Publications by authors named "Mohammad Ghorbani"

108 Publications

The Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Extract on TNBS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 7;2021:3075973. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Central Research Laboratory, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: Ulcerative colitis is a common subtype of persistent inflammatory bowel disease with high morbidity consequences. Despite unknown definite pathogenesis, multiple anti-inflammatory medications are used for its treatment. Traditionally, (QB), mostly available in the Middle East, has been used for gastrointestinal disorders. Other beneficial effects associated with QB include reduction of oxidative stress, inflammations, homeostatic instability, and improvement in clinical conditions.

Materials And Methods: This experimental study was designed to assess the possible therapeutic effects of QB on UC and compare its effects with those of sulfasalazine. Of the 70 Wistar rats clustered in seven groups, ten received only alcohols and sixty were confirmed to be suffering from trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Four groups received different dosages of QB extract via oral and rectal routes, one received sulfasalazine, and the other remaining two groups received nothing. The effects of QB were evaluated by assessing macroscopic and histologic scoring, measuring inflammatory mediators, and determining oxidative stress markers.

Results: Comparing to the untreated TNBS-induced control groups, QB-treated groups showed a dose- and route-dependent improvement comparable with sulfasalazine. Treating rats with QB reduced the microscopic and macroscopic damage, decreased TNF-, IL-6, NO, MPO activity, and MDA content, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reduced body weight loss.

Conclusions: Our data recommended the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of QB extract in a dose-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3075973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808820PMC
January 2021

Solar treatment of sewage discharged from industrial estate for reduction of chemical oxygen demand over Degussa P-25 titania.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 27;265:129123. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

The aim of current investigation was to demonstrate the effectiveness of Degussa P-25 titania in the photocatalytic treatment of sewage, discharged from industrial estate, as a combined process under solar irradiation. The study was aimed to understand the role of fundamental factors including, titania load, initial COD level, and pH on the photocatalytic degradation rate. The commercially produced TiO represented a mesoporous structure, 2-30 nm, indicating the adequate activity in the COD reduction of sewages collected from the streams entreating anaerobic, aerobic, and sand filtration stages when 0.5 g L of photocatalyst was loaded. According to the obtained results, the degradation rate is accelerated with an increase in the initial COD level. Although the solar treatment of streams entering to the anaerobic, and aerobic stages indicated the higher rates, the separation of titania particles from the sludge is very difficult. Therefore, it seems that the downstream of recovery network is still the best position to assemble the photocatalytic system, as an auxiliary process to reduce COD below the standard level, and improve the recovery rate. The maximal removal efficiency, 87%, was achieved within 20 min by the solar treatment of sewage in the alkali condition with the control of pH around 8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129123DOI Listing
February 2021

Lateralization of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in Cushing's disease correlates with cavernous sinus venous drainage patterns, but not tumor lateralization.

Heliyon 2020 Oct 22;6(10):e05299. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is known as the gold standard to distinguish whether excessive adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) production origins from the pituitary gland or an ectopic source. However, due to a number of factors, the value of IPSS for adenoma lateralization may be limited. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of parasellar venous drainage (VD) patterns on IPSS findings in predicting lateralization of pituitary microadenomas.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of confirmed cases of Cushing's disease which were evaluated by IPSS prior to endoscopic tansnasal trans-sphenoidal surgery (ETSS) to assess the ability of IPSS to predict adenoma laterality.

Results: Seventeen patients with pathologically confirmed Cushing's disease were retrospectively reviewed. The median age of the included patients was 37 years. Laterality of parasellar VD perfectly associated with lateralization as measured by IPSS. Symmetrical VD was associated with symmetrical ACTH gradient on IPSS. However, lateralization measured by IPSS did not show any significant correlation with lateralization detected during ETSS.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that IPSS lateralization results strongly depend on parasellar VD pattern but show no significant correlation with the adenoma lateralization found during ETSS. Thus, IPSS does not appear to be an appropriate modality to predict adenoma lateralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586104PMC
October 2020

Investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasites with an emphasis on Strongyloides stercoralis infection in hospitalized patients: a regional report from Iran.

Ann Parasitol 2020 ;66(3):365-371

School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.

Intestinal parasitic infections such as strongyloidosis are more common among individuals with immune deficiency and sometimes accompanied by severe symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites with focus on strongyloidosis in hospitalized patients. A total number of 566 faecal samples were obtained from different wards and assessed by the use of direct smear, formalin-ether concentration, and agar plate culture procedures in order to find parasitic protozoa and helminthes. The findings revealed that 10.1% (n=57) of the examined samples were positive for intestinal parasites. The highest prevalence rate was related to Entamoeba coli (4.6%, n=26) and the lowest one was related to Strongyloides stercoralis (0.5%, n=3). In addition, Giardia lamblia prevalence rate was 3.2% (n=18) and the prevalence rate of Blastocystis hominis was 1.8% (n=10). The sensitivity of S. stercoralis diagnosis was equal for agar plate culture and formalin-ether concentration methods. This study demonstrated the significance of focus on intestinal parasites in hospitalized patients and highlighted the necessity of improving the insight in health care providers about the occurrence of parasitic infections especially strongyloidiasis in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17420/ap6603.275DOI Listing
November 2020

