Publications by authors named "Mohammad H Eslami"

110 Publications

Utilization and Outcomes of Radial Artery Access for Lower Extremity Endovascular Intervention.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Introduction: Radial artery access has become popular for cardiac interventions, but its role in lower extremity interventions is not well defined. We aimed to describe current utilization and outcomes of transradial access for lower extremity interventions.

Methods: Peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) from 2016-2020 where transradial access was employed in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registry were studied. Cases before 2016 were excluded as documentation of transradial access was not possible in earlier years. PVIs involving radial artery access were evaluated with regard to access guidance, access-site complications, target vessels treated and the technical success of these interventions.

Results: Of 167,098 PVIs, 1,096 (0.66%) involved radial access. Utilization varied significantly by region (P < 0.01). The left radial artery was used in 66.9% of cases. Ultrasound-guided access was documented in 72.7% of cases. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, or sex between the transradial group and other PVIs. In 450 procedures, a second access site was utilized, most commonly a retrograde femoral access (60.0%) or retrograde pedal access (16.7%). The largest sheath was 6-Fr in 78.0%. Interventions documenting radial-only access more commonly treated the aortoiliac segment (49.4% vs. 29.5%, P < 0.001) and less commonly treated the tibial segments (7.1% vs. 32.1%, P < 0.001). Technical success was 94.0%, with inability to cross the lesion (3.1%) and residual stenosis after treatment (2.2%) being most common. There were access-site complications in 2.9%, with hematoma (2.4%) being most common.

Discussion: Radial access is associated with high technical success rates and low access-site complication rates. Advances in device profile and shaft length may overcome shortcomings of transradial access and lead to further utilization of this access site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.06.005DOI Listing
August 2021

New randomized controlled trials for abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment should focus on younger, good-risk patients.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Jun;73(6):2209

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.11.053DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of Medicaid Expansion with In-Hospital Outcomes After Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

J Surg Res 2021 10 19;266:201-212. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Objectives: Multiple studies have shown improved outcomes and higher utilization of care with the increase of insurance coverage. This study aims to assess whether Medicaid expansion (ME) has changed the utilization and outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the United States.

Design: Retrospective observational study.

Materials: Data of patients undergoing AAA repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative (2010-2017).

Methods: Interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis was utilized to evaluate changes in annual trends of postoperative outcomes after elective AAA repair before and after 2014. We also assessed if these trend changes were significant by comparing the changes in states which adopted ME in 2014 versus nonexpansion states (NME), and conducting a difference-in-difference analysis. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and adverse events (bowel and leg ischemia, cardiac, renal, respiratory, stroke and return to the OR).

Results: A total of 19,143 procedures were included (Endovascular: 85.8% and open: 14.2%), of which 40.9% were performed in ME States. Compared to preexpansion trends (P1), there was a 2% annual increase in elective AAA repair in ME states (P1: -1.8% versus P2: +0.2%, P< 0.01) with no significant change in NME (P1: +0.3% versus P2: +0.2%, P = 0.97). Among elective cases, annual trends in the use of EVAR increased by 2% in ME states (95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.1, 4.1, P = 0.06), compared to a 3% decrease in NME States [95%CI = -5.8, -0.6, P = 0.01) (P < 0.01]. There was no association between ME and in-hospital mortality. Nonetheless, it was associated with a decrease in the annual trends of in-hospital complications (ME: -1.4% (-2.1,-0.8) versus NME: +0.2% (-0.2, +0.8), P < 0.01).

Conclusions: While no association between ME and increased survival was noted in states which adopted ME, there was a significant increase of elective AAA cases and EVAR utilization and a decrease in in-hospital complications in ME States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.02.018DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of Medicaid Expansion with Tunneled Dialysis Catheter Use at the Time of First Arteriovenous Access Creation.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Jul 26;74:11-20. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: In the United States, many low-income patients initiating hemodialysis are uninsured before qualifying for Medicare. Inadequate access to predialysis care may delay their arteriovenous (AV) access creation and increase tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC) use. The 2014 Affordable Care Act expanded eligibility for Medicaid among low-income adults, but not every state adopted this measure. We evaluated whether Medicaid expansion was associated with decreased TDC use for hemodialysis initiation.

Methods: We queried the United States Vascular Quality Initiative state-level database for non-Medicare patients undergoing initial AV access creation from 2011 to 2018. We evaluated associations of receiving initial AV access in states that expanded Medicaid with concurrent TDC use, survival, and insurance coverage.

Results: Data were available for patients in 31 states: 19 states expanded Medicaid from January 2014 to February 2015. Among 8462 patients in the postexpansion period from March 2015 to December 2018, 58% were in Medicaid expansion states. Patients in Medicaid expansion states less often had concurrent TDCs (40% vs. 48%, P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, Medicaid expansion was independently associated with fewer TDCs (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8, P < 0.001). Three-year survival was similar between patients in Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states (84.7% vs. 85.2%, P = 0.053). Multivariable cox-regression confirmed the finding (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.82-1.1, P = 0.482). In difference-in-differences analysis, Medicaid expansion was associated with a 9.2-percentage point increase in Medicaid coverage (95% CI 2.7-15.8, P = 0.009). Hispanic patients exhibited a 30.1-percentage point increase in any insurance coverage (95% CI 0.3-59.9, P = 0.048).

Conclusions: Patients in Medicaid expansion states were less likely to have TDCs during initial AV access creation, suggesting earlier predialysis care. Hispanic patients benefited from increased insurance coverage. Expanding insurance options for the underserved may improve quality metrics and cost-savings for hemodialysis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.01.063DOI Listing
July 2021

Poor runoff and distal coverage below the knee are associated with poor long-term outcomes following endovascular popliteal aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 07 20;74(1):153-160. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Heart and Vascular Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: Reports of good short-term outcomes for endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms have led to an increased use of the technique. However, data are lacking on long-term limb-related outcomes and factors associated with the failure of endovascular repair.

