Publications by authors named "Mohammad Ebrahim Yarmohammadi"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Alteration in serum levels of immunoglobulins in seriously eye-injured long-term following sulfur-mustard exposure.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Mar 29;80:105895. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan 4515613191, Iran.

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent toxic agent that cause local and systemic changes in the human body such as dysregulation of the immunological system. This gas affects different organs such as lungs, skin, eyes and the gastrointestinal tract.

Methods: 128 veterans with SM-induced eye injuries were examined and compared to 31 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of IgM, IgE, IgA, IgG, and IgG subclasses were measured using ELISA method.

Results: There was no significant difference in IgM level between two groups with abnormal and normal ocular conditions except for those having bulbar conjunctiva-limbal ischemia and bulbar conjunctiva-hyperemia abnormalities. There were not significant difference in IgA, IgE, and IgG levels between two groups with and without ocular problem also between study groups. IgG1 level in some ocular abnormalities were significantly lower than the healthy control groups. IgG2 level in SM-exposed participants with stromal abnormality was higher in the SM-exposed groups without this problem. IgG2 levels in the exposed group with some ocular problems were significantly increased compared with control. IgG3 level in all patients did not reveal any significant changes compared with the controls except the fundus abnormality. IgG4 level was not significantly different between two groups with normal and abnormal ocular conditions. Nonetheless, IgG4 level in the exposed participants with some ocular abnormalities significantly increased compared with the controls.

Conclusion: The results showed SM exposure could alter immunoglobulins level compared with healthy controls and the changes of IgG2 and IgG1 levels were associated with some ocular problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105895DOI Listing
March 2020

SP-A and TLR4 localization in lung tissue of SM-exposed patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Mar 11;80:105936. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Long-term pulmonary complications are one of the major long-term consequences of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) involves in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary disorders. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) regulates LPS-induced TLR4 localization and activation responses. However, the intensity and significance of TLR4 and SP-A expression by lung cells in SM-exposed patients is not clear.

Methods: The gene expression of TLR4 (through real-time PCR) and TLR4 and SP-A positive cells and alveolar type II cells, as SP-A producers, (using IHC) were assessed in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens from SM-exposed (n = 17), and non-SM exposed individuals (n = 12).

Results: TLR4 gene expression did not change between study groups. However, its cell surface presentation was significantly reduced in SM-exposed patients and particularly in which with constrictive bronchiolitis compared with the control group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Frequency of alveolar type II cells was lower in the case group rather than the control group while the number of SP-A positive cells did not alter.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that reduced TLR4 cell surface presentation may have anti-inflammatory function and SP-A may have a critical role in regulation of inflammatory responses in SM-exposed patients. Further investigation on other possible mechanisms involved in TLR4 internalization maybe help to illustrate the modulatory or inflammatory activity of TLR4 in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105936DOI Listing
March 2020

Alteration in inflammatory mediators in seriously eye-injured war veterans, long-term after sulfur mustard exposure.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Mar 1;80:105897. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran 3319118651, Iran; Department of Immunology, Shahed University, Tehran 3319118651, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure produces extensive systemic and ocular adverse effects on the victims. One of the most important effects is immunological insults that can lead to other organ damages, including the eyes.

Methods: In this descriptive study, 128 SM-exposed veterans with severe eye injury were compared with 31 healthy controls. Tear levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL1Ra, IL-6, TNF-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and Fas Ligand (FasL) were compared between the two groups.

Results: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD); tear breakup time (TBUT < 10″); and conjunctival, limbal, and corneal abnormalities were more frequent among the cases (MS-exposed veterans) than the controls. Ocular involvement was mild in 14.8%, moderate in 24.2%, and severe in 60.9% of the cases. Serum levels of IL-1α and FasL were significantly higher among the cases than among the controls (P < 0.001 and P = 0.037, respectively). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum and tear levels of TNF-α in the cases as compared with controls (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Serum levels of FasL were significantly higher in cases with severe ocular involvement than in the controls (P = 0.03). Nonetheless, serum levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-1α/IL-1Ra, and IL-6 were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion: Serum levels of IL-1α and FasL may cause different ocular surface abnormalities in SM-exposed patients. Lower tear TNF-α concentration may be due to lower serum levels of this cytokine in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105897DOI Listing
March 2020

External Dacryocystorhinostomy; Success Rate and Causes of Failure in Endoscopic and Pathologic Evaluations.