MENA-SINO Consensus Statement on Implementing Care Pathways for Acute Neurovascular Emergencies During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Neurol 2020 25;11:928. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

In the unprecedented current era of the COVID-19 pandemic, challenges have arisen in the management and interventional care of patients with acute stroke and large vessel occlusion, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ruptured vascular malformations. There are several challenges facing endovascular therapy for stroke, including shortages of medical staff who may be deployed for COVID-19 coverage or who may have contracted the infection and are thus quarantined, patients avoiding early medical care, a lack of personal protective equipment, delays in door-to-puncture time, anesthesia challenges, and a lack of high-intensity intensive care unit and stroke ward beds. As a leading regional neurovascular organization, the Middle East North Africa Stroke and Interventional Neurotherapies Organization (MENA-SINO) has established a task force composed of medical staff and physicians from different disciplines to establish guiding recommendations for the implementation of acute care pathways for various neurovascular emergencies during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This consensus recommendation was achieved through a series of meetings to finalize the recommendation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477381PMC
August 2020

Impact of Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Biological Activity of an Alcalase Hydrolysate of Orange Seed () by-Products.

Foods 2020 Sep 2;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Avenue Agustín Escardino 7, Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain.

In this study, orange seed proteins were hydrolyzed by Alcalase enzyme at different enzyme concentrations 1-3% (/) and hydrolysis times (2-5 h), to obtain bioactive peptides showing antioxidant, Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) -inhibitory, and hypoglycemic activities. The highest biological activities ( < 0.05) were achieved by using a hydrolysis time of 5 h and an enzyme concentration of 2%. Orange seed protein hydrolysate (OSPH) was prepared under these conditions, and peptides were isolated and purified by using size-exclusion chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The fractions that showed the highest biological activities were analyzed by mass spectrometry in tandem, and a total of 63 peptide sequences were found. Moreover, the effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion on the bioactivity of the fractions was studied, and the novel peptide sequences generated were also identified. Overall, despite there being some differences in the profile of peptide sequences obtained, the main results showed non-significant differences in the analyzed bioactivities after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9091217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554958PMC
September 2020

Endovascular reconstruction of iatrogenic internal carotid artery injury following endonasal surgery: a systematic review.

Neurosurg Rev 2020 Aug 29. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Mazandaran, Iran.

The objective of this study is to provide an update on endovascular treatments for iatrogenic internal carotid artery (ICA) injuries following endonasal surgery. A systematic review of the literature was performed by using Medline, Cochrane library, and Scopus from 1999 to 2019. We used a combination of the MeSH terms "internal carotid artery," "iatrogenic disease," and "endovascular procedure." Twenty-six articles including 46 patients were identified for in this systematic review. The mean age of the patients was 49 years (CI: ± 4.2). The most common site of ICA injury was in cavernous segment (18 patients; 39%). The most common type of iatrogenic ICA injury was a traumatic pseudoaneurysm documented in 28 patients (60%). Endoluminal reconstruction was performed using covered stents in 28 patients, the Pipeline embolization device (PED) in 13 patients, the Surpass flow diverter device in three, the SILK flow diverter in one, and one case was treated using a combined approach of a covered stent and a PED. Flow diversion and covered stents resulted in a good clinical outcome in 94% and 89% of patients, respectively. This difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 1.0). Even though this systematic review was limited due to articles of small sample sizes and considerable heterogeneity, the results indicate that flow diverting devices and covered stents are good therapeutic options for endoluminal reconstruction of iatrogenic ICA injuries following endonasal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01379-zDOI Listing
August 2020

Risk of stroke in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients: A multinational study.

EBioMedicine 2020 Sep 17;59:102939. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Neurology Department, Neuroscience Institute, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA; Neurology Department, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Tennessee, USA. Electronic address:

Background: There is an increased attention to stroke following SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study was to better depict the short-term risk of stroke and its associated factors among SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients.

Methods: This multicentre, multinational observational study includes hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from North and South America (United States, Canada, and Brazil), Europe (Greece, Italy, Finland, and Turkey), Asia (Lebanon, Iran, and India), and Oceania (New Zealand). The outcome was the risk of subsequent stroke. Centres were included by non-probability sampling. The counts and clinical characteristics including laboratory findings and imaging of the patients with and without a subsequent stroke were recorded according to a predefined protocol. Quality, risk of bias, and heterogeneity assessments were conducted according to ROBINS-E and Cochrane Q-test. The risk of subsequent stroke was estimated through meta-analyses with random effect models. Bivariate logistic regression was used to determine the parameters with predictive outcome value. The study was reported according to the STROBE, MOOSE, and EQUATOR guidelines.

Findings: We received data from 26,175 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from 99 tertiary centres in 65 regions of 11 countries until May 1st, 2020. A total of 17,799 patients were included in meta-analyses. Among them, 156(0.9%) patients had a stroke-123(79%) ischaemic stroke, 27(17%) intracerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 6(4%) cerebral sinus thrombosis. Subsequent stroke risks calculated with meta-analyses, under low to moderate heterogeneity, were 0.5% among all centres in all countries, and 0.7% among countries with higher health expenditures. The need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.9, 95% CI:1.1-3.5, p = 0.03) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.4-4.7, p = 0.006) were predictive of stroke.