Methods: All patients who underwent endovascular popliteal aneurysm repair (EPAR) at a single institution from January 2006 to December 2018 were included in the study. Demographics, indications, anatomic and operative details, and outcomes were reviewed. Long-term patency, major adverse limb event-free survival (MALE-FS) and graft loss/occlusion were analyzed with multivariable cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: We included 117 limbs from 101 patients with a mean follow-up of 55.6 months (range, 0.43-158 months). The average age was 73 ± 9.3 years. Thirty-two patients (29.1%) were symptomatic (claudication, rest pain, tissue loss, or rupture). The stent grafts crossed the knee joint in 91.4% of cases. In all, 36.8% of procedures used one stent graft, 41.0% used two stent grafts, and 22.2% of procedures used more than two stent grafts. The median arterial length covered was 100 mm, with an average length of stent overlap of 25 mm. Tapered configurations were used in 43.8% of cases. The majority of limbs (62.8%) had a three-vessel runoff, 20.2% had a two-vessel runoff, and 17% has a one-vessel runoff. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of graft occlusion at 1 and 3 years were 6.3% and 16.2%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year primary patency rates were 88.2% and 72.6%, and the 1- and 3-year major adverse limb event-free survival (MALE-FS) rates were 82% and 57.4%. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 92.9% and 76.2%, respectively. On multivariable Cox regression, aneurysm size, one-vessel runoff, and coverage below the knee were associated with a lower 3-year MALE-FS. Coverage below the knee was also associated with a lower 3-year MALE-FS. Other anatomic or technical details were not associated with limb-related events or patency.

Conclusions: This study is the largest single center analysis to describe the predictors of poor outcomes after EPAR. EPAR is a safe and effective way to treat popliteal artery aneurysms. Factors associated with poor MALE-FS after EPAR include single-vessel tibial runoff and coverage below the knee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.12.062DOI Listing
July 2021

Selective Nonoperative and Delayed Management of Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 18;72:159-165. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Although intervention is generally the standard of care for severe (80-99%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis, conservative management may be appropriate for a subset of patients. Our goal was to assess reasons for and outcomes of nonoperative/delayed operative management of asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis.

Methods: Institutional vascular laboratory data from 2010 to 2018 was queried for all patients who underwent a carotid duplex ultrasonography. Patients with severe asymptomatic carotid stenosis (80-99%) were included. Such stenosis was defined by an end diastolic velocity >140 cm/sec on duplex ultrasound in patients without transient ischemic attacks (TIA)/strokes ≤6 months prior to imaging. Nonoperative/delayed operative management was defined as not undergone carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stent (CAS) ≤6 months after imaging. Reasons for nonoperative management or delayed intervention as well as subsequent TIA/stroke and survival were determined. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate survival.

Results: Among 211 patients with severe carotid stenosis, 35 (16.6%) were managed nonoperatively or with delayed operation. Mean age in this subset was 72.6 ± 11.4 years and the majority were female (57.1%), had a smoking history (74.3%), and were on statins (91.4%) at the time of index duplex ultrasound. Reasons for no/delayed intervention were classified as severe medical comorbidities (37.1%), advanced age (17.1%), no referral for intervention (14.3%), patient refusal (14.3%), other severe concomitant cerebrovascular disease (11.4%), and active/advanced cancer (5.7%). Over a median follow-up of 35.2 months, no patients experienced TIAs/strokes attributable to carotid stenosis. One patient had a multifocal bilateral stroke after a cardiac arrest and prolonged resuscitation. A subset of patients underwent delayed CEA (8.6%) or CAS (2.9%). Four-year survival after initial imaging was 79%.

Conclusions: Reasons for nonoperative and delayed operative management in our cohort of asymptomatic carotid stenosis were commonly due to comorbidities and advanced age. However, a subset of patients was never referred to vascular surgeons/interventionalists. Adverse neurologic events due to carotid stenosis were not observed during follow-up and patients had relatively high long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.10.045DOI Listing
April 2021

Reply.

J Vasc Surg 2020 12;72(6):2218

Division of Vascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.06.100DOI Listing
December 2020

Risk factors for acute kidney injury after pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for acute deep vein thrombosis.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Jul 10;9(4):868-873. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian University Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Background: Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) is an established treatment for selected patients with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Despite significant clinical success, hemolysis can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) with unknown longer term implications. Our aim was to characterize the rate of AKI after PMT and identify those patients at the greatest risk.

Methods: A retrospective medical record review of patients with acute DVT who had undergone PMT in our institution from 2007 to 2018 was performed. The baseline demographics, comorbidities, preoperative clinical characteristics, procedural details, postoperative hospital course, and follow-up data were reviewed. The primary outcome was postoperative AKI (≥1.5 times preoperative creatinine), and longer term renal impairment. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify associated factors.

Results: A total of 137 patients (mean age, 47 ± 16.6 years; 49.6% male) who had undergone PMT for treatment of acute DVT were identified (85.4% AngioJet system; Boston Scientific Corp, Marlborough, Mass). Of the 137 patients, 30 (21.9%) had developed AKI in the periprocedural period, 1 of whom had required hemodialysis in the perioperative period. The patients who had developed AKI had had significantly greater rates of preoperative coronary artery disease (23.1% vs 4.7%; P = .002), diabetes mellitus (19.2% vs 6.6%; P = .045), dyslipidemia (42.3% vs 17.9%; P = .008), and hypertension (53.6% vs 29.3%; P = .018). No significant difference was found in preoperative creatinine (0.99 vs 0.92 mg/dL; P = .65) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR; 96.9 vs 91.8 mL/min; P = .52) between the two groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated bilateral DVT (odds ratio [OR], 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-12.86; P = .008), single-session PMT (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.02-9.11; P = .046), and female sex (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.01-8.04; P = .048) were significant predictors of AKI. Of the 30 patients, 10 had had normal renal function at discharge and 15 and 25 patients had had normal renal function at the first and subsequent clinical follow-up visits, respectively. The remaining five patients (3.6%) had progressed to moderate (GFR, <60 mL/min) or severe (GFR, <30 mL/min) renal insufficiency, with one requiring long-term hemodialysis.

Conclusions: The use of PMT for treatment of acute DVT conferred a risk of AKI that will progress to chronic renal failure in a small fraction of affected patients. Patients with bilateral extensive DVTs have a greater risk of AKI; thus, longer priming with a thrombolytic drip before PMT should be preferred for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107181PMC
July 2021

Younger patients have worse outcomes after peripheral endovascular interventions for suprainguinal arterial occlusive disease.

J Vasc Surg 2021 May 26;73(5):1715-1722. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: The choice of intervention for treating suprainguinal arterial disease, open bypass vs endovascular intervention, is often tempered by patient age and comorbidities. In the present study, we compared the association of patient age with 1-year major adverse limb events (MALE)-free survival and reintervention-free survival (RFS) rates among patients undergoing intervention for suprainguinal arterial disease.

Methods: The Vascular Quality Initiative datasets for bypass and peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI; aorta and iliac only) were queried from 2010 to 2017. The patients were divided into two age groups: <60 and ≥60 years at the procedure. Age-stratified propensity matching of patients in bypass and endovascular procedure groups by demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and disease severity was used to identify the analysis samples. The 1-year MALE-free survival and RFS rates were compared using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. Proportional hazard Cox regression was used to perform propensity score-adjusted comparisons of MALE-free survival and RFS.

