Publications by authors named "Mohammad Gholami"

79 Publications

Investigation of Collapsed-cone Algorithm Accuracy in Small Fields and Heterogeneous Environments.

J Biomed Phys Eng 2021 Apr 1;11(2):143-150. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

MSc, Medical Physics Department, Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The use of small fields has increased by the emergence of advanced radiotherapy. Dose calculations of these fields are complex and challenging for many reasons such as lack of electrical equilibrium even in homogeneous environments, and this complexity will increase in presence of heterogeneity. According to the importance of delivery the accurate prescription dose to the target volume in the patient's body, the dose calculation accuracy of used commercial algorithms in clinical treatment planning systems (TPS) should be evaluated.

Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the accuracy of Collapsed-cone dose measurement algorithm in Isogray treatment planning system.

Material And Methods: In this analytical study, the measurements were made in tissue equivalent solid water phantom with lung and bone heterogeneities by Pinpoint dosimeter (0.015 cm sensitive volume) in several radiation fields (1×1 to 5×5 cm). The phantoms were irradiated with 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beams and finally, the results of experimental calculations were compared with treatment planning outputs.

Results: In all setups, the maximum deviation occurred in the field of 1×1 cm. Then, the maximum deviation was observed for 2×2 cm field size; however, it was up to 5% for homogeneous water phantom and lung heterogeneity. In 3×3 cm and larger fields, there was a good agreement between the results of the TPS and experimental dosimetry. The maximum deviation was observed in water-bone heterogeneity.

Conclusion: This algorithm was able to pass the standard audit criteria, but it is better to be used more cautiously in bone heterogeneity, especially in low energies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.1121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064127PMC
April 2021

Frequency of Cytomegalovirus Viral Load in Iranian Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Patients with CD4+ Counts <100 Cells/mm3.

Intervirology 2021 Mar 31:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Iranian Research Center For HIV/AIDS, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of present work was to assess cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in Iranian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients with a CD4+ count <100 cells/mm3 and to explore whether CMV DNA loads correlate with CD4+ cell counts or associated retinitis.

Methods: This study was conducted at the AIDS research center in Iran on HIV-1-infected patients with CD4+ count <100 cells/mm3, antiretroviral therapy-naive, aged ≥18 years with no previous history of CMV end-organ disease (CMV-EOD).

Results: Thirty-nine of 82 patients (47.56%) had detectable CMV viral load ranging from 66 to 485,500 IU/mL. CMV viral load in patients with retinitis ranges from 352 to 2,720 IU/mL, and it was undetectable in 2 patients. No significant associations between CMV viremia and CD4+ cell count was found (p value = 0.31), whereas significant association of CMV viremia in HIV-infected patients with retinitis was found (p < 0.02).

Conclusions: We estimated the frequency of CMV viral load infection in Iranian HIV-1-infected patients with a CD4+ cell count <100 mm3/mL in the largest national referral center for HIV-1 infection in Iran. Further research is required on the relevance of CMV viral load in diagnostic and prognostic value of CMV-EOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514385DOI Listing
March 2021

Employing siRNA tool and its delivery platforms in suppressing cisplatin resistance: Approaching to a new era of cancer chemotherapy.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 28;277:119430. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Although chemotherapy is a first option in treatment of cancer patients, drug resistance has led to its failure, requiring strategies to overcome it. Cancer cells are capable of switching among molecular pathways to ensure their proliferation and metastasis, leading to their resistance to chemotherapy. The molecular pathways and mechanisms that are responsible for cancer progression and growth, can be negatively affected for providing chemosensitivity. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool extensively applied in cancer therapy in both pre-clinical (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical studies because of its potential in suppressing tumor-promoting factors. As such oncogene pathways account for cisplatin (CP) resistance, their targeting by siRNA plays an important role in reversing chemoresistance. In the present review, application of siRNA for suppressing CP resistance is discussed. The first priority of using siRNA is sensitizing cancer cells to CP-mediated apoptosis via down-regulating survivin, ATG7, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and XIAP. The cancer stem cell properties and related molecular pathways including ID1, Oct-4 and nanog are inhibited by siRNA in CP sensitivity. Cell cycle arrest and enhanced accumulation of CP in cancer cells can be obtained using siRNA. In overcoming siRNA challenges such as off-targeting feature and degradation, carriers including nanoparticles and biological carriers have been applied. These carriers are important in enhancing cellular accumulation of siRNA, elevating gene silencing efficacy and reversing CP resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119430DOI Listing
March 2021

Nrf2 signaling pathway in cisplatin chemotherapy: Potential involvement in organ protection and chemoresistance.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 24;167:105575. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Medical Technology Research Center, Institute of Health Technology, Kermanashah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6715847141, Iran; Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a vital transcription factor and its induction is of significant importance for protecting against oxidative damage. Increased levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) stimulate Nrf2 signaling, enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. These enzymes are associated with retarding oxidative stress. On the other hand, Nrf2 activation in cancer cells is responsible for the development of chemoresistance due to disrupting oxidative mediated-cell death by reducing ROS levels. Cisplatin (CP), cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), is a potent anti-tumor agent extensively used in cancer therapy, but its frequent application leads to the development of chemoresistance as well. In the present study, association of Nrf2 signaling with chemoresistance to CP and protection against its deleterious effects is discussed. Anti-tumor compounds, mainly phytochemicals, retard chemoresistance by suppressing Nrf2 signaling. Upstream mediators such as microRNAs can regulate Nrf2 expression during CP chemotherapy regimens. Protection against side effects of CP is mediated via activating Nrf2 signaling and its downstream targets activating antioxidant defense system. Protective agents that activate Nrf2 signaling, can ameliorate CP-mediated ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Reducing ROS levels and preventing cell death are the most important factors involved in alleviating CP toxicity upon Nrf2 activation. As pre-clinical experiments advocate the role of Nrf2 in chemoprotection and CP resistance, translating these findings to the clinic can provide a significant progress in treatment of cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105575DOI Listing
May 2021

Small in Size, but Large in Action: microRNAs as Potential Modulators of PTEN in Breast and Lung Cancers.

