Publications by authors named "Mohammad Banifazl"

67 Publications

SARS-CoV-2 presented moderately during two episodes of the infection with lack of antibody responses.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 6:198421. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The world has gone through the critical phase of SARS-CoV-2 crisis caused by the new variants of the virus. The globally concerted effort to characterize viral genomic mutations across different clades has revealed several changes in the coding and also non-coding regions which might lead to a violent presentation or re-infection occurrence. Here, we studied a COVID-19 subject who represented the symptoms following the full recovery of the first infection. COVID-19 specific IgM and IgG were evaluated in both steps. The viral samples from oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal were subjected to RT-PCR and full sequencing was done in both incidences. The sequencing data was fully investigated with the reference sequence of SARS-CoV-2 and the changes were detected. The obtained data is in favor of re-infection with 128 days of interval. SARS-CoV-2 presented more severely in the second episode of the disease and the specific antibodies against COVID-19 were not detectable. Both infections were caused by the same clade 20 G, however, the mutation rates were higher in the second incidence including 10 nucleotide substitutions which had rarely been reported before. In the present study, the nucleotide mutations in various regions of the viral genome have been presented. The re-infection could have significant effect on clinical implications as well as vaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022517PMC
April 2021

Clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 by re-infection vs. reactivation: a case series from Iran.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, 1316943551, Iran.

COVID-19 immunity in infected individuals may not be persistent. The specific response wanes in patients who have recovered from this infection. Nevertheless, it has not been fully understood whether true re-infection occurs or the viral reactivation. In this study, we investigated three COVID-19 patients who represented the symptoms after recovery. Chest CT scan was applied to assess the patients along with the viral samples from oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal which were subjected to RT-PCR. The viral genome sequencing was applied where possible to distinguish possible re-infection or latent reactivation. Moreover, COVID-19-specific antibodies available data were evaluated in each incidence. The second episode of SARS-CoV-2 infection was different among the investigated subjects who experienced an interval between positive PCR tests ranged between 63 and 156 days. The disease presentation was less or more severe in the second infection. All cases were found IgG positive in the re-infection phase. The sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 sample obtained from two cases revealed a D614G mutation of S gene from the second isolated sample strengthens the case for the re-infection. The possibility of re-infection and reactivation could have significant effect on clinical implications and also vaccination. Our data supports clear warning of SARS-CoV-2 continuous circulation potency among the populations in spite of herd immunity either with natural infection or vaccination. This issue is critical in term of the patients, clinical investigate, and viral transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-021-04221-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972329PMC
March 2021

SARS-CoV‑2, a virus with many faces: a series of cases with prolonged persistence of COVID-19 symptoms.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2021 Feb 14;171(1-2):3-6. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, No:69, Pasteur Ave, 1316943551, Tehran, Iran.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as the causative agent of the ongoing pandemic, has spread into more than 200 countries to date. The disease which is caused by the virus is termed COVID-19. In most cases, it presents at first like common flu with cough and other respiratory symptoms. Nevertheless, other symptoms have been reported, such as a feeling of extreme fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, or acute onset of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Here we report a series of 10 cases (1 male, 9 females) observed between February and April 2020, with an undulating appearance and disappearance of symptoms. Weeks passed before the diagnosis was established. Symptoms resolved rapidly after treatment with hydroxychloroquine. It seems that the course of COVID-19 can be mild or moderate but with a long persistence of symptoms, and may therefore remain obscure. This may cause a public health issue because of the long infectivity of these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-020-00793-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734614PMC
February 2021

Importance of evaluating occult HBV risk factors in a low endemic area for HBV infection.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2021 02 28;171(1-2):16-17. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, No: 69, Pasteur Ave, 1316943551, Tehran, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-020-00784-9DOI Listing
February 2021

No evidence of occult HBV infection in population born after mass vaccination.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2020 Jun 9;170(9-10):218-223. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Clinical Research Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Pasteur Ave., 13164, Tehran, Iran.