Interpretation: The results of this multi-national study on hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection indicated an overall stroke risk of 0.5%(pooled risk: 0.9%). The need for mechanical ventilation and the history of ischaemic heart disease are the independent predictors of stroke among SARS-CoV-2 patients.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429203PMC
September 2020

Pipeline Embolization in Patients with Posterior Circulation Subarachnoid Hemorrhages: Is Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy a Limiting Factor?

World Neurosurg 2020 Nov 7;143:e523-e528. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. Electronic address:

Background: Hemorrhagic vascular lesions in the posterior cerebral circulation such as ruptured aneurysms and dissections can be challenging to treat. Flow diversion has become an important off-label option, but few studies have analyzed the safety of these devices in this setting. Using an international, multicenter cohort, we reviewed posterior circulation subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) in the acute setting and assessed the incidence of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM).

Methods: Eleven neurovascular centers were queried to identify cases of posterior circulation aneurysms or dissections treated with the PED in the acute setting of SAH. Among those, 5 centers had cases that matched the inclusion criteria. The following variables were evaluated: demographics, the location and morphology of the aneurysm, the clinical presentation, the specific form of treatment, complications including the development of TCM, antiplatelet medication regimen, and follow-up time.

Results: A total of 23 patients were treated with PED after posterior circulation SAH, and 13% of these developed TCM. The lesions were the result of hemorrhagic intracranial dissection (8 patients), ruptured pseudoaneurysm (3), ruptured saccular aneurysm (7), blister aneurysm (4), and fusiform aneurysm (1). Ninety-one percent of patients had complete or near-complete aneurysm occlusion on follow-up imaging. Five patients died in the perioperative period; 16/18 survivors had a favorable outcome.

Conclusions: We describe an unexpectedly high incidence of TCM after the placement of PEDs in patients with posterior circulation SAH in our large case series. Further studies will be needed to elucidate possible causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.08.013DOI Listing
November 2020

Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in non-functional pituitary adenoma: association with tumor invasiveness.

Endocrine 2020 09 12;69(3):596-603. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Purpose: Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is the most prevalent pituitary macroadenoma. No prognostic marker has been found to explain the behavior of these tumors. We aimed to explore cell proliferation, apoptosis, proangiogenic markers, and microvascular density (MVD) in noninvasive and invasive NFPAs.

Methods: Adenoma invasiveness was defined according to Knosp and Hardy classifications based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cell proliferation was examined using Ki67 and P53. Tissue expression of Bcl-2 was used to assess the antiapoptosis pathway. CD34 and CD105 were measured to evaluate MVD, while VEGF expression was assessed as an indicator of pro-angiogenesis. Moreover, VEGF, bFGF, endocan, and endostatin were measured on preoperative serum samples.

Results: Tissue and serum markers were examined in 18 patients with invasive and 21 patients with noninvasive NFPAs. Ki67 less than 3% was reported in 10 invasive and 14 noninvasive NFPAs (P = 0.752). P53 staining was negative in all subjects. In addition, Bcl-2 staining was negative in 15 and 20 subjects, respectively (P = 0.718). VEGF-A expression 2+ or 3+ was reported in 9 invasive and 11 noninvasive macroadenomas (P = 0.83). Moreover, CD34 and CD105 positivity were comparable between the two groups. Furthermore, the comparison of serum markers showed no significant differences.

Conclusion: Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis play a limited role in NFPA behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02366-6DOI Listing
September 2020

Experience With the Pipeline Embolization Device for Posterior Circulations Aneurysms: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Departments of Medical Imaging & Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic) has been used off-label for the treatment of challenging posterior circulation aneurysms. Data on this modality are primarily limited to small retrospective single-center series.

Objective: To assess safety and efficacy of this treatment by establishing an international, multicenter collaboration.

Methods: Consecutive posterior circulation aneurysms treated with the PED from 2012 to 2019 across 11 neurovascular centers were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline demographics, aneurysm and treatment characteristics, complications, occlusion status, and functional outcome were assessed.

Results: There were 149 posterior circulation aneurysms treated with PED in 146 patients. A total of 24 (16.4%) patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most aneurysms were dissecting/blister (36.2%) in morphology, followed by saccular (35.6%) and fusiform (28.2%). The most common locations were the vertebral (51.7%) and basilar arteries (22.8%). Complete or near-complete occlusion (>90%) was achieved in 90.9% of aneurysms at a median follow-up of 12 mo. Dissecting/blister aneurysms were most likely to occlude (P = .06). Symptomatic neurologic complications occurred in 9.4% of aneurysms, associated with larger size, ruptured presentation, presentations with brain stem compression, cranial nerve palsy, or stroke. Favorable functional outcome (modified Rankin Score 0-2) was achieved in 86.2% of patients. There were 6 fatalities of which 4 occurred in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

Conclusion: This multicenter study shows that PED for the treatment of posterior circulation is preferentially used for the treatment of fusiform and dissecting/blister aneurysm morphologies. Despite the challenges presented by these less-common morphologies, flow diversion may be performed with a neurologic complication rate of about 10% and favorable long-term aneurysm occlusion rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa277DOI Listing
July 2020

Comparison of PED and FRED flow diverters for posterior circulation aneurysms: a propensity score matched cohort study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 1;13(2):153-158. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Therapeutic Neuroradiology & Neurosurgery, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Flow diversion is a common endovascular treatment for cerebral aneurysms, but studies comparing different types of flow diverters are scarce.

