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with the listed diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by the biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for fibrinogen (Fn), serum amyloid A (SAA), and TNF-α and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28, and 35 (7, 14 and 21 days post RA induction), respectively.

Results: Pretreatment with PRE, PRO, and SYN diets significantly inhibits SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001). A significant decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, was seen in the PRE, PRO, and SYN groups (P < 0.001), which was similar to the anti-inflammatory effect of indomethacin. Furthermore, no significant anti-inflammatory effects were observed following different treatments using α1 AGp as an RA indicator. Pretreatment with all supplied diets significantly inhibited the development of paw swelling induced by CFA (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the oral intake of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin can improve the biochemical and clinical parameters of induced RA in rat.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4947834PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v60.30876DOI Listing
July 2016

Intradialytic Oral Protein Supplementation and Nutritional and Inflammation Outcomes in Hemodialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Kidney Dis 2016 Jul 15;68(1):122-30. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Nephrology Department, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Malnutrition is a common finding in hemodialysis patients and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation levels.

Study Design: A randomized, controlled, nonblinded, parallel trial.

Setting & Participants: 92 hemodialysis patients from a single center with malnutrition according to subjective global assessment (SGA) score (SGA score > 7).

Intervention: 3 treatment groups (23 patients each) received 220mL of fermented vitamin E-fortified whey beverage (15g of whey protein concentrate + 600IU of vitamin E) or 220mL of fermented whey beverage (15g of whey protein concentrate) or vitamin E (600IU) 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The control group (23 patients) received no intervention.

Outcome & Measurements: Primary outcomes were change in SGA score and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) from baseline to the end of the trial.

Results: At the end of the study, 83 patients were analyzed (2, 3, 1, and 3 patients left the study in the vitamin E-fortified whey beverage, whey beverage, vitamin E, and control groups, respectively). Changes in SGA scores were -3.48 (95% CI, -4.90 to -2.00), -3.22 (95% CI, -4.13 to -2.30), -1.70 (95% CI, -3.20 to -0.24), and 1.56 (95% CI, 0.60 to 2.50) for the vitamin E-fortified whey beverage, whey beverage, vitamin E, and control groups, respectively (overall P<0.001; P≤0.001 for each treatment group vs control). Changes in MISs were -3.17 (95% CI, -4.40 to -1.90), -1.83 (95% CI, -2.50 to -1.10), -2.30 (95% CI, -3.50 to -1.10), and 1.48 (95% CI, 0.65 to 2.30) for the vitamin E-fortified whey beverage, whey beverage, vitamin E, and control groups, respectively (overall P<0.001; P<0.001 for each treatment group vs control). Few adverse effects were reported in any group.

Limitations: Lack of blinding, small sample size, and short duration.

Conclusions: Whey protein in the form of a new fermented whey beverage and vitamin E supplementation may improve SGA score and MIS in the short term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.02.050DOI Listing
July 2016

Malnutrition-inflammation score and quality of life in hemodialysis patients: is there any correlation?

Nephrourol Mon 2015 May 23;7(3):e27445. Epub 2015 May 23.

Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Malnutrition, inflammation and poor quality of life are prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Health-related quality of life is an important determinant of hospitalization and mortality in HD patients.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between quality of life and malnutrition-inflammation status according to subjective global assessment (SGA) and malnutrition-inflammation scores (MIS) in HD patients.

Patients And Methods: We randomly selected 87 of 180 stable HD patients from two HD centers. Those on hemodialysis for at least three months and with malnutrition according to the SGA scores were included in this study. They were divided into two groups of mild to moderate malnutrition (n = 39) and severe malnutrition (n = 49) based on the SGA scores. Serum levels of transferrin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kt/v, body mass index and malnutrition-inflammation scores were measured in all patients. Health-related quality of life was assessed by validated short form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire for each patient. These values were compared between the two groups of patients by independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The correlations of nutritional variables with SGA and MIS scores were determined by Pearson and Spearman correlation tests.

Results: There were no differences in measured parameters between the two groups except for MIS scores. Those with severe malnutrition showed higher MIS scores. All quality of life aspects and total scores (PCS, MCS) (rather than social functioning (SF) aspect) were significantly different between the two groups, which showed lower physical and mental scores in severely-malnourished patients. Physical functioning (PF), role limitations due to physical heath (RP), general health (GH), mental health (MH), SF, role limitation due to emotional health (RE), vitality (VT) aspects and total scores (PCS and MCS) had negative significant correlations with MIS and SGA scores (All P values < 0.05). No correlation was found between MIS and SGA scores and other measured variables.