Despite access to efficient hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine and universal immunization schedules, HBV infection remains a global health concern. HBV infection has decreased by this program. Nevertheless, breakthrough infections occur due to generation of occult HBV infection (OBI) and surface gene mutants in the immunized population. We aimed to determine the presence of OBI in a population born after initiation of nationwide HBV vaccination in Tehran, Iran. A HBV mass vaccination schedule was launched in Iran in 1993. For this study, we enrolled 1120 cases younger than 24 years. ELISA was applied to evaluate the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. HBV-DNA presence was determined in all HBsAg-negative cases using nested polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs was 0.1, 0.54 and 39.9% respectively. Out of 6 anti-HBc-positive individuals, 4 cases also had anti-HBs. One case revealed HBsAg co-existence and the other one showed isolated anti-HBc. HBV-DNA was not detected in HBsAg-negative specimens. A very low prevalence of HBsAg and isolated anti-HBc was observed and no occult HBV infection was detected. It seems that evasion mutants are not a potential threat for HBV universal immunization efficacy in the vaccinated population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-020-00748-zDOI Listing
June 2020

Prevalence of Antibodies and DNA in Iranian HIV Patients.

Iran J Pathol 2019 27;14(1):68-75. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Infectious Diseases Specialist, Dept. of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background & Objective: infection has public health importance and can lead to serious diseases in immunosuppressed patients, such as HIV cases. Appropriate control of infection in HIV patients requires information about the prevalence of antibodies and DNA in different population. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies and DNA in HIV patients in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: A total of 149 HIV patients from the Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran, Iran were enrolled in the study. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM were detected by ELISA and DNA was evaluated by PCR and quantita- tive real-time PCR. IgG positive samples were also assessed for their avidity.

Results: Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM were positive in 46.3% and 2.7% of cases respectively. 92.7% of our patients showed past infection and 4.3% revealed recently acquired toxoplasmosis based on their IgG avidity test. T. gondii DNA was not detected by PCR but real-time PCR results showed DNA in 4.7% of total patients and 13.1% of the IgG seropositive cases.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that latent toxoplasmosis was relatively prevalent in our study population, but new infection had low prevalence. Almost half of our patients were IgG negative and at risk of acquiring toxoplasma infection. Low copy numbers of DNA were detected in 4.7% of the cases without any clinical manifestation. Therefore, detection and monitoring of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and DNA in HIV patients is substantial to estimate the risk of reactivation and new infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/IJP.14.1.68DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708569PMC
December 2018

Naturally occurring NS5A and NS5B resistant associated substitutions in HCV and HCV/HIV patients in iranian population.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2019 10 10;43(5):594-602. Epub 2019 May 10.

Clinical Research Dept, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The introduction of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment promises shorter treatment duration, higher cure rates and fewer side effects. Naturally, occurring Resistance Associated Substitutions (RASs) are major challenge to the success of the HCV antiviral therapy.

Aim: To determine the naturally occurring NS5A and NS5B RASs in Iranian HCV and HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients.

Methods: A total of 209 DAA-naïve chronic HCV patients including 104 HCV mono-infected and 105 HCV/HIV co-infected cases were enrolled. Amplification and Sanger population sequencing of NS5A and NS5B regions of HCV genome were carried out. The amino acid sequence diversity of the NS5A and NS5B regions were analyzed using geno2pheno HCV.

Results: NS5A RASs were detected in 25.5% of HCV and 16.9% of HCV/HIV subjects. In HCV cases, clinically relevant RASs were L28M followed by M28Vand Q30H and Y93H/N. In HCV/HIV subjects, clinically relevant RASs were Y93H/N followed by L28M and P58T and M28V/T and Q30R. NS5B RASs were observed in 11.8% of HCV and 5.9% of HCV/HIV subjects. Clinically relevant substitutions were included V321A/I, C316Y, S282R and L159F. The major S282T mutation was not observed.

Conclusion: The emergence of RASs is a growing issue in the setting of current treatment with DAAs. Although currently, screening of RASs is recommended before specific DAA regimens, it should be consider in patients with therapeutic failure and in the cases of retreatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2019.01.011DOI Listing
October 2019

Seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and quantitation of parvovirus B19 DNA levels in Iranian blood donors.