Biomolecules 2021 02 18;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

NUS Centre for Cancer Research (N2CR), Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known regulators of biological mechanisms with a small size of 19-24 nucleotides and a single-stranded structure. miRNA dysregulation occurs in cancer progression. miRNAs can function as tumor-suppressing or tumor-promoting factors in cancer via regulating molecular pathways. Breast and lung cancers are two malignant thoracic tumors in which the abnormal expression of miRNAs plays a significant role in their development. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor-suppressor factor that is capable of suppressing the growth, viability, and metastasis of cancer cells via downregulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. PTEN downregulation occurs in lung and breast cancers to promote PI3K/Akt expression, leading to uncontrolled proliferation, metastasis, and their resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. miRNAs as upstream mediators of PTEN can dually induce/inhibit PTEN signaling in affecting the malignant behavior of lung and breast cancer cells. Furthermore, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs can regulate the miRNA/PTEN axis in lung and breast cancer cells. It seems that anti-tumor compounds such as baicalein, propofol, and curcumin can induce PTEN upregulation by affecting miRNAs in suppressing breast and lung cancer progression. These topics are discussed in the current review with a focus on molecular pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922700PMC
February 2021

An innovative, highly stable Ag/ZIF-67@GO nanocomposite with exceptional peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation efficacy, for the destruction of chemical and microbiological contaminants under visible light.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 4;413:125308. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Basic Sciences (SB), Institute of Chemical Science and Engineering (ISIC), Group of Advanced Oxidation Processes (GPAO), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded on ZIF-67 covered by graphene oxide (Ag/ZIF-67@GO), and its catalytic performance was studied for the heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under visible-light. The catalyst surface morphology and structure were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, DRS, FE-SEM, EDX, TEM, BET, ICP-AES and TGA analysis. The efficacy of PMS activation by the Ag/ZIF-67@GO under visible light was assessed by phenol degradation and E. coli inactivation. Phenol was completely degraded within 30 min by HO, SO and O generated through the photocatalytic PMS activation. In addition, total E. coli inactivation was attained in 15 min that confirmed the highly efficient catalytic activation of PMS by the as-made nanocomposite under visible light. The reaction mechanism was elucidated and the importance of the generated reactive species followed the order of: HO > SO > O > h, implying a radical-pathway dominated process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125308DOI Listing
July 2021

A Randomized, Controlled, Parallel-Group, Trial on the Effects of Melatonin on Fatigue Associated with Breast Cancer and Its Adjuvant Treatments.

Integr Cancer Ther 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1534735420988343

Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objective: Fatigue associated with malignant conditions and their treatments is a disabling condition. This trial assessed the anti-fatigue effects of melatonin coadministration during adjuvant treatment of patients with the breast cancer.

Material And Methods: Patients with breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive melatonin or placebo during adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thirty-seven patients were randomly enrolled in each group. The mean ages of patients in the intervention and control groups were 50.47 ± 10.79 and 46.05 ± 10.55 years, respectively ( = .223). The intervention group received oral melatonin (18 mg/day) from 1 week before until 1 month after the adjuvant radiotherapy. The level of fatigue was assessed before and after intervention using Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) in both groups. To analyze data, the Student's -test and the Chi-square test were used at a significance level of  ≤ .05.

Results: The BFI score was similar before the intervention in both groups, however, after the intervention, it was significantly lower in the melatonin group ( < .001). Moreover, the frequency of severe fatigue in the melatonin group was significantly lower than in the placebo group after intervention (42.1% vs 83.3%,  < .001).

Conclusion: Coadministration of melatonin during adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy of women with breast cancer decreased the levels of fatigue associated with the malignant condition and its treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735420988343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868453PMC
February 2021

Evaluation of biomarkers in liver following green calyx administration in diabetic rats.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 15;19(2):1115-1127. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: green calyx (SMGC) has antioxidant properties. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases oxidative stress and causes cellular damages in liver. This study attempts to show the protective effects of SMGC against morphometric, inflammatory, oxidative, and apoptotic changes in liver following DM induction.

Methods: For DM induction, the streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. After the preparation of the SMGC extract, phytochemical content was analyzed. Sixty-four rats were categorized into 8 groups ( = 8); control, , SMGC, and diabetic + SMGC. SMGC administration was applied orally with doses of 100, 300, 500 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The assays of nitrite oxide, lipid peroxidation (LP), and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) were conducted for sample analysis. , and genes expression, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and morphological features were measured. Apoptotic cell index, body weight, and levels of glucose and insulin were also analyzed. A one-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis.