Results: A total of 14,301 cases from the Vascular Quality Initiative datasets were included in the present study. Propensity matching led to 3062 cases in the ≥60-year group (1021 bypass; 2041 PVI) and 2548 cases in the <60-year group (1697 bypass; 851 PVI). In the crude comparison of the matched samples, the older patients undergoing bypass had had significantly greater in-hospital (4.6% vs 0.9%; P < .001) and 1-year (10.5% vs 7.5%; P = .005) mortality compared with those who had undergone endovascular intervention. The rates of MALE (7.5% vs 14.3%; P < .001) and reintervention (6.7% vs 12.7%; P < .001) or death were significantly higher for the younger group undergoing PVI than bypass at 1 year. However, the rates of MALE (12.9% vs 14.3%; P = .298) and reintervention (12.7% vs 12.9%; P = .881) or death for were similar both procedures for the older group. Both log-rank analyses and the adjusted propensity score analyses of MALE-free survival and RFS in the two age groups confirmed these findings. The adjusted comparison of outcomes using propensity score matching favored PVI at 1-year survival (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9; P = .003) for the older group but was not different for the younger group (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-1.0; P = .054).

Conclusions: Among the patients aged <60 years undergoing intervention for suprainguinal arterial disease, the choice of therapy should be open surgical intervention given the higher risk of reintervention and MALE with endovascular intervention. Endovascular intervention should be favored for patients aged ≥60 years because of reduced perioperative mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.08.139DOI Listing
May 2021

Novel bypass risk predictive tool is superior to the 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index in predicting postoperative outcomes.

J Vasc Surg 2020 10;72(4):1427-1435.e1

Division of Vascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to develop risk predictive models of 30-day mortality, morbidity, and major adverse limb events (MALE) after bypass surgery for aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) and to compare their performances with a 5-Factor Frailty Index.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2012-2017 Procedure Targeted Aortoiliac (Open) Participant Use Data Files were queried to identify all patients who had elective bypass for AIOD: femorofemoral bypass, aortofemoral bypass, and axillofemoral bypass (AXB). Outcomes assessed included mortality, major morbidity, and MALE within 30 days postoperatively. Major morbidity was defined as pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator support for >48 hours, progressive or acute renal failure, cerebrovascular accident, cardiac arrest, or myocardial infarction. Demographics, comorbidities, procedure type, and laboratory values were considered for inclusion in the risk predictive models. Logistic regression models for mortality, major morbidity and MALE were developed. The discriminative ability of these models (C-indices) were compared with that of the 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index (mFI-5): a general frailty tool determined from diabetes, functional status, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of congestive heart failure, and hypertension. Calculators were derived using the most significant variables for each of the three risk predictive models.

Results: A total of 2612 cases (mean age 65.0, 60% male) were identified, of which 1149 (44.0%) were femorofemoral bypass, 1138 (43.6%) were aortofemoral bypass, and 325 (12.4%) were axillofemoral bypass. Overall, the rates of mortality, major morbidity, and MALE were 2.0%, 8.5%, and 4.9%, respectively. Twenty preoperative risk factors were considered for incorporation in the risk tools. Apart from procedure type, age was the most statistically significant predictor of both mortality and morbidity. Preoperative anemia and critical limb ischemia were the most significant predictors of MALE. All three constructed models demonstrated significantly better discriminative ability (P < .001) on the outcomes of interest as compared with the mFI-5.

Conclusions: Our models outperformed the mFI-5 in predicting 30-day mortality, major morbidity, and adverse limb events in patients with AIOD undergoing elective bypass surgery. Calculators were created using the most statistically significant variables to help calculate individual patient's postoperative risks and allow for better informed consent and risk-adjusted comparison of provider outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.050DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparable Patency of Open and Hybrid Treatment of Venous Anastomotic Lesions in Thrombosed Haemodialysis Grafts.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 Dec 11;60(6):897-903. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Arteriovenous graft (AVG) failures are typically associated with venous anastomotic (VA) stenosis. Current evidence regarding AVG thrombosis management compares surgical with purely endovascular techniques; few studies have investigated the "hybrid" intervention that combines surgical balloon thrombectomy and endovascular angioplasty and/or stenting to address VA obstruction. This study aimed to describe outcomes after hybrid intervention compared with open revision (patch venoplasty or jump bypass) of the VA in thrombosed AVGs.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Consecutive patients with a thrombosed AVG who underwent thrombectomy between January 2014 and July 2018 were divided into open and hybrid groups based on VA intervention; patients who underwent purely endovascular thrombectomy were excluded. Patient demographics, previous access history, central vein patency, AVG anatomy, type of intervention, and follow up data were recorded. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyse time from thrombectomy to first re-intervention (primary patency) and time to abandonment (secondary patency). Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictors of failure.

Results: This study included 97 patients (54 females) with 39 forearm, 47 upper arm, and 11 lower extremity AVGs. There were 34 open revisions (25 patches, nine jump bypasses) and 63 hybrid interventions, which included balloon angioplasty ± adjunctive procedures (15 stents, five cutting balloons). Technique selection was based on physician preference. Primary patency for the open and hybrid groups was 27.8% and 34.2%, respectively, at six months and 17.5% and 12.9%, respectively, at 12 months (p = .71). Secondary patency was 45.1% and 38.5% for open and hybrid treatment, respectively, at 12 months (p = .87). An existing VA stent was predictive of graft abandonment (hazard ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-16.0; p = .024). Open vs. hybrid intervention was not predictive of failure or abandonment.

Conclusion: Hybrid interventions for thrombosed AVGs are not associated with worse patency at six and 12 months compared with open revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906772PMC
December 2020

Improved outcomes of endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injuries at higher volume institutions.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 1;73(4):1314-1319. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Background: The use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has significantly improved the ability to treat traumatic aortic injuries (tTEVAR). We sought to determine whether a greater center volume correlated with better outcomes.

Methods: Vascular Quality Initiative data of TEVAR (2011-2017) for trauma were used in the present analysis. Using the distribution of the annual case volume at the participating centers, the sample was stratified into three terciles. In-hospital mortality at high-volume centers (HVCs) and low-volume centers (LVCs) was compared after adjustment for risk factors established in our previous Vascular Quality Initiative-based risk model containing age, gender, renal impairment, left subclavian artery involvement, and select concomitant injuries.