J Med Virol 2018 08 1;90(8):1318-1322. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is common among blood donors, and healthy blood donors can transmit virus via transfusion. Due to resistance of B19 to viral inactivation methods, there is a potential concern regarding transfusion safety in blood products. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology, and quantitation of B19 DNA levels in blood donors in Tehran, Iran. A total of 500 blood donors from Blood Transfusion Research Center were studied. ELISA was used for detection of B19 IgG and IgM and nested PCR was carried out for detection of B19 DNA. PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. B19 viral load was determined by real time PCR. B19 IgG, IgM, and DNA were detected in 27.6, 2.6, and 1.2% of donors respectively. Ten samples (2%) were positive for both antibodies while in four cases (0.8%), B19 IgG and DNA detected simultaneously. One case had B19 IgM, IgG, and viremia concurrently. The titers of B19 DNA in four of six donors were more than 10  IU/mL (high level viremia) and all four cases had IgG simultaneously. All B19 isolates categorized in genotype 1A. Our findings indicated that prevalence of B19 DNA in Iranian blood donors was comparable with previous studies throughout the world. High level B19 viremia found in 0.8% of our donors and all viremic donors revealed neutralizing B19 antibody. Therefore implementation of a B19 screening test for each volunteer blood donor does not appear to be necessary but B19 testing for plasma-derived products seems important in Iranian donors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25195DOI Listing
August 2018

Intra-familial Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Arak, Central Iran.

Iran J Pathol 2016 ;11(4):328-333

Clinical Research Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The household transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health problem. High incidence of HBV infection is observed within the household contacts of HBV carriers. We aimed to evaluate serological markers of hepatitis B infection among family members of HBV carriers in Arak, central Iran.

Methods: Data were collected from the 100 chronic HBV carriers (subjects with positive HBsAg for at least 6 months period) as index cases and 700 members of their family. Then, we checked serologic markers of hepatitis B [hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti- HBs)] using the ELISA test.

Results: The prevalence rate of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc among household members was 23.3%, 20.4% and 23% respectively. Isolated anti-HBc (positive anti-HBc with negative HBsAg and anti-HBs) found in 0.4% of family members. Mothers and children with 47.6% and 17.2% had the highest and lowest rates of HBV infection, respectively (=0.00). There was a significant difference between mothers and spouses of index case (47.6% and 29.8%) regarding HBsAg positivity (=0.03).

Conclusion: The low rate of HBV infection reported in children reveal the effective prevention of HBV transmission with the universal vaccination programs and also importance of pregnant women screening for HBV serological markers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563930PMC
January 2016

No Role of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Infection on HIV Progression in Naïve HIV Patients

Iran Biomed J 2018 03 9;22(2):123-8. Epub 2017 Jul 9.

Department of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a common infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and may accelerate HIV progression by rising HIV viral load and decreasing CD4 count. However, the available data regarding the influence of HSV-2 seropositivity on HIV progression in HIV individuals are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to determine HSV-2 seroprevalence in naïve HIV patients and normal controls and also investigate the relation of HIV viral load and CD4 count with HSV-2 seropositivity. Subsequently, we investigated the association of HSV-2 serostatus with changing in CD4 count and HIV viral load in our subjects, after one year follow-up.

Methods: In this study, 116 naïve HIV patients and 85 healthy controls from Tehran, Iran were enrolled. HSV-2 IgG antibody was detected by ELISA. CD4 count was determined by flowcytometry, and serum HIV RNA copy numbers were determined using real-time PCR.

Results: The prevalence of HSV-2 IgG was 18.1% in naïve HIV patients and 0% in the control group (P=0.000). HSV-2 seroconversion was observed in 2.43% of HIV patients after one year. There was no significant difference regarding HSV-2 serostatus with CD4 count and HIV RNA viral load in our study cohort at baseline and after one year.

Conclusion: Our results revealed that the prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 infection are low in our HIV cases, and it is negligible in control group. However, it seems that HIV/HSV2 co-infection has no role on HIV infection acceleration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786658PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/ibj.22.2.123DOI Listing
March 2018

Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Arak city, central province of Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2016 Oct;8(5):321-325

Department of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide concern and it is the major cause of liver disease. Several genotypes of the HCV have been reported from different regions of the world. The determination of the HCV genotypes is important for the prediction of response to antiviral treatment and clinical outcomes. So, HCV genotyping in each region is of great importance. This investigation was performed to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in Arak city, Central province of Iran.

Patients & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 174 cases with chronic HCV infection from Arak city were enrolled. HCV infection was confirmed by positive results in HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and HCV-RNA tests. HCV genotypes were determined using a PCR based genotyping kit.