Objective: To perform a propensity score matched cohort study comparing the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) and Flow Redirection Intraluminal Device (FRED) for posterior circulation aneurysms.

Methods: Consecutive aneurysms of the posterior circulation treated at 25 neurovascular centers with either PED or FRED were collected. Propensity score matching was used to control for age, duration of follow-up imaging, adjunctive coiling, and aneurysm location, size, and morphology; previously ruptured aneurysms were excluded. The two devices were compared for the following outcomes: procedural complications, aneurysm occlusion, and functional outcome.

Results: A total of 375 aneurysms of the posterior circulation were treated in 369 patients. The PED was used in 285 (77.2%) and FRED in 84 (22.8%) procedures. Aneurysms treated with the PED were more commonly fusiform and larger than those treated with FRED. To account for these important differences, propensity score matching was performed resulting in 33 PED and FRED unruptured aneurysm pairs. No differences were found in occlusion status and neurologic thromboembolic or hemorrhagic complications between the two devices. The proportion of patients with favorable functional outcome was higher with FRED (100% vs 87.9%, p=0.04).

Conclusion: Comparative analysis of PED and FRED for the treatment of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms did not identify significant differences in aneurysm occlusion or neurologic complications. Variations in functional outcomes warrant additional investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016055DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of different roasting methods on formation of acrylamide in pistachio.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jun 12;8(6):2875-2881. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology Arak University of Medical Science Arak Iran.

Drying and roasting are conventional processes in the nut industry. However, roasting as an important procedure in nuts manufacturing may cause some physicochemical changes in nuts. Acrylamide is one of these chemical compounds that is formed due to the roasting process. Acrylamide is known as a neurotoxicant, carcinogen, and reproductive toxicant. In this study, raw and salted pistachios were roasted under three conditions including hot-air, infrared (IR), and microwave methods. Then, 80 pistachio kernels were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that all samples contained different ranges of acrylamide between 57 ± 0.86 and 851 ± 2.8 μg/kg. Besides, raw pistachios and sun-dried pistachios also contained acrylamide, with the amount of 57 ± 0.86 and 93 ± 1.07 μg/kg, respectively. The highest acrylamide amount was found in raw pistachio (unsalted) roasted by IR method, while lower acrylamide amount observed in the microwave method. The amount of acrylamide in salted and roasted pistachios was less than just roasted pistachios under the same conditions. Finally, in all the treatments, increasing temperature, time, voltage, and power lead to an increase in acrylamide levels. The results showed that acrylamide in the roasted pistachios may cause health problems. This study presents a novel investigation in the effects of roasting conditions (temperature, power, voltage, and time) on acrylamide content in pistachios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300066PMC
June 2020

Estimation of oxidative indices in the raw and roasted hazelnuts by accelerated shelf-life testing.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Jul 29;57(7):2433-2442. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgān, Iran.

To estimate the oxidative stability of the raw and roasted hazelnuts, accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT) was used at elevated temperatures (55, 65 and 75 °C) at water activity (a) of 0.43. Chemical parameters, including peroxide value (PV), para-anisidine value, and total oxidation value were measured to estimate the oxidative stability of the samples using Arrhenius model. In addition, the samples were maintained for 8 months in a real condition at 20-30 °C (long-term shelf-life testing) for validating the results obtained from short-term ASLT. The maximum activation energy (E, 78.76 kJ/mol °K) and Q (1.871) was obtained for PV in raw hazelnuts, while the minimum E (53.36 kJ/mol °K) and Q (1.552) were recorded for PV in roasted hazelnuts, indicating the negative effect of roasting process on the oxidative stability of the samples. In order to validate the estimations, the values predicted by short-term ASLT for each oxidation index were plotted versus their corresponding values in actual storage. The results showed good correlation coefficients (R = 0.91-0.98), confirming the fitness of the Arrhenius model to predict the oxidative indices of the samples during normal storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04278-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271305PMC
July 2020

Preparation and characterization of 3D graphene oxide nanostructures embedded with nanocomplexes of chitosan- gum Arabic biopolymers.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Nov 10;162:163-174. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Faculty of pharmaceuticals, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Although graphene oxide (GO) is a good adsorber, it has a low stability in pure form which can be improved by the development of GO-based composites. In this study, 3D nanostructures with GO, surface-decorated by nanocomplexes of chitosan (CS) and gum Arabic (GA), so called 3D GO-CS/GA nanocomposites were designed. The instrumental analysis confirmed the interaction of complexes with oxygenated functional groups of GO which improved both of d-spacing in 3D sheets by 16%, and GO thickness from 1.0 to 8.1 nm. Also, an unprecedented ~3-fold increase was observed in the surface area of 3D GO-CS/GA compared with single GO. The 3D nanocomposites showed a mesoporous structure with a pore volume of 0.72 cm/g and a prevailing pore size distribution of about 10 nm. The adjustability of nanocomposite surface charge over pH was another important result. The synthesized nanostructures would be of profound interest for numerous areas including adsorption processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.076DOI Listing
November 2020

Functional, nutritional, antioxidant, sensory properties and comparative peptidomic profile of faba bean (Vicia faba, L.) seed protein hydrolysates and fortified apple juice.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 22;330:127120. Epub 2020 May 22.

Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena, Italy. Electronic address:

Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant-derived proteins can improve their quality by offering opportunities for food applications. In this study, three proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, Alcalase®) were used, alone or combined, to produce faba bean protein hydrolysates (PHs). Their functional, nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated, and the peptidomic profile was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Hydrolysis improved solubility of faba proteins at acidic and neutral pH, and their antioxidant properties. Peptidomic analysis identified 2031 peptides in the different PHs. Among them, 9 showed 100% homology with previously known antioxidant peptides and several others had antioxidant motifs in their sequences. Sensory data analysis showed that after addition of PHs to apple juice, no significant differences were perceived between control and some of the PHs. This study demonstrates that enzymatic hydrolysis enhances the functional and antioxidant properties of faba bean proteins. Specifically, hydrolysates can be used as functional food ingredients to produce fortified beverages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127120DOI Listing
November 2020

Continuous monitoring of suspended sediment concentrations using image analytics and deriving inherent correlations by machine learning.

Sci Rep 2020 05 22;10(1):8589. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Civil Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

The barriers for the development of continuous monitoring of Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) in channels/rivers include costs and technological gaps but this paper shows that a solution is feasible by: (i) using readily available high-resolution images; (ii) transforming the images into image analytics to form a modelling dataset; and (iii) constructing predictive models by learning inherent correlation between observed SSC values and their image analytics. High-resolution images were taken of water containing a series of SSC values using an exploratory flume. Machine learning is processed by dividing the dataset into training and testing sets and the paper uses the following models: Generalized Linear Machine (GLM) and Distributed Random Forest (DRF). Results show that each model is capable of reliable predictions but the errors at higher SSC are not fully explained by modelling alone. Here we offer sufficient evidence for the feasibility of a continuous SSC monitoring capability in channels before the next phase of the study with the goal of producing practice guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64707-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244478PMC
May 2020

The effect of gas versus charcoal open flames on the induction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooked meat: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Jun 10;18(1):345-354. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Purpose: Open flames of gas and charcoal can induce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cooked meat. The current study aimed to compare the effect of gas and charcoal open flames on the induction of PAHs in cooked meat using a meta-analysis approach.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted electronically based on the PRISMA guidelines. Experimental studies comparing the PAHs content of cooked meat over open flames of gas and charcoal were searched using the appropriate keywords until June 2018.

Results: Of 1137 papers retrieved, 7 with a total sample size of 474 meat samples were used in the meta-analysis. The mean difference (MD) between the gas and charcoal cooking methods in the induction of each PAH was 2.053 μg/Kg. (95%CI: 1.022-3.085 μg/Kg;  < 0.001). The subgroup analysis of 17 trials indicated the difference between the two cooking methods increases when red meat rather than white meat is cooked (MD in red meat: 3.499 μg/Kg; 95%CI: 2.030-4.967;  < 0.0001 vs. MD in white meat: 3.319 μg/Kg; 95% CI: 1.689-4.950; P < 0.0001). Interestingly, studies that analyzed meat samples for fewer PAHs (cut-off ≤7) found a much wider difference between gas and charcoal-cooked meat (MD: 5.106 μg/Kg; (95% CI: 2.162-8.049;  < 0.001 in studies with ≤7 PAHs vs. MD: 1.447 μg/Kg; 95% CI: 0.628-2.266; P < 0.001 in studies with >7 PAHs).

Conclusions: It is necessary to avoid open flames of charcoal as the heat source or change the geometry of charcoal-fired cookstoves to prevent fat dripping on the fire and thus, excessive PAHs induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00457-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203328PMC
June 2020

The effect of adenosine in inducing cardiac arrest for endovascular treatment of paediatric high-flow brain and spinal vascular malformation.

Neuroradiol J 2020 Aug 21;33(4):328-333. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Introduction: Endovascular treatment of high-flow vascular lesions with onyx may be very dangerous due to premature occlusion of the vein resulting from high flow-induced migration of this embolic substance without occlusion of the feeding vessels and the nidus. It is also dangerous because of the risk of occlusion of the normal vessels around the lesion. Inducing temporary cardiac arrest using adenosine may be helpful in limiting and minimizing these risks. However anaesthetic management of this procedure in children suffering from high-flow vascular lesions is difficult and challenging.

Methods: We report three paediatric patients with high-flow cerebrospinal vascular lesions that underwent endovascular treatment under general anaesthesia and temporary cardiac arrest with adenosine. Adenosine was administered in escalating doses to induce a few seconds of cardiac standstill and the onyx injection was synchronized with the onset of adenosine-induced cardiac standstill, the fistula being occluded by onyx.

Results: There were no complications in peri-procedural treatment in all three cases. Post-embolization angiography revealed complete obliteration of the lesion, and the patients' neurological status progressively improved at follow-up.