Results: A total of 619 tTEVAR cases were studied across 74 centers. HVCs (n = 184 cases) had performed ≥4.9 cases annually and LVCs (n = 220 cases) had performed ≤2.4 cases annually. Both crude mortality (4.4% vs 8.6%; P = .22) and adjusted odds of mortality (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-1.09; P = .08) showed a trend toward better outcomes for tTEVAR performed at HVCs than at LVCs. The addition of center volume to our previous multivariate model significantly improved its discriminative ability (C-statistic, 0.90 vs 0.88; P = .02). The overall TEVAR volume (for all indications) was not associated with increased odds of mortality for tTEVAR (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-1.20; P = .11), nor did it improve the model's discriminative ability.

Conclusions: Higher volume centers showed improved perioperative mortality after tTEVAR. The thoracic aortic trauma volume was more predictive than the overall TEVAR volume, suggesting that technical expertise is not the driving factor. Stable patients might benefit from transfer to a higher volume center before repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.08.034DOI Listing
April 2021

Endovascular management of complete disruption of aortic anastomosis after pediatric multivisceral transplant.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2020 Sep 20;6(3):331-336. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Multivisceral transplantation is a life-saving treatment for many chronically ill patients with advanced abdominal pathologies. For such transplants, a complex arterial reconstruction is required, with numerous anastomoses on a composite donor graft and the native aorta. In these patients, anastomotic disruption or pseudoaneurysm formation, often in the setting of infection, are deadly complications. Open surgical repair is hazardous, because many of these patients have dense adhesions. Reported cases of disruption at the aortic anastomosis to date have resulted in patient demise. We report the case of a pediatric multivisceral transplant recipient with ruptured aortic pseudoaneurysm. He underwent an emergent endovascular parallel stent grafting technique, which successfully controlled bleeding and maintained graft perfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2020.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371609PMC
September 2020

Natural History of Non-operative Management in Asymptomatic Patients with 70%-80% Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis by Duplex Criteria.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 Sep 11;60(3):339-346. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Centre, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Treatment of asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, particularly for moderate to severe (70%-80%) disease, is controversial. The goal was to assess the clinical course of patients with moderate to severe carotid stenosis.

Methods: A single institution retrospective analysis of patients with asymptomatic ICA stenosis identified on duplex ultrasound as moderate to severe (70%-80%) from 2003 to 2018 were analysed. Duplex criteria for 70%-80% stenosis was a systolic velocity of ≥325 cm/s or an ICA:common carotid artery ratio of ≥4, and an end diastolic velocity of <140 cm/s. Asymptomatic status was defined as no stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) within six months of index duplex. Primary outcomes were progression of stenosis to >80%, ipsilateral stroke/TIA without documented progression, and death.

Results: In total, 206 carotid arteries were identified in 182 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Mean patient age was 71.5 years, 57.7% were male, and 67% were white. There were 19 stenoses removed from analysis except for survival analysis as they initially underwent carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stent based on surgeon/patient preference. Documented progression occurred in 24.1% of stenoses. There were 5.3% of stenoses associated with an ipsilateral stroke/TIA without documented progression, which occurred at a mean of 26.4 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 60.3% five year freedom from stenosis progression, 92.5% five year freedom from stroke/TIA without documented progression, and 83.7% five year survival. Risk factors associated with stroke/TIA without documented progression at five years were atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR] 14.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.72-81.16; p = .002) and clopidogrel use at index duplex (HR 6.19, 95% CI 1.33-28.83; p = .020). Risk factors associated with death at five years were end stage renal disease (HR 9.67, 95% CI 2.05-45.6; p = .004), atrial fibrillation (HR 7.55, 95% CI 2.48-23; p < .001), prior head/neck radiation (HR 6.37, 95% CI 1.39-29.31; p = .017), non-obese patients (HR 5.49, 95% CI 1.52-20; p = .009), and non-aspirin use at index duplex (HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.12-8.33; p = .030).

Conclusion: Patients with asymptomatic moderate to severe carotid stenosis had a low rate of stroke/TIA without documented progression. However, there was a high rate of stenosis progression reinforcing the need to follow these patients closely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.05.039DOI Listing
September 2020

Postoperative outcomes in thoracic outlet decompression for acute versus chronic venous thoracic outlet syndrome.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 03 26;9(2):321-328. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Objective: Venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS) is a rare disorder that occurs in young athletes and working adults. There are multiple published reports demonstrating excellent outcomes with thoracic outlet (TO) decompression surgery when patients present acutely (within 2 weeks of symptom onset). Our objective was to assess outcomes after decompression surgery in patients with acute, subacute, chronic, and secondary VTOS. Additionally, we sought to identify risk factors for persistence of symptoms following operative decompression.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who underwent operative decompression for VTOS at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from 2013 to 2017. We examined baseline characteristics, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, interventions performed, and postoperative clinical outcomes. Patients were characterized as acute, subacute, or chronic based on onset of symptoms and presentation to our surgeons (acute <2 weeks, subacute 2 weeks to 3 months, and chronic >3 months). Our outcomes of interest were return to baseline functional status as defined by resumption of sports activity or occupation and axillosubclavian vein patency.

Results: A total of 51 operative decompressions were performed in 48 patients for VTOS. There were 23 operations (45%) performed on patients who presented acutely, 7 (14%) in the subacute group, and 21 (41%) surgeries in patients with chronic symptoms. Of these 51 operations, 4 (7.8%) were deemed unsuccessful-two surgeries were in the acute group, one in the subacute, and one in the chronic group. The 30-day morbidity after 51 first rib resections included no pneumothoraces, no lymphatic leaks, two surgical site hematomas with associated hemothorax in one patient, two surgical site infections, and only two unplanned returns to the operating room for hematoma evacuation and superficial wound infection washout. In terms of preoperative vein patency, those who presented acutely were more likely to have an occluded axillosubclavian vein (P = .029). The Fisher's exact was 0.540, indicating that the proportion of patients returning to baseline functional status were similar when comparing acute presenters with those who present late. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was attempted; however, a small sample size greatly limited the power of the study and prohibited identification of risk factors for surgical failure.

Conclusions: Patients with acute and chronic VTOS resumed their preintervention sports activity or vocation after TO decompression in more than 90% of cases with a low incidence of adverse events. Based on our study results, patients with chronic VTOS benefit as much from TO decompression as those with acute VTOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.05.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Higher body mass index is associated with reinterventions and lower maturation rates after upper extremity arteriovenous access creation.

J Vasc Surg 2021 03 19;73(3):1007-1015. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: A patient's body mass index (BMI) can affect both perioperative and postoperative outcomes across all surgical specialties. Given that obesity and end-stage renal disease are growing in prevalence, we aimed to evaluate the association between BMI and outcomes of upper extremity arteriovenous (AV) access creation.