Results: A total of 174 HCV infected patients with mean age of 37.5±10.24 years were enrolled. 97.7% of cases were male and 2.3% were female. The main route of HCV transmission was injection drug use (IDU) which was observed in 59.8% of cases. Genotyping results demonstrated that subtype 3a (52.9%) was the most prevalent HCV type in Arak, followed by subtype 1a (22.9%) and subtype 1ab (17.8%).

Conclusion: This study showed that HCV subtype 3a was the most prevalent HCV type, followed by subtype 1a and subtype 1ab in Arak, central province of Iran. Investigation of HCV genotypes in different parts of the country is needed to facilitate treatment options and preventive strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5277601PMC
October 2016

Frequency and Genotype of Human Parvovirus B19 among Iranian Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Intervirology 2016 1;59(3):179-185. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and genotype of human parvovirus B19 and its relation with anemia among Iranian patients under dialysis.

Methods: Fifty hemodialysis (HD) and 33 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were enrolled. B19 IgG and IgM antibodies were assessed by ELISA, and the presence of B19 DNA was evaluated by nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly and phylogenetic analysis was performed.

Results: In the HD group, the prevalence of B19 antibodies was 54% for IgG and 4% for IgM. B19 DNA was detected in 10% of the cases, and 10% showed B19 IgG and viremia simultaneously. In the PD group, the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM was 57.6 and 0% respectively, whereas B19 DNA was found in 12.1% of the group. A total of 9.1% showed B19 IgG and viremia concurrently. There was no significant difference regarding anemia and B19 infection in either group. All B19 isolates were clustered in genotype 1A.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that B19 infection plays no role in leading chronic anemia in dialysis patients. However, persistent B19 viremia and the circulation of the same strains in dialysis patients may indicate a potential risk for the contamination of dialysis equipment and nosocomial spread of B19 infection within dialysis units.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000455124DOI Listing
March 2017

Interlukine-17 and TGF-β levels in patients with acute brucellosisbefore and after treatment.

Turk J Med Sci 2016 Nov 17;46(5):1348-1352. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Department of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background/aim: T-helper cell type 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine balance is involved in the resistance or susceptibility to Brucella infection. The analysis of cytokine levels is valuable to determine the role of the immune system in Brucella prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of serum interleukin-17 (IL-17) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and their alterations with treatment in patients with acute brucellosis.

Materials And Methods: TGF-β was tested in 33 acute brucellosis patients and 19 controls and IL-17 was analyzed in 40 patients and 12 controls. Cytokine levels were tested in controls and patients before and after treatment by ELISA.

Results: TGF-β levels were significantly lower in brucellosis cases compared to controls. At the end of the treatment, the serum levels of this cytokine had increased, but there was no significant difference between this cytokine level before and after treatment. The IL-17 level was significantly higher in the brucellosis group compared to controls and its value decreased in patients at the end of treatment without any significant difference.

Conclusion: This study indicated that TGF-β was lower and IL-17 was higher in brucellosis cases and, after treatment, the serum level of TGF-β increased and that of IL-17 decreased in these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-1506-59DOI Listing
November 2016

Gender and age-specific seroprevalence of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 in general population in Tehran, Iran.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2017 Apr 17;206(2):105-110. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, No 69, Pasteur Ave., Tehran, 13164, Iran.

The assessment of the gender and age-specific seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) is essential for planning of HPV vaccine implementation into the preventive programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the age-specific seroprevalence of HPV-16 and 18 in both males and females in Tehran, Iran. Three hundred and seventy-eight women (10-35 years) and 162 men (10-25 years) from Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Anti-HPV IgG antibodies against HPV-16 and HPV-18 were detected by ELISA using papillomavirus type 16 and 18 L1-capsids as antigen. HPV-16 antibody was detected in 15.6 and 13.6% of women and men, respectively. Antibody against HPV-18 was found positive in 12.7 and 8% of women and men, respectively. The highest seroprevalence of HPV-16 and 18 were seen in women aged 26-30 years (22.2 and 19.4%, respectively), and the lowest HPV-16 and 18 seropositivity rates were seen in males and females aged 10-15 years (9.3 and 1.9%, respectively). In our cohort of study, in males, both anti-HPV-16 and 18 increased after age 15 years, peaking in men aged 21-25 years. In women, both HPV-16 and 18 seropositivity increased after 15 years, declined at 21-25 years, peaked in women aged 26-30 years and again decreased after 30 years. Our data showed increasing exposure rate to high-risk HPV vaccine types in our studied population over 15 years of age. In order to prevent the HPV-related cancers, implementation of HPV vaccine into the national immunization program in Iran and vaccination of females and males less than 15 years of age are suggested.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-016-0487-5DOI Listing
April 2017

BK Viremia among Iranian Renal Transplant Candidates.