Result: According to the phytochemical analysis, the SMGC is rich in Tannins and Saponins. Antioxidant values, p53 and Bax genes expression, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, body weight, serum glucose, and morphometrical features were increased significantly (except insulin and FRAP levels and Bcl2 gene expression which were decreased) in diabetic group compared to the control group ( < 0.05). Also, evaluated parameters were reduced significantly (except insulin and FRAP levels and Bcl2 gene expression which were increased) in SMGC and diabetic + SMGC groups in comparison with the diabetic group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: These findings revealed that the SMGC attenuates blood glucose levels in diabetic animals and also eliminates destructive effects of DM on liver through antioxidant features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00613-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843661PMC
December 2020

Dual relationship between long non-coding RNAs and STAT3 signaling in different cancers: New insight to proliferation and metastasis.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 6;270:119006. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Uncontrolled growth and metastasis of cancer cells is an increasing challenge for overcoming cancer, and improving survival of patients. Complicated signaling networks account for proliferation and invasion of cancer cells that need to be elucidated for providing effective cancer therapy, and minimizing their malignancy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA molecules with a length of more than 200 nucleotides. They participate in cellular events, and their dysregulation in a common phenomenon in different cancers. Noteworthy, lncRNAs can regulate different molecular pathways, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of them. STAT3 is a tumor-promoting factors in cancers due to its role in cancer proliferation (cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition) and metastasis (EMT induction). LncRNAs can function as upstream mediators of STAT3 pathway, reducing/enhancing its expression. This dual relationship is of importance in affecting proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. The response of cancer cells to therapy such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy is regulated by lncRNA/STAT3 axis. Tumor-promoting lncRNAs including NEAT1, SNHG3 and H19 induces STAT3 expression, while tumor-suppressing lncRNAs such as MEG3, PTCSC3 and NKILA down-regulate STAT3 expression. Noteworthy, upstream mediators of STAT3 such as microRNAs can be regulated by lncRNAs. These complicated signaling networks are mechanistically described in the current review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.119006DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of Valerian Extract on Sleep Quality after Coronary Artery bypass Graft Surgery: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Jan 8;27(1):7-15. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, 6814993165, Iran.

Objective: To assess the effect of valerian root extract on the sleep quality of patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Methods: The patients who participated in this triple-blind clinical trial were selected by permuted block randomization. The participants were assigned to the valerian (n=36) and placebo (n=36) groups. The valerian group received 530 mg of valerian capsules for 30 nights after CABG surgery, and the placebo group received 530 mg of the placebo capsules containing wheat flour. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were assessed on four occasions, including the baseline, the 3rd, 14th and 30th days following intervention.

Results: The odds ratio of worsened sleep quality significantly varied over time (the interaction of time and group) in the valerian group compared to the placebo group in various dimensions including total sleep quality (P=0.001), sleep latency (P<0.01), sleep duration (P=0.020), sleep efficiency (P=0.001) and daytime dysfunction (P=0.025). No significant difference was observed in the alterations of the odds ratio of PT in the two groups over time. (P=0.371).

Conclusion: The consumption of oral valerian root extract over 30 nights could significantly improve the patients' sleep quality safely after CABG surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-020-2727-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Pre-clinical investigation of STAT3 pathway in bladder cancer: Paving the way for clinical translation.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 4;133:111077. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, 23200, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Effective cancer therapy requires identification of signaling networks and investigating their potential role in proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. Among molecular pathways, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been of importance due to its involvement in promoting proliferation, and invasion of cancer cells, and mediating chemoresistance. In the present review, our aim is to reveal role of STAT3 pathway in bladder cancer (BC), as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In respect to its tumor-promoting role, STAT3 is able to enhance the growth of BC cells via inhibiting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. STAT3 also contributes to metastasis of BC cells via upregulating of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as genes in the EMT pathway. BC cells obtain chemoresistance via STAT3 overexpression and its inhibition paves the way for increasing efficacy of chemotherapy. Different molecular pathways such as KMT1A, EZH2, DAB2IP and non-coding RNAs including microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs can function as upstream mediators of STAT3 that are discussed in this review article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111077DOI Listing
January 2021

Expression of mir-221, mir-29a, mir-155 and mir-146ain peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in HIV-1 infected patients.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Hepatitis and AIDS Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran. Iran.

Background And Aim: In patients infected by HIV-1, some cellular biomarkers such as microRNAs have an important function in the suppression or progression of the disease. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the expression of mir-221, mir-29a, mir-155, and mir-146a in HIV-1 infected patients.

Methods: The miRNAs of 60 HIV-1 infected patients (sample group) and 20 healthy controls (normal group) were extracted from their peripheral mononuclear cells. We used TaqMan-based Real-time PCR for evaluation of expression mir-155,mir221, mir-29a and mir-146a by the comparative method. To evaluate differences among the data, one-way ANOVA was used. The expression of mir-155 andmir-146a in HIV-1 patients (sample group) was down-regulated in comparison with healthy controls (normal group) with a confidence value, (p <0.001). Also, in the sample group the expression of mir221 was downregulatedin compared to the normal group (p <0.001).

Results: There was no significant difference in expression mi-29a in sample and control group. Inthe sample group, mir-221 hadlow expression and mir-29a had a high expression, respectively. According to the results of the current study and comparable studies, it seems that the microRNA has an important role in the progression or suppression of HIV-1 infection.