Methods: A retrospective single-institution review was conducted for AV access creations from 2014 to 2018. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and AV access details were recorded. BMI groups were defined as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m), obese (30-39.9 kg/m), and morbidly obese (>40 kg/m). Perioperative complications and long-term outcomes including access maturation (defined as access being used for hemodialysis or the surgeon's judgment that access was ready for use in patients not yet on hemodialysis), occlusion, and reintervention were evaluated.

Results: A total of 611 upper extremity AV access creations were performed on patients who were normal weight (29.6%), overweight (31.3%), obese (29.6%), and morbidly obese (9.5%). Access type included brachiocephalic (43.2%), brachiobasilic (25.5%), and radiocephalic (14.2%) fistulas and AV grafts (14.2%). Median age was 60.9 years, and 59.6% were male. Univariable analysis showed no difference between BMI groups for perioperative steal, hematoma, home discharge, or 30-day primary patency. Freedom from reintervention at 2 years on Kaplan-Meier analysis differed by BMI (44.5% ± 4.6% normal weight, 29% ± 3.8% overweight, 39.8% ± 4.3% obese, 34.7% ± 8% morbidly obese; P = .041). There was no difference in 2-year freedom from new access creation or survival. AV access maturity within 180 days differed between BMI groups (74.3% normal weight, 66% overweight, 65.7% obese, 46.6% morbidly obese; P < .001). On multivariable analysis, failure to mature within 180 days was associated with overweight (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-3.29; P = .002), obese (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.19-3.47; P = .009), and morbidly obese (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.85-7.3; P < .001) relative to normal weight BMI. AV access reintervention was associated with overweight (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.34-2.5), obese (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12-2.16), and morbidly obese (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.1-2.58; P = .02) relative to normal weight BMI. BMI was not independently associated with long-term readmission or survival.

Conclusions: Obesity is associated with higher rates of AV access failure to mature and reintervention. Surgeons performing access creation on obese patients must consider this for planning and setting expectations. Weight loss assistance may need to be incorporated into treatment algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.04.510DOI Listing
March 2021

Retrograde open mesenteric stenting should be considered as the initial approach to acute mesenteric ischemia.

J Vasc Surg 2020 10 8;72(4):1260-1268. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: Retrograde open mesenteric stenting (ROMS) is an alternative to traditional bypass in patients who present with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). However, there is a paucity of data comparing outcomes of ROMS with other open surgical approaches. This study represents the largest single-institution experience with ROMS and aims to compare outcomes of ROMS with those of conventional mesenteric bypass.

Methods: All patients who presented with AMI from 2008 to 2019 and who were treated with either ROMS or mesenteric bypass were included in the study. Patient, procedure, and outcome variables were compared. Bypass and ROMS patients were compared using univariate statistics.

Results: A total of 34 patients who presented with AMI needing bypass were included in the study; 16 underwent mesenteric bypass, and 18 underwent ROMS. ROMS patients tended to be older than bypass patients and had higher rates of comorbidities. Bypass patients were more likely to have a history of chronic mesenteric symptoms (68.8% vs 27.8%; P = .019). Bypass procedures also took longer than ROMS procedures (302 vs 189 minutes; P < .01). The majority of ROMS procedures were not performed in a hybrid room (77.8%). Within 1 year, one stent thrombosed in a ROMS patient, requiring later mesenteric bypass. In the bypass group, one conduit thrombosed, ultimately resulting in perioperative death, and one bypass anastomosis stenosed, requiring angioplasty. Complication, unanticipated reintervention, and mortality rates were otherwise similar between groups.

Conclusions: Complication, reintervention, and mortality rates after ROMS are similar to those of mesenteric bypass in the setting of AMI. Given similar postoperative outcomes and ability to perform these procedures in a conventional operating room but with significantly shorter operative times, ROMS should be considered a first-line option in acute situations when the operator is comfortable performing the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.02.044DOI Listing
October 2020

The Society for Vascular Surgery clinical practice guidelines on the management of visceral aneurysms.

J Vasc Surg 2020 07 20;72(1S):3S-39S. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Mayo Clinic Evidence-Based Practice Center, Rochester, Minn.

These Society for Vascular Surgery Clinical Practice Guidelines describe the care of patients with aneurysms of the visceral arteries. They include evidence-based size thresholds for repair of aneurysms of the renal arteries, splenic artery, celiac artery, and hepatic artery, among others. Specific open surgical and endovascular repair strategies are also discussed. They also describe specific circumstances in which aneurysms may be repaired at smaller sizes than these size thresholds, including in women of childbearing age and false aneurysms. These Guidelines offer important recommendations for the care of patients with aneurysms of the visceral arteries and long-awaited guidance for clinicians who treat these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.01.039DOI Listing
July 2020

Mortality After Paclitaxel Coated Balloon Angioplasty and Stenting of Superficial Femoral and Popliteal Artery in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 02 7;13(2):e008528. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Maine Medical Center, Division of Vascular Surgery, Portland, ME (J.E.-J.).

Background: To compare mortality after treatment of superficial femoral-popliteal artery disease with paclitaxel and nonpaclitaxel devices using a multicenter vascular registry.

Methods: Patients (N=8376) undergoing endovascular treatment of superficial femoral-popliteal artery disease in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative were studied from October 2016 to December 2017. One-year mortality was compared between 3 groups; plain balloon angioplasty (N=2104) versus paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty (N=3543), bare-metal stenting (N= 2045) versus paclitaxel-eluting stents (N=684), and combined paclitaxel versus nonpaclitaxel devices. Mortality rates with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI were compared in unadjusted and propensity-matched cohorts and illustrated by Kaplan-Meier analysis with subgroup analysis for intermittent claudication, chronic limb-threatening ischemia, and secondary interventions.

Results: In propensity-matched analyses, mortality was similar after plain balloon angioplasty (12.6%) and paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty (9.6%; HR=0.84 [95% CI, 0.66-1.06], =0.14). In propensity-matched groups, mortality was similar after bare-metal stenting (9.8%) and paclitaxel-eluting stenting (8.8%; HR=0.93 [95% CI, 0.62-1.41], =0.75). In the combined, matched analysis mortality was significantly lower in the paclitaxel device group (8.5%) compared with the nonpaclitaxel device group (11.5%; HR=0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-0.98], =0.03). Secondary interventions were similar after nonpaclitaxel (N=1113/4149, 26.8%) and paclitaxel device use (N=1113/4227, 26.3%). For intermittent claudication, mortality was lower after paclitaxel device use (1.6%) compared with nonpaclitaxel devices (4.4%; adjusted HR=0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.89], =0.01). For chronic limb-threatening ischemia, the mortality difference was not significant; paclitaxel (12.8%) versus nonpaclitaxel devices (15.5%; adjusted HR=0.85 [95% CI, 0.72-1.00], =0.05).