Conclusions: This study focused on important effects of malnutrition and inflammation on health-related quality of life aspects, both physically and mentally in HD patients. SGA and MIS are highly correlated with quality of life in HD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.7(3)2015.27445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450166PMC
May 2015

Effect of particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation treatments on phytic acid content and some physicochemical properties of wheat bran.

J Food Sci Technol 2014 Oct 19;51(10):2755-61. Epub 2012 Aug 19.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

With the aim of reducing phytic acid content of wheat bran, particle size reduction (from 1,200 to 90 μm), hydrothermal (wet steeping in acetate buffer at pH 4.8 at 55 °C for 60 min) and fermentation (using bakery yeast for 8 h at 30 °C) and combination of these treatments with particle size reduction were applied and their effects on some properties of the bran were studied. Phytic acid content decreased from 50.1 to 21.6, 32.8 and 43.9 mg/g after particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation, respectively. Particle size reduction along with these treatments further reduced phytic acid content up to 76.4 % and 57.3 %, respectively. Hydrothermal and fermentation decreased, while particle size reduction alone or in combination increased bran lightness. With reducing particle size, total, soluble and insoluble fiber content decreased from 69.7 to 32.1 %, 12.2 to 7.9 % and 57.4 to 24.3 %, respectively. The highest total (74.4 %) and soluble (21.4 %) and the lowest insoluble fiber (52.1 %) content were determined for the hydrothermaled bran. Particle size reduction decreased swelling power, water solubility and water holding capacity. Swelling power and water holding capacity of the hydrothermaled and fermented brans were lower, while water solubility was higher than the control. The amount of Fe(+2), Zn(+2) and Ca(+2) decreased with reducing particle size. Fermentation had no effect on Fe(+2)and Zn(+2) but slightly reduced Ca(+2). The hydrothermal treatment slightly decreased these elements. Amongst all, hydrothermal treatment along with particle size reduction resulted in the lowest phytic acid and highest fiber content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0802-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190252PMC
October 2014

Survival of Normal and Chlorine-Stressed Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Under Adverse Conditions.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014 Mar 1;7(3):e9313. Epub 2014 Mar 1.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important human pathogen which can cause gastroenteritis when consumed in raw or partially-cooked seafood. The pathogenesis of V. parahaemolyticus is based on the presence of virulence factors: the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), encoded by the tdh and trh genes, respectively.

Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the survival of normal and chlorine-stressed cells of pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus under adverse conditions.

Materials And Methods: Normal and chlorine-stressed cells of pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were subjected to environmental stresses such as low storage temperature (4°C and -18°C), high incubation temperature (50°C) and high NaCl content (20%). Viable counts were then made at various time intervals by surface plating on TSA-2.0% NaCl, and the survival rates of the cells were determined and compared.

Results: Findings of the current study revealed that the normal cells of pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, as well as the chlorine-stressed cells of both strains behave similarly under adverse conditions. In addition, chlorine stress increased the susceptibility of pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus to incubation at 4°C, and the presence of high NaCl content in the medium. However, chlorine stress did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, and the susceptibility to incubation at -18°C.

Conclusions: Chlorine-stressed cells of V. parahaemolyticus were more susceptible to adverse conditions than the non-stressed ones. Pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains showed the same survival characteristics under the adverse conditions. These results should be considered in the development of food preservation measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.9313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138652PMC
March 2014

Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

J Food Sci Technol 2014 Jan 8;51(1):142-7. Epub 2011 Sep 8.

Food Science and Technology Department, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0484-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857403PMC
January 2014

Development of latex agglutination test with recombinant NcSAG1 for the rapid detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in cattle.

Vet Parasitol 2012 Oct 19;189(2-4):211-7. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. Surface antigen 1 of N. caninum (NcSAG1) is an important immunodominant candidate for the development of a diagnostic reagent for neosporosis. The present study describes the development and evaluation of a latex agglutination test (LAT) with recombinant NcSAG1 (rNcSAG1) for the detection of antibodies to N. caninum in cattle. The rNcSAG1 gene was cloned in pET-28a and protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Carboxylated latex particles were coated with rNcSAG1 and the degree of agreement between LAT and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iscomELISA) was evaluated by using of 164 serum samples. Twenty-two (13.4%) and 23 (14.0%) of samples were positive for antibodies to N. caninum by LAT and ELISA respectively. Eighteen of 23 ELISA-positive samples were positive according to the LAT and a substantial agreement (κ=0.77) was found between the results of LAT and ELISA. The results indicated that the LAT with rNcSAG1 would be a rapid, simple, relatively inexpensive and suitable diagnostic test for detection of specific antibodies in N. caninum infection under field conditions. Improvement in purification of rNcSAG1 can reduce probable false positive reactions and so increase the degree of agreement between the LAT and ELISA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.04.010DOI Listing
October 2012