Conclusion: However, the data showed, besides others cellular and viral factor, we could use these miRNAs as a biomarker. However, the experts in themiRNAs field are in general agreement that more investigation is needed to use miRNAs as a biomarker in HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666201207123701DOI Listing
December 2020

The effect of different concentrations of cerium oxide during pregnancy on ovarian follicle development in neonatal mice.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Mar 30;113(4):349-358. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Medical Technology Research Center, Institute of Health Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: Cerium is a member of the rare metals group and widely used in drug delivery, gene therapy, molecular imaging and medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of different doses of Cerium (IV) oxide (CeO ) during pregnancy on neonatal mice ovaries, as well as its effect on blood biochemical parameters.

Methods: Thirty pregnant NMRI mice were divided into five groups: Control and 4 groups treated with CeO (10, 25, 80, 250 mg/kg.bw i.p) at the GD7 and GD14. The ovarian histological of neonatal (2 and 6 day-olds), as well as blood serum of neonates at 15-dpp were analyzed.

Results: Count of ovarian primordial follicles in neonates at 2 dpp showed a significant decrease in the groups treated with 80 and 250 mg/kg.bw doses of CeO . There was also a significant decrease in ovarian primordial and primary follicles in neonates at 6-dpp at 250 mg/kg.bw doses of CeO in the control (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity between the experimental and control groups.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the effects of CeO on the ovarian tissue of neonatal mice during pregnancy may be dose-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1844DOI Listing
March 2021

NLRP3 and IL-1β Gene Expression Is Elevated in Monocytes From HIV-Treated Patients With Neurocognitive Disorders.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Apr;86(4):496-499

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children and Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Background: Systemic immune activation and inflammation in chronic HIV infection are driving factors of non-AIDS-related events, including neurocognitive impairment. The role of inflammasome in monocytes from patients with HIV infection has been extensively studied, but its association with the extent of neurocognitive dysfunction has been poorly investigated.

Methods: We enrolled 79 HIV-positive patients; 44 with varying levels of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and 35 without and 8 healthy donors. HAND subtypes included asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; n = 19), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND; n = 17), and HIV-associated dementia (n = 8). We quantified plasmatic concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) for all HIV patients, and the mRNA expression of genes involved in the inflammasome activity (NLRP3, PYCARD, NAIP, AIM2, IL-1β, and IL-18) in monocytes of a subgroup of 28 HIV patients and 8 healthy donors.

Results: HIV patients' plasma concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-17A were undetectable. Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were similar among the HIV patient groups. A trend toward an increased expression of inflammasome genes according to neurocognitive disorder severity was observed. Of note, the NLRP3 mRNA relative expression was higher in MND compared with other groups, and IL-1β was lower in MND than HIV-associated dementia patients.

Conclusions: Changes in inflammasome components in circulating monocytes according to different HAND severity suggest that NLRP3 may be a possible biomarker or target to better understand and treat the link between systemic inflammation and neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002588DOI Listing
April 2021

Genotyping of blood groups in alloimmunized patients with β-thalassemia major by T-ARMS-PCR and multiplex-aso-pcr.

Transfus Apher Sci 2021 Feb 10;60(1):102984. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, School of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Beta-thalassemia major is a severe hemolytic anemia requiring life-long blood transfusion. Planned random donor blood transfusion is associated with alloimmunization against incompatible antigens. Determination of the minor blood group systems phenotype or genotype, and administration of the compatible blood components can significantly reduce the rate of alloimmunization. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of alloimmunization, and genotype/phenotype characteristics of the minor blood groups systems in patients with β-thalassemia major.

Material And Methods: This study was conducted on 1147 β-thalassemia major patients. Initially, antibody screening and antibody identification were performed. Then, phenotyping and genotyping for the Rh, Kell, Kidd, and Duffy blood groups were done in alloimmunized patients using monoclonal antibodies and Multiplex-Allele Specific Oligonucleotide-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Multiplex-ASO-PCR) and Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (T-ARMS-PCR), respectively. Any phenotype/genotype discrepancy was assessed by direct sequencing.

Results: Ninety-seven (8.5 %) out of 1147 patients had alloantibodies against the minor blood group antigens (44 males, 45.4 %, and 53 female, 54.6 %). The most common alloantibodies were against the RH (n: 47, 48.5 %), and the Kell (n: 23, 23.7 %) blood groups systems. Twenty-three (2.1 %) genotype/phenotype discrepancies out of 1067 tests, including 9 in the Rh (9.3 %), 8 in Duffy (34.8 %), and 6 in Kidd (26.1 %) blood groups were detected. No discrepancy was found in the Kell blood group system. Direct sequencing revealed that the results of molecular methods were correct.