Conclusion: Adenosine-induced temporary cardiac standstill was successfully used to facilitate safe and controlled endovascular onyx embolization of high-flow central nervous system vascular lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1971400920920827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416345PMC
August 2020

Successful endoluminal reconstruction of a pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery following a transorbital stab injury.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 07 11;194:105838. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Deptment of Neurosurgery, Tehran Medical Sciences Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Traumatic penetrating injuries to the internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting in the formation of a traumatic pseudoaneurysm are potentially devastating injuries. Previously treatment included, open surgical occlusion of the affected vessel or endovascular embolization. However, with the advent of flow diverter stents, endoluminal reconstruction has become a viable treatment option. In this case report we describe the successful managment of an ICA pseudoaneurysm due to a transorbital stab injury. Endoluminal reconstruction in a traumatic aneurysm is a feasible option. Considering the risk of hemorrhagic complications due to dual antiplatelet therapy required after flow diverter placement, this treatment should only be chosen if insufficient collateral supply is found and occlusion of the affected vessel is not a viable option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105838DOI Listing
July 2020

Dual antiplatelet therapy in a patient with simultaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and myocardial infarction.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 21;11:49. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Electrocardiography (ECG) changes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well described. However, concurrent myocardial infarction (MI) and SAH are rarely reported, and its management remains a dilemma. We report a patient with traumatic SAH concurrent with acute MI that managed successfully by endovascular intervention and dual antiplatelet therapy.

Case Description: A 47-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a complaint of severe headache. Diffuse SAH, with a Hunt and Hess score of 5, was noticed. ECG showed ST elevation in anterior leads, and cardiac troponin became positive. On brain computed tomography angiogram, a 6 mm anterior communicating artery aneurysm was seen. Considering the possibility of MI and SAH simultaneously, endovascular obliteration of the aneurysm was done, and then, the patient received dual antiplatelet medications until coronary angiography was done. Coronary angiography revealed normal epicardial coronary arteries. The patient was discharged with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and was visited 2 months after discharge without any new episodes of intracranial hemorrhage with a modified Rankin scale score of 2.

Conclusion: Cerebral aneurysm coiling could be considered as the first choice of treatment in the case of acute MI with hemodynamic stability, before carrying out cardiac endovascular intervention or antiplatelet medication to reduce the risk of rebleeding from a brain aneurysm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_472_2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110275PMC
March 2020

Usefulness of prolactin measurement in inferior petrosal sinus sampling with desmopressin for Cushing's syndrome.

Br J Neurosurg 2020 Jun 2;34(3):253-257. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is used to distinguish pituitary from ectopic adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) excess in patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Our objective was to examine the utility of prolactin measurement during IPSS with desmopressin (DDAVP) stimulation in localization of the source of ACTH excess. Retrospective review of 20 patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome who underwent IPSS with DDAVP stimulation. Baseline, DDAVP-stimulated, and prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS:P (inferior petrosal sinus to peripheral) ratios were calculated. Cut-off values for each test were obtained from receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Fifteen patients had Cushing disease (CD), and five were diagnosed with ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). For the baseline ACTH IPS:P ratio of ≥2, the diagnostic sensitivity (80%), specificity (100%), positive predictive value (PPV) (100%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (62.5%) were calculated. These values for DDAVP-stimulated IPS:P ACTH ratio ≥ 3, were 86.7%, 100%, 100% and 71.4%, respectively. The corresponding value for the prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS:P ratio ≥ 0.8 were 86.6%, 80%, 92.8% and 66.7%. The cut-off value for the baseline, DDAVP-stimulated and prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS:P ratios were 1.76, 3.9, and 0.33, respectively. Prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS:P ratio measurement showed comparable sensitivity and less specificity than baseline/DDAVP-stimulated IPS/P ACTH ratios. Moreover, when baseline and stimulated IPS/P ACTH tests were discordant, prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS: P ratio correctly localized the source of ACTH excess. The sensitivity of the test increased, applying a prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS: P ratio ≥0.33.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2020.1736263DOI Listing
June 2020

COVID-19 Outbreak and Surgical Practice: Unexpected Fatality in Perioperative Period.

Ann Surg 2020 07;272(1):e27-e29

Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

: Little is known about surgical practice in the initial phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global crisis. This is a retrospective case series of 4 surgical patients (cholecystectomy, hernia repair, gastric bypass, and hysterectomy) who developed perioperative complications in the first few weeks of COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Iran in the month of February 2020. COVID-19 can complicate the perioperative course with diagnostic challenge and a high potential fatality rate. In locations with widespread infections and limited resources, the risk of elective surgical procedures for index patient and community may outweigh the benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188030PMC
July 2020

Cyclooxygenase enzyme and PGE2 expression in patients with functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas.

BMC Endocr Disord 2020 Mar 14;20(1):39. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 1449614535, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Pituitary adenomas as multifactorial intracranial neoplasms impose a massive burden of morbidity on patients and characterizing the molecular mechanism underlying their pathogenesis has received considerable attention. Despite the appealing role of cyclooxygenase enzymes and their bioactive lipid products in cancer pathogenesis, their relevance to pituitary adenoma pathogenesis is debated and yet to be determined. Thus, the current study perused this relevance.