Iran J Pathol 2016 ;11(3):210-215

Clinical Research Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Primary infection with BK virus (BKV) is occurred during childhood and usually asymptomatic, but after initial infection, BKV may persist lifelong in the kidney and genitourinary tract. Reactivation may occur in individuals with compromised immunity such as renal transplant recipients. Due to the role of BKV in BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and potentially renal allograft rejection, the detection of BKV in renal transplant candidates is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of BK viremia in end stage renal disease cases who were candidates for renal transplantation.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 cases with end stage renal disease who were candidates for renal transplantation were recruited from the main dialysis unit in Tehran, Iran. Presence of BK viremia was determined in plasma samples of cases using real time PCR.

Results: A total of 50 renal transplant candidates with mean age 37.8±13 yr were enrolled in the study. Fifty two percent of subjects were male. Forty six (92%) of them were under HD and 4 (8%) were on PD. BK virus was not detected in any plasma samples of renal transplant candidates.

Conclusion: This study showed absence of BK viremia in our renal transplant candidates. However, due to the important role of BKV in BKVAN and renal graft failure and rejection, further studies involving larger number of cases are required to elucidate the rate of the BKV in renal transplant candidates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5079453PMC
January 2016

Low prevalence of hepatitis B vaccine escape mutants among individuals born after the initiation of a nationwide vaccination program in Iran.

Arch Virol 2016 Dec 9;161(12):3405-3411. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Clinical Research Deptartment, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 13164, Pasteur Ave., Tehran, Iran.

A nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program for neonates was launched in Iran in 1993. Despite the success of this program, concern about its long-term success still remains, because breakthrough infections due to emergence of surface mutants have been reported in immunized children. We aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HBV and vaccine escape mutants among individuals born after the initiation of the nationwide vaccination program in Iran. This study included 1115 participants younger than 23 years old, with 223 in each age cohort. The presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc was evaluated using an ELISA kit. HBV-DNA levels were measured in anti-HBc and/or HBsAg-positive subjects. PCR products were sequenced and mutations were identified. The overall HBsAg prevalence was 0.27 %. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive rates were 48 % and 0.18 %, respectively. Two individuals were positive for anti-HBc, one of whom was also positive for HBsAg, and the other was positive for anti-HBc only. HBV DNA was detected in three out of four anti-HBc-and /or HBsAg-positive subjects. An I195M mutation within the S gene was detected in two of the three HBV-DNA-positive cases. A very low prevalence of HBsAg and isolated anti-HBc were found in this study. The I195M mutation found in the surface gene could have been induced by immune pressure. Although the number of ''vaccine escape'' mutants found in this cohort was low, ongoing surveillance of breakthrough infections and escape mutants is still needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-016-3050-1DOI Listing
December 2016

No Evidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 among Iranian Patients Infected with HIV.

Iran J Public Health 2016 Jul;45(7):935-40

Dept. of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular malignancy, which frequently occurs among immunocompromised individuals such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is considered the etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Though some seroepidemiological studies conducted on the prevalence of HHV-8 in Iran, there are insufficient data on the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in HIV infected patients. We therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in general population and HIV infected patients without Kaposi's sarcoma in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: We conducted a cross sectional survey on 99 patients with HIV infection referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS and 40 healthy controls in Tehran, Iran from January to April 2014. The presence of HHV-8 DNA was detected in buffy coat samples of enrolled subjects using nested PCR assay.

Results: A total of 99 HIV infected patients with mean age of 37.9±10 yr and 40 healthy controls with mean age of 39±11.5 yr were enrolled in the study. The mean CD4 count was 410.3± 211.4 cells/mm(3). HHV-8 DNA was not detected in both healthy control and HIV patient groups.