Conclusion: Multiplex-ASO-PCR and T-ARMS-PCR molecular methods are fast, reliable and cost-benefit molecular methods for the minor blood group genotyping in multi-transfused β-thalassemia major patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.102984DOI Listing
February 2021

A comparison of the effects of fetal bovine serum and newborn calf serum on cell growth and maintenance of cryopreserved mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Dec 19;47(12):9609-9614. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Medical Technology Research Center, Institute of Health Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Serum is a common supplement that is widely used to protect various cells and tissues from cryopreservation because it provides the necessary active components for cell growth and maintenance. In this study, we compared the effects of newborn calf serum (NCS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the cryopreservation of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). The isolated SSCs were cryopreserved in two groups: freezing medium that contained 10% DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and 10% FBS in DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium) (group 1) and freezing medium that contained 10% DMSO and 10% NCS in DMEM (group 2). Real-time PCR was performed for stemness gene expression. The SSCs' viability was performed by trypan blue. We observed that the SSCs had increased viability in the NCS-freeze/thaw group (87.82%) compared to the FBS-freeze/thaw group (79.83%), but this increase was not statistically significant (P < 0.105). Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf) and Lin28 gene expression levels in the NCS-frozen/thawed SSCs were not significantly different compared to the FBS-frozen/thawed SSCs; however, Nanog gene expression increased considerably, and Dazl gene expression decreased significantly. The results in this study demonstrated that the presence of NCS in a solution of cryopreserved SSCs increased their viability after freeze/thawing and might promote the proliferation of cultivated SSCs in vitro by increasing the relative expression of Nanog.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-06004-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Combination of resistance and aerobic exercise for six months improves bone mass and physical function in HIV infected individuals: A randomized controlled trial.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Mar 29;31(3):720-732. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiab'a, Brazil.

To evaluate the effect of combined resistance and aerobic training (RT+AT) on regional bone mineral density (BMD) and physical performance in people living with HIV (PLWH). Forty PLWH (20 men and 20 women) were randomized into RT+AT group (n = 20; age = 38.3 ± 4.9) or non-exercise control group (n = 20; age = 37.9 ± 5.1). The RT+AT group was required to perform a nonlinear periodized resistance training program targeting large muscle groups followed by 20 min aerobic exercise at 65-80% of maximal heart rate. Participants in RT+AT performed three supervised sessions per week for 6-months, whereas participants in the control group were instructed to continue with their current lifestyle habits. The primary outcome was bone mineral density (lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, and distal 1/3 radius). Secondary outcomes included physical function, anthropometry, inflammatory markers, and growth factors. The RT+AT group demonstrated a significant increase in BMD at follow-up for the Lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, and 1/3 radius (all, P < .05), and There were no gender differences in the training response between men and women for any of the BMD regions. Similar findings were also observed for lean body mass, IGF1and Adiponectin (P < .001). We observed a decrease in percent body fat, fat mass, IL-6, TNF-α, and myostatin in the RT+AT group (P < .001). Finally, there was a significant increase in handgrip strength and gait speed for both women and men in the RT+AT group (P < .001). A combination of resistance and aerobic training appears to be a feasible and effective means for counteracting bone loss and improving various inflammatory markers, physical function, and growth hormones in PLWH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13871DOI Listing
March 2021

A Case of COVID 19 and Coinfection.

Arch Iran Med 2020 08 1;23(8):568-569. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Since December 2019, we have seen a significant number of cases of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), first identified in Wuhan China. Coronavirus might coexist with other infections such as .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.62DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of male infertility treatment following Rhus coriaria extract administration on rats exposed to morphine.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Aug 23;47(8):6073-6081. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Morphine is the most common analgesic drug that is widely used in post-operative interventions. This drug causes free radical accumulation leading to spermatogenesis failure. Antioxidant agents like Sumach (Rhus coriaria) neutralize cellular free radicals. In this study, the properties of antioxidative, modulative of inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic genes following Sumach extract administration on morphine-induced fertility destruction in male Wistar rats was evaluated. Sixty-four animals were grouped (n = 8) including; 1: control, 2: morphine, 3-5: Sumach (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), and 6-8: morphine + Sumach. Hydroalcoholic extract of Sumach seeds was prepared. Treatments with Sumach extract were applied orally and intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks. The P53, Bcl2 and caspase-3 genes expression were measured by real-time PCR. Cytokines involved in inflammation were evaluated by ELISA. Sperm parameters, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), testosterone, and germinal layer height (GLH) were assessed. All parameters (investigated in this study) in Morphine group reduced significantly than the control group (P ˂ 0.01) (except P53 and caspase-3 genes expression and inflammatory cytokine which were improved). All factors in Sumach and Sumach + Morphine groups were significantly enhanced compared to the Morphine group (P ˂ 0.01) (except P53 and caspase-3 genes expression and inflammatory cytokine which were declined). Morphine disrupted the physiological function of male fertility system. Besides, all doses of Sumach showed no therapeutic changes compared to the control group. Sumach with anti-infertility features compensates the toxic effect of Morphine administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05682-2DOI Listing
August 2020

The effect of knowledge brokering on nurses' empathy with patients receiving cardiac care: a study protocol.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 23;20(1):680. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Hospitalization could be an unpleasant experience for patients with cardiovascular disease leading to some negative emotional reactions. These emotions can be managed by nursing empathy. There are different methods for improving empathy, but some evidence indicates a dramatic drop in nurses' empathy. In this study, we aim to provide a protocol for investigating the effect of knowledge brokering on nurses' empathy with patients receiving cardiac care.