Methods: The expression level of the isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) was evaluated in hormone-secreting and in-active pituitary adenoma tumors and normal pituitary tissues through Real-Time PCR. The level of PGE2, as the main product of enzymes, was assessed using enzyme immunoassay kits in patients and healthy subjects.

Results: The results of the current study demonstrated that COX-1 and COX-2 expression levels were increased in pituitary tumors including non-functional pituitary adenoma (NFPA), acromegaly, Cushing's disease and prolactinoma compared with normal pituitary tissues. A significant expression level of COX-2 was observed in NFPA compared with the other pituitary tumors. Furthermore, the COX-2 expression level was significantly increased in macroadenoma and invasive tumors. The level of PGE2 was consistent with COX enzymes enhanced in pituitary adenoma tumors compared with healthy pituitary tissue. A significant elevation in the PGE2 level was detected in NFPA compared with hormone-secreting pituitary tumors. Additionally, the PGE2 level was increased in macroadenoma compared with microadenoma and in invasive compared with non-invasive pituitary tumors. The diagnostic values of cyclooxygenase isoforms and PGE2 were considerable between patients and healthy groups; however, COX-2 revealed more value in distinguishing endocrinologically active and non-active pituitary tumors.

Conclusions: Data from the current study provides expression patterns of COX-1, COX-2 and PGE2 in prevalent pituitary tumors and their association with patients' clinical features which may open up new molecular targets for early diagnosis/follow up of pituitary tumor growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-020-0515-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071656PMC
March 2020

Production and characterization of catechin-loaded electrospun nanofibers from Azivash gum- polyvinyl alcohol.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 May 11;235:115979. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

In this study, Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize the electrospinning process parameters including voltage, distance, and flow rate in order to obtain catechin-loaded electrospun nanofibers from Azivash (Corchorus olitorius. L) gum-polyvinyl alcohol with the minimum diameter of nanofibers. The optimum electrospinning conditions were applied for catechin encapsulation at different loading concentrations (500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg L). According to the results, increase in catechin concentration led to increment in polymer solution viscosity. However, electrical conductivity decreased and mean diameter of nanofibers increased from 89 nm to 371 nm. There was a robust interaction between the catechin and polymer matrix; also addition of catechin improved thermal stability of nanofibers. In general, at higher catechin levels, despite increasing loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Optimum nanofibers loaded with 500 and 1000 mg L catechin can be considered to apply in active food packaging and pharmaceutical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.115979DOI Listing
May 2020

Antibiotic resistance and clonal relatedness of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from stomach biopsy specimens in northeast of Iran.

Helicobacter 2020 Apr 19;25(2):e12684. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

Background: Resistant Helicobacter pylori to commonly used antimicrobial agents are associated with severe upper gastrointestinal disorders. To provide an epidemiological picture of H pylori and characterize the resistance pattern and genetic variation of clinical isolates, stomach biopsies from patients with functional dyspepsia were evaluated in northeast of Iran.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 80 patients were recruited. Finally, fifty H pylori strains were isolated from antrum and corpus biopsies by culturing on Columbia agar. All strains were identified by standard laboratory procedures. Susceptibility testing of antibiotics was performed using minimum inhibitory concentration test. Allele-specific primer (ASP)-PCR of 23S rRNA which associated with clarithromycin resistance was done among resistant strains. Moreover, cagA gene and polymorphism in vacA were detected. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was applied to investigate the genetic variations among all strains.

Results: Antibiotic resistance pattern of H pylori strains was as follows: 68% (34/50) to metronidazole, 50% (25/50) to rifampicin, 30% (15/50) to amoxicillin, 28% (14/50) to levofloxacin, 22% (11/50) to clarithromycin, and 16% (8/50) to tetracycline. Multidrug-resistant strains were observed in 19 strains (38%). ASP-PCR of 23S rRNA showed four strains had A2143G mutation, six strains had A2142G mutation, and one strain had a Wt+A2143G mutation. Amplification of virulence-associated genes revealed that cagA was present in 27 isolates (54%) and vacA in 36 isolates (72%). The most common genotype of H pylori was vacA s1am2 (40%) followed by vacA s2m2 (14%), vacA s1am1 (12%), vacA s1bm1 (4%), and vacA s1bm2 (2%). DNA fingerprinting pattern indicated a high heterogeneity among isolated strains.

Conclusion: An alarming level of resistance to metronidazole and rifampicin and high heterogeneity among H pylori isolates highlighted the importance of continued monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility and epidemiological surveillance of this pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12684DOI Listing
April 2020

Antibiotic resistance and clonal relatedness of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from stomach biopsy specimens in northeast of Iran.