Conclusions: At 1 year, mortality was similar if not lower after treatment of femoral-popliteal occlusive disease with paclitaxel versus nonpaclitaxel devices. This work highlights the potential use of the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative for surveillance of the safety of new peripheral arterial devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.119.008528DOI Listing
February 2020

Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) reporting standards for type B aortic dissections.

J Vasc Surg 2020 03 27;71(3):723-747. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

This Society for Vascular Surgery/Society of Thoracic Surgeons (SVS/STS) document illustrates and defines the overall nomenclature associated with type B aortic dissection. The contents describe a new classification system for practical use and reporting that includes the aortic arch. Chronicity of aortic dissection is also defined along with nomenclature in patients with prior aortic repair and other aortic pathologic processes, such as intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Complicated vs uncomplicated dissections are clearly defined with a new high-risk grouping that will undoubtedly grow in reporting and controversy. Follow-up criteria are also discussed with nomenclature for false lumen status in addition to measurement criteria and definitions of aortic remodeling. Overall, the document provides a facile framework of language that will allow more granular discussions and reporting of aortic dissection in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.013DOI Listing
March 2020

Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Reporting Standards for Type B Aortic Dissections.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 03 27;109(3):959-981. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

This Society for Vascular Surgery/Society of Thoracic Surgeons (SVS/STS) document illustrates and defines the overall nomenclature associated with type B aortic dissection. The contents describe a new classification system for practical use and reporting that includes the aortic arch. Chronicity of aortic dissection is also defined along with nomenclature in patients with prior aortic repair and other aortic pathologic processes, such as intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Complicated vs uncomplicated dissections are clearly defined with a new high-risk grouping that will undoubtedly grow in reporting and controversy. Follow-up criteria are also discussed with nomenclature for false lumen status in addition to measurement criteria and definitions of aortic remodeling. Overall, the document provides a facile framework of language that will allow more granular discussions and reporting of aortic dissection in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.10.005DOI Listing
March 2020

External validation of the Vascular Study Group of New England carotid endarterectomy risk predictive model using an independent U.S. national surgical database.

J Vasc Surg 2020 06 30;71(6):1954-1963. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Objective: Previously, we described a Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model to predict composite adverse outcomes (postoperative death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or discharge to extended care facilities) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The goal of this study was to externally validate this model using an independent database.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) CEA-targeted database (2010-2014) was used to externally validate the risk predictor model of adverse outcomes after CEA previously created using the VSGNE carotid database. Emergent cases and those in which CEA was combined with another operation were excluded. Cases in which a discharge destination cannot be determined were also excluded. To assess the predictive power of our VSGNE prediction score within this sample, a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. Risk scores for each NSQIP patient were also computed using beta weights from the VSGNE CEA model. To further assess the construct validity of our VSGNE prediction score, the observed proportion of adverse outcomes was examined at each level of our prediction scale and within five roughly equally sized risk groups formed on the basis of our VSGNE prediction scores.

Results: In this database, 10,889 cases met our inclusion criteria and were used in this analysis. The overall rate of adverse outcomes in this cohort was 8.5%. External validation of the VSGNE model on this sample showed moderately good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.745). Patients in progressively higher risk groups, based on their VSGNE model scores, exhibited progressively higher rates of observed adverse outcomes, as predicted.

Conclusions: The VSGNE CEA risk predictive model was externally validated on an NSQIP CEA-targeted sample and showed a fairly accurate global predictive ability for adverse outcomes after CEA. Although this model has a good population concordance, the lack of cut point indicates that individual risk prediction requires more evaluation. Further studies should be geared toward identification of variables that make this risk predictive model more robust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.04.495DOI Listing
June 2020

Risk factors for mortality after endovascular repair for blunt thoracic aortic injury.

J Vasc Surg 2020 03 13;71(3):768-773. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Objective: Despite high use of endovascular repair, blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) leads to significant mortality. We sought to identify risk factors and create a predictive model for mortality after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) based on available preoperative clinical data.

Methods: We queried the Vascular Quality Initiative TEVAR dataset from April 2011 to November 2017 to identify patients with BTAI as the indication for repair. Patient characteristics, injury grade, timing of repair, and technical aspects including left subclavian artery (LSCA) involvement and coverage were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to identify univariable predictors of the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality. A multivariable model was constructed to predict in-hospital mortality after TEVAR for traumatic aortic injury. The model was tested as a prediction tool, internally validated using 10-fold cross-validation approach, externally validated using early and late split samples, and finally simplified into a scoring system.

Results: We identified 633 TEVAR cases performed for blunt trauma. The majority of patients were male (73.9%) with median age of 39 years (interquartile range, 27-56 years). Although 18.6% documented zone 2 or proximal involvement, 28.1% documented involvement or treatment of the LSCA. 8.9% of repairs were performed for a grade 1 injury, with an increase from 6.4% in 2014 to 16.7% in 2017 (P = .04). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 7.3%. Independent predictors of mortality were age 60 year or greater (odds ratio [OR], 11.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.30-24.23; P < .001), creatinine 1.2 or greater (OR, 5.28; 95% CI, 2.46-11.34; P < .001), male gender (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.53-11.84; P = .005), Injury Severity Score of greater than 30 (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.74-8.57; P = .001), and LSCA involvement (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.11-4.53; P = .02). The model predicted in-hospital mortality with a C-statistic of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.80-0.92), and a simplified model based on a point system had a similar C-statistic of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.80-0.92; P = .44).

Conclusions: TEVAR for BTAI is associated with a 7.3% in-hospital mortality in the Vascular Quality Initiative. Treatment of grade 1 injuries has increased significantly in recent years. Factors most strongly associated with mortality include age, male gender, renal impairment, LSCA involvement, and high ISS score. A simple point score model based on these variables robustly predicts in-hospital mortality and may assist in appropriate patient selection and risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.07.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082096PMC
March 2020

Masson tumor (intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia) arising in a superficial temporal artery aneurysm.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2019 Sep 29;5(3):388-391. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Masson tumor (intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia) is a rare proliferation of endothelial cells within the wall of a vessel, often thought to represent an aberrant resolution of a thrombosis. We describe the unique case of a 75-year-old man who presented to the clinic with a tender, spontaneous aneurysmal dilation of his left superficial temporal artery (STA). Only 8% of all STA aneurysms are believed to be spontaneous true aneurysms, with the majority being post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms. After successful surgical resection, pathologic examination demonstrated a Masson tumor within an STA aneurysm. This paper describes a case in which both rare entities were discovered and briefly outlines the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2019.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727241PMC
September 2019