Methods: This study protocol is developed based on SPIRIT checklist with an experimental design. The study population are nurses working in cardiac wards of three educational hospitals in western Iran, Khorramabad. The quota sampling method is used. The sample size is 100 individuals. The samples will be assigned to two intervention and comparison groups using stratified random allocation method. Permuted block randomization is used in each stratum. To prevent contamination between participants; firstly, the measurements of the comparison group is done. Knowledge brokering intervention is performed in 7 stages based on Dobbins' knowledge translation framework 2009. Monica's Empathy Construct Self-Rating Scale is used for measuring empathy. Statistical analyses are performed using SPSS (SPPS Inc. Chicago, Il, version 21). P value below 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.

Discussion: To our knowledge, there is no similar study using an experimental design to examine the efficacy of a knowledge brokering method to improve humanistic knowledge. It helps nurses to improve their empathy in caring relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05377-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376315PMC
July 2020

Metal-Assisted and Solvent-Mediated Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Triazine Structures on Gram Scale.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 07 15;142(30):12976-12986. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 22, Berlin 14195, Germany.

Covalent triazine frameworks are an emerging material class that have shown promising performance for a range of applications. In this work, we report on a metal-assisted and solvent-mediated reaction between calcium carbide and cyanuric chloride, as cheap and commercially available precursors, to synthesize two-dimensional triazine structures (2DTSs). The reaction between the solvent, dimethylformamide, and cyanuric chloride was promoted by calcium carbide and resulted in dimethylamino--triazine intermediates, which in turn undergo nucleophilic substitutions. This reaction was directed into two dimensions by calcium ions derived from calcium carbide and induced the formation of 2DTSs. The role of calcium ions to direct the two-dimensionality of the final structure was simulated using DFT and further proven by synthesizing molecular intermediates. The water content of the reaction medium was found to be a crucial factor that affected the structure of the products dramatically. While 2DTSs were obtained under anhydrous conditions, a mixture of graphitic material/2DTSs or only graphitic material (GM) was obtained in aqueous solutions. Due to the straightforward and gram-scale synthesis of 2DTSs, as well as their photothermal and photodynamic properties, they are promising materials for a wide range of future applications, including bacteria and virus incapacitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c02399DOI Listing
July 2020

HIV-1 drug resistance mutations detection and HIV-1 subtype G report by using next-generation sequencing platform.

Microb Pathog 2020 Sep 30;146:104221. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Based on world health organization (WHO) recommend, drug resistance assay should be performed in initial of treatment and after treatment for administering and monitoring of anti-retroviral regime in HIV-1 infected patients.

Material And Method: NGS analyses were performed on forty-one plasma samples from HIV-1 affected patients using the Sentosa SQ HIV genotyping assay (Vela-Diagnostics, Germany). This system comprises a semi-automated Ion torrent based platform and the sequencing results were analyzed based on ANRS, REGA and Stanford drug resistance algorithms. Phylogenetic analysis was analyzed based on https://comet.lih.lu database as well as MEGA5 Software.

Results: Drug resistances were identified in thirty-three samples (80%) out of forty-one samples. The Phylogenetic analysis results showed that CRF-35AD (94%) and subtypes B (2.4%) and G (2.4%) were dominant subtypes in this study. NRTI and NNRTI associated dominant mutations were M184I/V and K103 N.High-level resistance to lamivudine (3 TC) and Emtricitabine (FTC) were detected in 34.3% of patients while 53.1% were resistant to Efavirenz (EFV) and Nevirapine (NVP). The Protease inhibitor (PI) minor and major mutations were not reported but more than 95% of samples had polymorphisms mutation in K20R, M36I, H69K, L89 M positions. These mutations are subtype dependent and completely are absent in subtype B virus. The secondary mutations were reported in positions of E157Q, S230 N, and T97A of integrase gene and four samples represent low-level resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI).

Conclusions: This is the first preliminary evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutation (DRM) by using the Sentosa SQ HIV Genotyping Assay in Iran. The NGS represent a promising tool for the accurate detection of DRMs of CRF-35AD that is dominant subtype in Iranian HIV-1 infected population and for the first time revealed HIV-1 subtype G in Iranian population. In the present study polymorphic mutation in the position of K20R, M36I, H69K, L89 M were properly reported in CRF35AD that is dominant in Iranian HIV patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104221DOI Listing
September 2020

Beneficial effects of nano-curcumin supplement on depression and anxiety in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2020 Apr 1;34(4):896-903. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Depression in patients with diabetes is associated with poor glycemic control and linked to an increased risk for diabetes complications such as neuropathy. Curcumin has shown potential antidepressant-like activities in some studies. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of nano-curcumin supplementation on depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. Eighty patients with diabetes were enrolled in this parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The participants were allocated randomly to the intervention (n = 40) and control (n = 40) groups. They received 80 mg of nano-curcumin or placebo capsules daily for 8 weeks. At baseline and end of study, anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, physical activity, glycemic indices, and severity of neuropathy were assessed. The depression, anxiety, and stress level were measured by Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21-items) questionnaire before and after the intervention. After intervention, there was a significant reduction in the mean score of depression in the nano-curcumin group (from 16.7 [3.1] to 15.3 [2.6]) compared with placebo group (17.5 [3.2] to 17.3 [3.1]; p = .02). In addition, a significant fall was found in the mean score of anxiety in the nano-curcumin group (from 22.4 [4.03] to 20.6 [3.4]) compared with the placebo group (21.9 [3.5] to 21.2 [3.5]; p = .009). Changes in stress score were not statistically significant between the two groups. These findings suggested that nano-curcumin supplementation for 8 weeks was effective in reducing depression and anxiety scores in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6571DOI Listing
April 2020

Investigating the effect of radiosensitizer for Ursolic Acid and Kamolonol Acetate ‌ on HCT-116 cell line.