Iran J Pathol 2017 1;12(3):189-194. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Dept. of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the method of choice to treat nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction and the other approaches are compared with it, with a failure rate of 4% to 13%. The current study aimed to assess the causes of failure in external DCR by postoperative endoscopic and pathological evaluation.

Methods: The current retrospective cross sectional study followed-up113 patients with external DCR and silicone intubation for three months. Silicone tubes were removed after the third months. Failure was confirmed based on the clinical findings and irrigation test. Paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) scanning, and endoscopic and pathological evaluations were performed in the failed cases.

Results: Totally, 113 patients underwent external DCR. The patients included 71 females and 42 males. The mean age of the patients was 55.91 years; ranged from 18 to 86. Epiphora was the most common complaint before surgery (90.3%). Clinically, epiphora continued in 17 cases (15%), of which 94.11% had at least one sinus CT abnormality and 82.35% had at least one endoscopic abnormality. The most common endoscopic findings were deviated septum (70.6%), scar tissue (52.94%), concha bullosa (46.9%), septal adhesion (47.05%), enlarged middle turbinate (41.2%), and sump syndrome (11.7%). The failure was significantly associated with the chronicity of the initial symptoms (P-value=0.00). Pathologically, there were significant relationship amongst the failure rate, scar formation, and allergic rhinitis (P-values =0.00 and <0.05, respectively).

Conclusion: Preoperative endonasal evaluation and consultation with an otolaryngologist can improve surgical outcomes and help to have a better conscious to intranasal abnormalities before external DCR surgery.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835365PMC
July 2017

Effect of Benth. on allergic rhinitis symptoms: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.

J Res Med Sci 2017 28;22:128. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the health problems in the world. It is necessary to develop new treatment procedure for control of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ( Benth) on AR patients.

Materials And Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, 71 patients (37 patients in treatment and 34 in placebo group) participated. In treatment group, syrup (NBS) was used for 4 weeks as three times a day. The efficacy of the drug regarding AR symptoms (rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal obstruction, itchy nose, and ocular symptoms) were evaluated through a visual analog scale (VAS) by 0-10 before administration and at the end of the whole treatment period. The collected information was entered in the SPSS software (version 18) and was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, independent sample -test, and paired sample test.

Results: The improvement of AR symptoms in the group receiving NBS was significantly higher compared to control group (4.73 ± 1.84 vs. 0.38 ± 2.06; < 0.0001). Furthermore, the mean of total VAS before and after the treatment (in case group) was 7.10 ± 1.92 and 2.37 ± 1.76, respectively ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that has significant effects on improving the symptoms of AR. Hence, it can be a good alternative to AR symptoms relief.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_316_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5721487PMC
November 2017

Teamwork Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery in Failed External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):282-6

Department of Ophthalmology, Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a teamwork revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in eyes with previously failed external DCR.

Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects who underwent a teamwork revision endoscopic DCR by an ophthalmologist and an otolaryngologist. Paranasal sinus CT scanning was performed for each patient before the revision surgery. During surgery, any abnormal tissue noticed before silicone intubation was sent for pathological evaluation.

Results: Endoscopic revision DCR was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects with one-year follow-up. Of these, 31 were female (62%). The age range of the subjects was 18-88 years (mean: 59.98 years). Sinus CT showed at least one abnormality in 94% of cases. Revision endoscopy showed septal deviation (66%), scar formation (32%), ostium problems (28%), and sump syndrome (6%). Pathologic and clinical findings showed that chronic inflammation had a significant association with scar tissue and septal synechia (P = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). At the final follow-up, anatomical and functional success was achieved in 45 out of 50 (90%) of subjects.

Conclusion: Endoscopic revision DCR when performed as cooperation of otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists may help resolve the endonasal problems and increase the success rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-322X.188396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5000531PMC
September 2016

Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2016 Jan-Mar;11(1):54-60

Department of Otolaryngology, Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Shahed University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI).

Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR).

Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively).

Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-322X.180699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860988PMC
May 2016

Effect of supplemental oxygen 80 % on post-tonsillectomy nausea and vomiting: a randomized controlled trial.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2016 May 18;273(5):1215-9. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Nausea and vomiting are two of the most common complications of tonsillectomy in children. Administration of supplemental 80 % oxygen during surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. We aimed to test the efficacy of supplemental 80 % oxygen during tonsillectomy on postoperative nausea and vomiting. In a randomized controlled trial in Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, 102 children scheduled for tonsillectomy (± adenoidectomy) under general anesthesia were divided randomly in two groups according to percent of administered oxygen (group 1:30 % oxygen, group 2:80 % oxygen). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were assessed and compared in 0-2, 2-6 and 6-24 h after surgery. Incidence of post-tonsillectomy nausea and vomiting after 2, 2-6, and 6-24 h was 13.72, 1.96 and 1.96 % for group 1 and 3.92, 0 and 1.96 % in group 2, respectively. We found no statistically significant difference between two groups (P = 0.08) but 80 % oxygen was beneficial for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting in the first 2 h after surgery in group 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-015-3858-4DOI Listing
May 2016

A clinicopathological approach to sulfur mustard-induced organ complications: a major review.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2013 Oct 16;32(4):304-24. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Context: Sulfur mustard (SM), with an old manufacturing history still remains as potential threat due to easy production and extensive effects.

Objectives: Increasing studies on SM indicates the interest of researchers to this subject. Almost all human body organs are at risk for complications of SM. This study offers organ-by-organ information on the effects of SM in animals and humans.

Methods: The data sources were literature reviews since 1919 as well as our studies during the Iraq-Iran war. The search items were SM and its all other nomenclatures in relation to, in vivo, in vitro, humans, animals, eye, ocular, ophthalmic, lungs, pulmonary, skin, cutaneous, organs and systemic. Amongst more than 1890 SM-related articles, 257 more relevant clinicopathologic papers were selected for this review.

Results: SM induces a vast range of damages in nearly all organs. Acute SM intoxication warrants immediate approach. Among chronic lesions, delayed keratitis and blindness, bronchiolitis obliterans and respiratory distress, skin pruritus, dryness and cancers are the most commonly observed clinical sequelae.

Conclusion: Ocular involvements in a number of patients progress toward a severe, rapid onset form of keratitis. Progressive deterioration of respiratory tract leads to "mustard lung". Skin problems continue as chronic frustrating pruritus on old scars with susceptibility to skin cancers. Due to the multiple acute and chronic morbidities created by SM exposure, uses of multiple drugs by several routes of administrations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15569527.2013.781615DOI Listing
October 2013

Salivary levels of secretary IgA, C5a and alpha 1-antitrypsin in sulfur mustard exposed patients 20 years after the exposure, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov 29;17(3):952-7. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran; Department of Otolaryngology, Shahed University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong toxic agent that causes acute and chronic health effects on a myriad of organs following exposure. Although the primary targets of inhaled mustard gas are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract, the lower respiratory tract is the focus of the current study, and upper tract complications remain obscure. To our knowledge there is no study addressing the secretory IgA (S-IgA), C5a, alpha 1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in the saliva of SM-exposed victims. In this study, as many as 500 volunteers, including 372 SM-exposed cases and 128 control volunteers were recruited. A 3 ml sample of saliva was collected from each volunteer, and the level of secretory IgA, C5a, and alpha 1 antitrypsin in the samples were compared between the two groups. The SM-exposed group showed a significantly higher amount of salivary alpha 1 antitrypsin and secretary IgA compared to the control group (p<.006 and p<.018 respectively). The two groups showed no significant difference (p=0.192) in the level of C5a. The results also showed that the level of salivary A1AT is more than that of IgA in severely injured cases. The findings presented here provide valuable insight for both researchers and practitioners dealing with victims of the chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard. This research indicates that certain branches of the inflammatory processes mandate serious attention in therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2012.12.021DOI Listing
November 2013