Helicobacter 2020 Apr 19;25(2):e12684. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

Background: Resistant Helicobacter pylori to commonly used antimicrobial agents are associated with severe upper gastrointestinal disorders. To provide an epidemiological picture of H pylori and characterize the resistance pattern and genetic variation of clinical isolates, stomach biopsies from patients with functional dyspepsia were evaluated in northeast of Iran.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 80 patients were recruited. Finally, fifty H pylori strains were isolated from antrum and corpus biopsies by culturing on Columbia agar. All strains were identified by standard laboratory procedures. Susceptibility testing of antibiotics was performed using minimum inhibitory concentration test. Allele-specific primer (ASP)-PCR of 23S rRNA which associated with clarithromycin resistance was done among resistant strains. Moreover, cagA gene and polymorphism in vacA were detected. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was applied to investigate the genetic variations among all strains.

Results: Antibiotic resistance pattern of H pylori strains was as follows: 68% (34/50) to metronidazole, 50% (25/50) to rifampicin, 30% (15/50) to amoxicillin, 28% (14/50) to levofloxacin, 22% (11/50) to clarithromycin, and 16% (8/50) to tetracycline. Multidrug-resistant strains were observed in 19 strains (38%). ASP-PCR of 23S rRNA showed four strains had A2143G mutation, six strains had A2142G mutation, and one strain had a Wt+A2143G mutation. Amplification of virulence-associated genes revealed that cagA was present in 27 isolates (54%) and vacA in 36 isolates (72%). The most common genotype of H pylori was vacA s1am2 (40%) followed by vacA s2m2 (14%), vacA s1am1 (12%), vacA s1bm1 (4%), and vacA s1bm2 (2%). DNA fingerprinting pattern indicated a high heterogeneity among isolated strains.

Conclusion: An alarming level of resistance to metronidazole and rifampicin and high heterogeneity among H pylori isolates highlighted the importance of continued monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility and epidemiological surveillance of this pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12684DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of progestin contraceptive methods on sexual function in reproductive age women: a meta-analysis.

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2020 Feb 12:1-12. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Midwifery, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of progestin contraceptive methods on sexual function in reproductive-age women. The published literature was identified via a systematic search in medical databases of PubMed, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Sciences, Embase, Cochrane library and Google Scholar up to December 2019 using relevant search terms. All randomized controlled trials or before-after studies which assessed the effects of progestin contraceptive method on sexual function in human were included in the analysis. Data extraction was done separately by two independent reviewers. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the overall mean effect sizes. Heterogeneity was assessed using Q test and I index. Publication bias was performed by visual inspection of funnel plots and Egger bias test. A total of 5244 articles were found in primary search, of which 19 studies (  =  710 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The results of the random effects meta-analysis suggested no effect of implant on sexual function three months after insertion (WMD: 1.85; 95% CI: -0.34 to 4.04;  = .098). In contrast, this method has a positive effect on sexual function six months after insertion (WMD: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.78 to 4.19;  = .001). Furthermore, the results of random effects models indicated that there was no significant effect of LNG-IUS on female sexual function until 12 months after insertion (WMD: 3.20; 95% CI: -1.56 to 7.98;  = .188). Any evidence of publication bias was found. The findings showed a positive or neutral effect of implant and LNG-IUS on female sexual function. Given the importance of examining sexuality in contraceptive users, this study provides new evidence, which can be offered to women during contraceptive counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2020.1725464DOI Listing
February 2020

Traumatic iatrogenic dissecting anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: conservative management as a therapeutic option.

Br J Neurosurg 2020 Jan 26:1-3. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Traumatic iatrogenic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare, but are important due to their risk of intracranial hemorrhage and complexity of management. Two adult patients, one with history of chronic sinusitis and nasal cavity polyposis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), and second during rhinoplasty, suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to anterior cerebral artery (ACA) injury during the procedures. Two women patients aged 17 and 38 years with SAH after nasal surgery were referred to our institute. Three small dissecting aneurysms were seen involving A2 segment of ACA of two patients. Both were managed conservatively. Follow-up angiography (after 2 months) demonstrated complete occlusion of the aneurysms. There was no rebleeding and the patients had a good outcome at the last follow-up. Conservative management of traumatic iatrogenic dissecting cerebral aneurysms is a reasonable therapeutic option that can lead to favorable angiographic and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2020.1713988DOI Listing
January 2020

The formulation optimization and properties of novel oleuropein-loaded nanocarriers.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Jan 29;57(1):327-337. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

3Faculty of Parasitology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Khorramabad, Iran.

The present study sought to encapsulate oleuropein as a nutraceutical compound in order to investigate its physical properties and stability. We extracted the phenolic compounds of virgin olive leaf by ethanol-water and acetone-water solvents. The purity of this extract was confirmed by analytical high-performance liquid chromatography using oleuropein standard. Oleuropein was encapsulated with different components (lecithin, linoleic acid, glycerol monostearate, soybean oil, and Tween 80), and the effect of their contents on oleuropein-nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) characteristics was checked by dynamic light scattering test. Moreover, several features of the optimal nanocarrier, including zeta potential, structural, morphology, stability, as well as thermal behavior were studied. The results of optimal NLC exhibited a high zeta potential as well as supreme stability versus aggregation. Thermal study indicated that oleuropein was well embedded into NLCs. The scanning electron microscope images showed that NLC samples had many spherical particles in the form of chain structure. The stable nanocarriers did not exhibit any oleuropein leakage following their analyses for 90 days at - 18, 6, and 25 °C in aqueous suspension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04065-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952516PMC
January 2020