Bioorg Med Chem 2020 01 16;28(1):115152. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was evaluating the cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects of Ursolic Acid (UA) and Kamolonol Acetate (KA) on HCT116 cell line and finally investigating the functional role of NF-κB and CCND1 genes in the radiosensitizing activity of UA and KA.

Materials And Method: The cytotoxic effects of UA and KA by MTT assay was evaluated on HCT-116. Clonogenic assay was performed to investigate of radiosensitizing effects of UA and KA on HCT116. To assessment the expression levels of NF-κB and CCND1 genes, real-time PCR method was used.

Results: The results of MTT assay revealed that UA and KA have cytotoxic effects on HCT116 cell line. According to clonogenic assay, survival fraction of treated cells with UA and KA has been decreased compared to the survival fraction of untreated cells. UA and KA lead to the decrease in the expression level of NF-κB. Synergistic effect of radiosensitizing agents with radiation was only approved for UA and 2 Gy of radiation.

Conclusion: Based on our study, UA and KA have cytotoxic effects on HCT116 cell line. Furthermore, UA may lead to radiosensitization of human colorectal tumor cells by NF-κB1 and CCND1signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2019.115152DOI Listing
January 2020

Hemostasis critical values among Iranian clinical laboratories "National Survey of 157 Clinical Laboratories".

Int J Lab Hematol 2019 Dec 27;41(6):778-781. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, School of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Immediate reporting of critical values or test results significantly outside the normal range has a growing role in the management of patients, especially in life-threatening conditions. Due to the lack of international consensus, diverse approaches are used for determination of thresholds, reporting, documentation, and follow-up. In this study, we assessed how Iranian laboratories manage critical values for hemostasis.

Methods: We designed a standard questionnaire to assess different aspects of hemostasis critical values, including the number of coagulation tests with a defined critical value, critical values reporting, documentation, and follow-up policies. All results were self-reported and correctness of the data was not assessed by the authors.

Results: A total of 166 (66.4%) out of 250 laboratories completed the questionnaire; most (52.4%) were private. About 97% of responding laboratories had a critical values policy. These were defined for 64.3% (n: 27) of all coagulation tests (n: 42) performed in Iranian laboratories. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR), platelet count, factor XI, and factor XIII assays had defined critical values among all laboratories performing these tests. Almost all laboratories reported critical values within 1 hour, after confirmation of the result on the same sample (70% of the laboratories) or a new one (13.4% of the laboratories). State and private laboratories had the same critical value reporting policy for in and outpatients, with laboratory technicians reporting critical results to nurses, for the most part.

Conclusion: Although critical value policy is widely used among Iranian laboratories, there is no consensus policy for the reporting of hemostasis critical values, or documentation, threshold determination, and follow-up processes. It is impossible to determine whether non-responding laboratories had any critical values reporting policy. Results thus are biased toward laboratories that did.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13109DOI Listing
December 2019

Influence of dwell time homogeneity error weight parameter on treatment plan quality in inverse optimized high-dose-rate cervix brachytherapy using SagiPlan.

J Contemp Brachytherapy 2019 Jun 28;11(3):256-266. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection Research Center, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Purpose: Restricting the gradients of dwell times between adjacent dwell positions can potentially be beneficial in reducing the probability of unwanted hot/cold spots occurring, if the planned applicators/anatomy relative positions change before or during treatment. This constraint, however, may degrade plan quality. This study, for the first time, aims to quantify the impact of modulation restriction on plan quality indices in inverse optimization for cervix high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using the BEBIG SagiPlan treatment planning system.

Material And Methods: Ten cervical cancer patient plans were optimized for treatment with a BEBIG SagiNova Co HDR afterloader using the min/max inverse planning method, with dwell time homogeneity error weight (DTHEW) parameter values of 0 to 10. Dwell time homogeneity and gradients as well as various plan quality indices were analyzed.

Results: For DTHEW = 0, min/max-based optimization yielded higher HR-CTV D values than the variance-based option ( < 0.001) and was therefore selected for this study. Averaging over all patients, selecting non-zero DTHEWs resulted in a general increase in dwell time homogeneity and decrease in mean and maximum adjacent dwell time gradients, especially between DTHEWs of 0 and 1. For DTHEW > 1, an increase of this parameter did not always result in more homogeneous dwell times or reduced gradients in individual patients. There was a negative correlation between DTHEW and both HR-CTV D and V ( < 0.001, = -0.91). Increasing DTHEW also negatively affected conformity index ( < 0.001, = -0.99). Changes in rectum and sigmoid colon D were insignificant. There was a strong positive relationship between bladder D and DTHEW ( < 0.001, = 0.99).

Conclusions: Assuming a static geometry, statistically significant degradation of plan quality can result from restricting the dwell time homogeneity in min/max-based optimization of cervix HDR brachytherapy plans using SagiPlan. Therefore, setting DTHEW to zero is indicated for the type of patient plans considered in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/jcb.2019.85903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6701378PMC
June 2019

The combined effect of vitamin C and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fatigue following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a triple-blind clinical trial.