Single- versus multiple-stage catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis does not have an impact on iliac vein stent length or patency rates.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019 11 5;7(6):781-788. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Background: Incomplete venous thrombolysis and residual nonstented iliac vein disease are known predictors of recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Controversy exists as to whether the number of thrombolysis sessions affects total stent treatment length or stent patency. The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent single vs multiple catheter-directed lysis sessions with regard to stent extent and patency.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent thrombolysis and stenting for acute iliofemoral DVT between 2007 and 2018 were identified and divided into two groups on the basis of the number of treatments performed (one vs multiple sessions). Operative notes and venograms were reviewed to determine the number of lytic sessions performed and stent information, including size, location, total number, and length treated. End points included total stent length, 30-day and long-term patency, and post-thrombotic syndrome (Villalta score ≥5). The χ comparisons, logistic regression, and survival analysis were used to determine outcomes.

Results: There were 79 patients who underwent lysis and stenting (6 bilateral interventions; mean age, 45.9 ± 17 years; 48 female). Ten patients (12 limbs) underwent single-stage treatment with pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and the remaining 69 (73 limbs) had two to four operating room sessions combining pharmacomechanical and catheter-directed thrombolysis. Patients who underwent a single-stage procedure were older and more likely to have a malignant disease. These patients received less tissue plasminogen activator compared with the multiple-stage group (17.2 ± 2.2 mg vs 27.6 ± 11.6 mg; P = .008). Average stent length was 8.8 ± 5.2 cm for the single-stage group vs 9.2 ± 4.6 cm for the multiple-stage group (P = .764). Patients who underwent a single-stage procedure had no difference in average length of stay from that of patients who underwent multiple sessions (8.5 days vs 5.9 days; P = .269). The overall 30-day rethrombosis rate was 7.3%. Two-year patency was 72.2% and 74.7% for the single and multiple stages, respectively (P = .909). The major predictors for loss of primary patency were previous DVT (hazard ratio [HR], 5.99; P = .020) and incomplete lysis (HR, 5.39; P = .014) but not number of procedures (HR, 0.957; P = .966). The overall post-thrombotic syndrome rate was 28.4% at 5 years and was also not associated with the number of treatment sessions.

Conclusions: Single- vs multiple-stage thrombolysis for DVT is not associated with a difference in extent of stent coverage. Patency rates remain high for iliac stenting irrespective of the number of lytic sessions, provided lysis is complete and the diseased segments are appropriately stented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2019.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917433PMC
November 2019

Femoral vein transposition is a durable hemodialysis access for patients who have exhausted upper extremity options.

J Vasc Surg 2020 03 3;71(3):929-936. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass.

Objective: Access surgeons often encounter patients with end-stage renal disease who have exhausted all upper extremity hemodialysis access options. Although the lower extremity is often the next alternative, prosthetic lower extremity access can be prone to infectious complications and historically has poor patency. We describe our contemporary experience with an autogenous femoral vein transposition (FVT) arteriovenous fistula.

Methods: All FVTs performed at an academic medical center from 2006 to 2018 were analyzed. FVTs were placed after upper extremity access was deemed no longer possible by the treating surgeon. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and access history were described, and perioperative and short-term outcomes, including maturation, were analyzed.

Results: Twenty-one patients treated with FVT were identified. The mean age was 55.3 ± 11.1 years; 23.8% were female, and 71.4% were African American. The median body mass index was 27.1 kg/m (range, 17-46 kg/m). Comorbidities included hypertension (100%), diabetes (61.9%), coronary artery disease (57.1%), congestive heart failure (47.6%), and obesity (38.1%). Twenty patients had at least one prior arm access, whereas 13 patients (61.9%) had more than three prior arm accesses. Seventeen patients (81%) had central venous stenosis or occlusion confirmed on preoperative imaging. The mean operative time was 250 minutes (range, 144-406 minutes), and estimated blood loss was 140.5 mL. Preanastomotic tapering was performed in 20 (95.2%) patients. Four (19%) patients returned to the operating room within 30 days. Thirty-day postoperative cardiac and wound complications occurred in 9.5% and 19% of patients, respectively. Distal arterial ischemia requiring revascularization occurred in one (4.8%) patient at 7 months. There were no access-related infections that resulted in fistula ligation. There was no mortality at 30 days. Successful fistula maturation rate at 6 months was 88.9%. At 1 year, primary and secondary patency rates were 65.9%, and 94.7%, respectively.

Conclusions: Although autogenous FVT performed in patients without upper extremity options has a significant wound complication rate, it is associated with an outstanding maturation rate and excellent patency rates at 1 year. This access should be readily considered in hemodialysis patients without upper extremity access options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.07.062DOI Listing
March 2020

Comparison of Early and Late Post-operative Outcomes after Supra-inguinal Bypass for Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2019 Oct 19;58(4):529-537. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The choice for surgical revascularisation for aortoiliac occlusive disease is often tempered by patient comorbidities. This study compares peri-operative outcomes and the association between choice of operation and one year major adverse limb event (MALE) free survival and five year mortality.

Methods: The Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) dataset for supra-inguinal bypass operations from 2009 to 2015 was queried. This study excluded cases with bypass other than aortofemoral (AFB), axillofemoral (AXB), and femorofemoral (FFB), and those with endovascular interventions or femoral endarterectomy. Cases combined with other procedures, indications other than occlusive disease, and missing pathology were also excluded. Patients were divided into three groups: AFB, AXB, and FFB. Thirty day post-operative death (POD) and adverse events were compared using univariable and multivariable analyses. One year MALE free survival was compared between groups with log rank test and Kaplan-Meier plot. Proportional hazard Cox regression was used for adjusted comparison of MALE free and five year survival.

Results: In total, 1,602 cases were included: 207 (12.9%) AXB; 872 (54.4%) AFB; 523 (32.6%) FFB. AXB patients were older with more comorbidities. Post-operative complications and POD rates were significantly higher for AXB (p < .05). On adjusted analyses, AXB increased the hazard of one year MALE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.78; p = .014) and five year mortality (HR 1.54; 95% CI 1.11-2.41; p = .009). Both FFB and AFB had similar one year MALE free survival but significantly better one year MALE free survival than AXB.