Chemokines, MMP-9 and PMN elastase in spontaneous sputum of sulfur mustard exposed civilians: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov 28;17(3):958-63. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Chemokines play an important role in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of chemokines, MMP-9, and PMN elastase in spontaneous sputum and serum of patients 20 years after SM exposure. In context of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS) 40 male volunteers with a history of SM exposure in June 1987 and complain of excessive sputum were recruited. The volunteers were clinically examined and their history was collected by internists. Sputum and serum levels of IL-8, fractalkine, MCP-1, RANTES, MMP-9, and PMN elastase were measured using ELISA kits (R&D System). Spirometries were performed on all the participants. Sputum level of fractalkine was significantly lower in the hospitalized group (N=16, Median=1.05; IQR=0.41-2.62) than non-hospitalized group (N=18, 4.031; IQR=0.947-8.203) (p=0.042). However, serum levels of fractalkine were higher in the hospitalized group (Mean±SD=2.08±5.09) than in the non-hospitalized (Mean±SD=0.53±0.87) group (T-test, p=0.03). Serum levels of PMN-elastase were also higher in the hospitalized group (Mean±SD; 64,794.43±26,820.08) than in the non-hospitalized group (Mean±SD=44,049.33±17,675.85) (p=0.017). There was no relationship between the cytokines and the studied factors in sputum and the GOLD classification, but the serum levels of fractalkine and MMP-9 were significantly higher in the more severe (grades 3-4) group. There was no significant correlation between sputum and serum levels of measured inflammatory mediators and pulmonary complications in the patients who were exposed to SM 20 years earlier. Pathophysiologic process involved in SM induced pulmonary problems might be different from those in other chronic pulmonary diseases such as COPD and asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2012.12.015DOI Listing
November 2013

Effect of turbinoplasty in concha bullosa induced rhinogenic headache, a randomized clinical trial.

J Res Med Sci 2012 Mar;17(3):229-34

Associate Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Rhinogenic origin is an important source for headache, which may be treated by medical or endoscopic intervention. An aim of this study was to clarify whether the surgical or medical intervention is superior.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized double blind clinical trial study, 44 patients (19 male and 25 female) with periorbital or frontal pain were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups of surgical or medical intervention randomly. Medical group received 3 courses of 1.5 months 125 μg per puff, fluticason nasal spray (2 puffs Q 24 hours in each side), and oral Pseudoephedrin 30 mg Q 8 hours with 2 weeks intervals. Surgical group underwent turbinoplasty with functional endoscopic sinus surgery approach. Duration (per hour), frequency (per week) and severities of the headaches were measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before treatment, and at 1.5, 3 and 6 months after institution of treatment by an examiner, who was unaware of the patients' treatment plan.

Results: Before treatment, chronicity (P = 0.980), severity (P = 0.742), frequency (P = 0.730), and duration (P = 0.603) of the headaches were not significantly different. The severities of the headaches in surgical group were significantly lower at 1.5, 3 and 6 months (P < 0.001), also the frequencies and the durations of the headaches were significantly lower at 6 months after an institution of treatment compared to medical group (P = 0.027, P = 0.008, respectively).

Conclusion: Turbinoplasty in chonca bullusa patients is an acceptable and a simple procedure for relieving pain in rhinogenic headaches, compared with medical treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527039PMC
March 2012

Evaluation of pre lumbar puncture position on post lumbar puncture headache.

J Res Med Sci 2011 Mar;16(3):282-6

Department of Neurology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The most common complication of lumbar puncture (LP) occurring in over thirty percent of patients is headache. The position after lumbar puncture, needle type and size, and volume of the extracted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been evaluated as contributory factors in occurrence of post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH), but the position before lumbar puncture has not been evaluated.

Methods: The occurrence of post lumbar puncture headache was evaluated in 125 patients undergoing lumbar puncture, divided randomly into sitting and lateral decubitus groups in the following five days. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Thirty eight patients (30.4%) reported headache after lumbar puncture in the two groups, and post lumbar puncture headache was significantly lower in the lateral decubitus position (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between genders in the post lumbar puncture headache occurrence (p = 0.767).

Conclusions: Lumbar puncture in sitting position could produce more post lumbar puncture headache in comparison with lateral decubitus position.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214334PMC
March 2011