J Complement Integr Med 2019 Aug 21;16(4). Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Isfahan university of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background Fatigue is a common compliant among patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. This may affect patients' function in all aspects. A few studies have already assessed the influence of complementary therapies on minimizing fatigue. This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of vitamin C and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on fatigue following CABG surgery. Methods In this randomized, triple-blind placebo-controlled trial, 160 patients who already underwent CABG surgery were randomly assigned into an experimental or a control groups. Each group consisted of 80 patients. The experimental group was given both n-3 PUFA and vitamin C the day before surgery. They also received the same supplements in the first 5 days of operation. The control group received only placebo. Subjects in both groups responded to Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) scale in the beginning, and at the end of the intervention as well as on the fifth day of the operation. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results The mean fatigue score in experimental and control groups came up to 62.01 ± 4.06 and 67.92 ± 4.95 (p<0.0001), respectively, which was greater than that of the values we had before intervention. The mean difference of fatigue score was 3.97 ± 3.49 and 9.56 ± 6.41 (p<0.0001) prior and following the intervention, correspondingly. Conclusion Combination of vitamin C and n-3 PUFA effectively reduces post-operative fatigue among patients who undergo CABG surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0113DOI Listing
August 2019

The effect of inspiratory muscle training on fatigue and dyspnea in patients with heart failure: A randomized, controlled trial.

Jpn J Nurs Sci 2020 Apr 19;17(2):e12290. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Aim: Fatigue and dyspnea are debilitating symptoms in patients with heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on dyspnea, fatigue and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification in patients with HF.

Methods: In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 84 patients with HF (NYHA classes II-III/IV) with a mean age of 56.62 ± 9.56 years were randomly assigned to a 6-week IMT (n = 42) or a sham IMT (n = 42) program. The IMT was performed at 40% of the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) in the IMT group and at 10% in the sham group. The main outcomes were assessed at baseline and after the intervention and included dyspnea severity scale (Modified Medical Research Council [MMRC], Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS] and the NYHA functional classification (based on the presenting symptoms).

Results: The between-group analysis showed significant improvements in dyspnea, fatigue and the NYHA functional classification in the IMT group compared to the sham group (P < .05). The within-group analysis showed significant improvements in dyspnea (from 2.63 ± 0.79 to 1.38 ± 0.66, P < .001), fatigue (from 43.36 ± 8.5 to 28.95 ± 9.11, P < .001) and the NYHA functional classification (from 2.73 ± 0.5 to 2.1 ± 0.6, P = .001) in the IMT group, while fatigue and dyspnea increased significantly in the sham group.

Conclusions: The 6-week home-based IMT was found to be an effective and safe tool for reducing dyspnea and fatigue and improving the NYHA functional classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jjns.12290DOI Listing
April 2020

Construction and Evaluation of a Self-Calibrating Multiresponse and Multifunctional Graphene Biosensor.

Langmuir 2019 08 2;35(32):10461-10474. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science , Lorestan University , Khorramabad , Iran.

Recently, many studies have been focused on the development of graphene-based biosensors. However, they rely on one type of signal and need to be calibrated by other techniques. In this study, a nonenzymatic graphene-based biosensor has been designed and constructed. Its ability to detect glucose and by three different types of signals has been investigated. For its preparation, dopamine-functionalized polyethylene glycol and 2,5-thiophenediylbisboronic acid were conjugated onto the surface of graphene sheets by nitrene [2 + 1] cycloaddition and condensation reactions, respectively. Multivalent interactions between boronic acid segments and biosystems consequently increased the quantifiable fluorescence emission and UV absorption of dopamine segments. Additionally, changing the electrochemical behavior of the functionalized graphene sheets was possible and resulted in a measurable output signal. Conjugation of mannose onto the surface of the biosensor improved its magnitude of signals and specificity for sensing in a complex medium. The efficiency and accuracy of each signal was monitored by others, which resulted in a real-time self-calibrating biosensor. Taking advantage of the versatility of the three different indicators, including florescence, UV, and electrochemistry, the functionalized graphene sheets have been used as self-regulating biosensors to detect a variety of biosystems with a high accuracy and specificity in a short time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b00915DOI Listing
August 2019

HIV drug resistance among naïve HIV-infected patients in Iran.

J Res Med Sci 2019 26;24:31. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy extends life for persons living with HIV. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been rapidly expanding coverage around the world, including in Iran. However, ART drug resistance also rapidly develops with expanding use and limits effectiveness and treatment options. The aim of this study was to monitor the appearance of new mutations conferring HIV pretreatment drug resistance in the treatment of naïve patients with HIV in Iran.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were obtained from ARV treatment-naïve patients from 8 different provinces in Iran in 2016 for genotyping for drug resistance mutations.

Results: Sequences were successfully obtained from 90 specimens. Of these, 2 (2%) mutations conferring resistance to protease inhibitors, 2 (3%) conferring resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and 9 (13%) conferring resistance to non-NRTI (NNRTI) were detected. Any ARV-resistant drug mutation was found in 11 patients (12%).

Conclusion: Nearly one in 8 ARV-naïve patients had mutations associated with NNRTI resistance in diverse areas of Iran in 2016. Iranian ARV therapy guideline for HIV could consider non-NNRTI-based first-line therapies and expand routine drug resistance testing before treatment initiation as according to HIV drug resistance recommendations of the World Health Organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_689_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521612PMC
April 2019