Conclusion: After adjusting for confounding variables, and while acknowledging limitations related to the VSGNE data set, FFB led to significantly lower rates of post-operative complications than AXB. FFB may serve as the extra-anatomical operation of choice in high risk patients with extensive disease, who cannot undergo AFB, provided that anatomy permits. AFB should be performed preferentially in low risk patients with appropriate anatomy. Owing to its higher complications rates, the study suggests that AXB should be limited to patients with no other option for revascularisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.02.010DOI Listing
October 2019

Hypoalbuminemia Predicts Increased Readmission and Emergency Department Visits After Lower Extremity Bypass.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2019 Nov 15;53(8):629-635. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is associated with poor outcomes across many surgical fields. However, the effects on outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB), particularly over the 90-day global surgical period, are unclear. Our goal was to analyze the effect of hypoalbuminemia within 90 days after LE bypass.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective review of all infrainguinal LEBs from 2007 to 2017. Patients were categorized into 3 preoperative albumin groups: severe hypoalbuminemia (SH; albumin ≤2.8g/dL), mild-moderate hypoalbuminemia (MH; albumin >2.8-3.5g/dL), and normal albumin (albumin >3.5g/dL). Patient and procedural details were recorded. Outcomes analyzed included wound infection, myocardial infarction (MI), pulmonary complications, early graft occlusion (≤30 days), mortality, and emergency department (ED) presentation and readmissions within 30 and 90 days. Multivariable analysis was performed.

Results: We identified 313 patients undergoing LEB-45 (14.4%) with SH, 133 (42.5%) with MH, and 135 (43.1%) with normal albumin. Overall, the mean age was 65.7 years, and 63.3% were male. The SH group more frequently had tissue loss, diabetes, hypertension, end-stage renal disease, preoperative hematocrit <30%, and patients admitted preoperatively (all < .05). There were no significant differences in wound complications, MI, pulmonary complications, early graft occlusion, 30-day or 90-day mortality, and 30-day ED presentation. Severe hypoalbuminemia compared to MH and normal albumin, respectively, had significantly higher rates of 30-day readmission (40% vs 30.8% vs 17.8%, = .005), 90-day ED presentation (55.6% vs 33.8% vs 29.6%, = .006), and 90-day readmission (66.7% vs 48.9% vs 35.6%, = .001). Multivariable analysis showed that SH was independently associated with 90-day ED presentation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-6.36, = .014) and 90-day readmission (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.21-5.71, = .015).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that patients with SH undergoing LEB had similar perioperative complication rates compared to normal albumin and MH groups, and SH was independently associated with 90-day ED presentation and readmission. Further studies are needed to assess other factors associated with ED visits and readmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574419868869DOI Listing
November 2019

Nationwide trends in drug-coated balloon and drug-eluting stent utilization in the femoropopliteal arteries.

J Vasc Surg 2020 02 10;71(2):560-566. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Objective: Drug-coated balloons (DCB) and drug-eluting stents (DES) have significantly altered treatment paradigms for femoropopliteal lesions. We aimed to describe changes in practice patterns as a result of the infusion of these technologies into the treatment of peripheral arterial disease.

Methods: We queried the Vascular Quality Initiative registry from 2010 to 2017 for all peripheral vascular interventions involving the superficial femoral artery and/or the popliteal artery. Cases were divided into a PRE and a POST era with a cutoff of September 2016, when specific device identity was first recorded in Vascular Quality Initiative. For each artery, a primary treatment was identified as either plain balloon angioplasty, atherectomy, DCB, bare-metal stent, or DES. The relative distribution of primary treatments between the PRE and POST eras was evaluated, as were lesion characteristics associated with DCB and DES use and regional variability in the adoption of these new technologies.

Results: Of 210,666 arteries in the dataset, 91,864 femoropopliteal arteries (across 74,842 procedures in 55,437 patients) were included. Each artery received 1.5 ± 0.6 treatments. Primary treatment use changed from 40% balloon angioplasty, 45% stenting, and 15% atherectomy in the PRE era to 22% plain balloon angioplasty, 26% bare-metal stent, 8% atherectomy, 37% DCB, and 8% DES in the POST era (P < .001). Forty-three percent of arteries received a drug-containing device as a primary or adjunctive therapy and 1.3% received both a DCB and DES in the POST era. DCB use as the primary treatment was highest in lesions with length 10.0 to 19.9 cm (42%), TransAtlantic InterSociety A, B, or C lesions (38%), and lesions with mild to no calcification (38%). DES use was highest in lesions with a length of 20 cm or more (12%), TransAtlantic InterSociety D lesions (13%), and lesions with moderate to severe calcification (9%). The range of use across 18 regions was 125 to 40% for DCB and 1% to 14% for DES. Regional variability was greater for DES (SD 4% vs mean 8%) than for DCB (SD 7% vs mean 29%).

Conclusions: There has been a rapid dissemination of DCB and DES technology in the femoropopliteal vessels, with nearly one-half of arteries receiving a drug-containing therapy in modern practice. DCBs are most used in medium length, minimally calcified lesions and DESs are most used in longer, more heavily calcified lesions. There is significant regional variability in adoption, especially with DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.05.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7007839PMC
February 2020

Impact of Medicaid Expansion of the Affordable Care on the Outcomes of Lower Extremity Bypass for Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease in the Vascular Quality Initiative Database.

Ann Surg 2019 10;270(4):647-655

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the utilization and outcomes of surgery after Medicaid Expansion (ME) for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Summary Background Data: Recent studies have demonstrated increased insurance coverage and improved care with the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) state expansion of Medicaid.

Methods: Infrainguinal bypass procedures performed due to occlusive pathology in the Vascular Quality Initiative database between 2010 and 2017 were included. Primary outcomes including postoperative mortality and major adverse limb events (MALE) at 1-year of follow-up were analyzed using interrupted time-series analysis (ITS).

Results: Out of 26,446 infrainguinal bypass procedures, 13,955 (52.8%) were included in this analysis. ME states witnessed an annual decrease in infrainguinal surgery for acute ischemia [annual change in post vs pre-ME period (95% confidence interval): -4.3% (-7.5% to -1.0%), P = 0.02] and an increase in revascularization for claudication [3.7% (1.7%-5.6%), P = 0.01]. Among nonacute cases, elective procedures increased in ME states [3.9% (0.1%-7.7%), P = 0.05] along with a significant annual decrease in in-hospital mortality [-0.4% (-0.8 to -0.02), P = 0.04) and MALE at 1 year of follow up [-9.0% (-20.3 to 2.3), P = 0.09]. These results were statistically significant after comparing them with the annual trend changes in states which did not adopt ME.

Conclusions: The adoption of ME in 2014 was associated with significant increase in the use of infrainguinal bypass for nonsevere and elective cases, along with improved in-hospital mortality and MALE at 1 year. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact of ME on other aspects of care and longer term outcomes of PAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003521DOI Listing
October 2019
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