Conclusion: This survey showed low rate of HHV-8 DNA in healthy controls and HIV patients. Considering our findings HHV-8 infection does not seem to be widespread in our population. Further studies focusing on different regions of Iran appear to be required to have a more accurate estimation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4980349PMC
July 2016

No evidence of persistent parvovirus B19 viremia among Iranian patients with HIV after a 1-year follow-up.

Arch Virol 2016 May 10;161(5):1183-7. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, No 69, Pasteur Ave., Tehran, 13164, Iran.

Recent studies have demonstrated that, in common with other latent viruses, parvovirus B19 infection can be controlled by the host immune response but may persist in some places such as the bone marrow. Persistent B19 infection has been found in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, such as patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is limited data regarding long-term B19 viremia in HIV patients. In this study, we investigated virological and hematological findings, and also the clinical outcome, of seven cases of HIV/B19 coinfection (confirmed by PCR) after one year. These cases were provided from a previous study on patients with HIV infection that found B19 DNA in 13 cases. Seven of these 13 patients were available after 1 year, and we retested them for B19 viremia and B19-specific antibodies. B19 IgG was tested by ELISA, and B19 DNA was assessed by nested PCR. Anemia was not observed in these cases. All subjects had cleared viremia, but B19 IgG seroconversion occurred in two cases. No significant changes in CD4 and hemoglobin occurred. The results of this study indicate that B19 infection in HIV patients is a subtle infection and that B19 viremia is not a long-term event.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-016-2782-2DOI Listing
May 2016

Assessment of the Association between Human Papillomavirus Infection and Breast Carcinoma.

Iran J Pathol 2015 ;10(1):41-6

Dept. of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women throughout the world. There are controversial reports on the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in breast carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of HPV-DNA in invasive breast carcinoma to determine the association between HPV infection and breast carcinoma.

Methods: The study included formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 100 cases with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast and 50 control tissues of mammoplasty specimens. HPV-DNA was purified and amplified through GP5+/GP6+ and MY09/MY11 primers.

Results: All tested carcinomas as well as normal tissues were negative for all types of HPV in PCR assay.

Conclusion: Our results do not support the association between HPV infection and breast carcinoma. Further studies involving larger number of cases are required to elucidate the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539779PMC
October 2015

Occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian hemodialysis patients.

J Nephropathol 2015 Oct 1;4(4):116-20. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) or HCV-RNA in the serum. Low concentrations of HCV-RNA may be detected in PBMCs of hemodialysis (HD) patients and this could have a great impact on the management of HD patients.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the occult HCV infection in Iranian HD patients.

Patients And Methods: A total of 70 anti-HCV negative HD patients from three dialysis units in Tehran, Iran were included in this study. In these cases, presence of HCV-RNA in plasma samples was tested by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). In cases with negative anti-HCV and plasma HCV-RNA, genomic HCV-RNA was checked in PBMC specimens by RT-nested PCR.

Results: Seventy anti-HCV negative HD patients were enrolled in the study. 32.85% and 1.43% of cases had elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) respectively. 7.14% of patients had elevated levels of both ALT and AST. HCV-RNA was negative in plasma samples of all anti-HCV negative HD subjects. The genomic HCV-RNA was not detected in any PBMC samples of HD cases with negative anti-HCV and plasma HCV-RNA.

Conclusions: Occult HCV infection was not detected in our HD patients despite of elevated levels of liver enzymes in some participants. Further studies involving larger number of HD patients are required to elucidate the rate of occult HCV infection in HD cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12860/jnp.2015.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596295PMC
October 2015

Occult hepatitis B virus infection and S gene escape mutants in HIV-infected patients after hepatitis B virus vaccination.

Int J STD AIDS 2016 10 18;27(11):967-72. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for HIV patients. Despite the relative success of HBV vaccination, breakthrough infections can occur infrequently in patients, and it can be due to occult HBV infection, vaccine unresponsiveness and/or emergence of escape mutants. This study assessed the presence of occult HBV infection and S gene escape mutants in HIV-positive patients after HBV vaccination. Ninety-two HIV-positive patients were enrolled in this study, including 52 responders to HBV vaccine and 40 non-responders. All of the cases received HBV vaccine according to routine HBV vaccination protocols. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In HBV-DNA positive samples, the most conserved regions of S gene sequences were amplified by nested PCR and PCR products were sequenced. Occult HBV infection was detected in two cases. Glycine to arginine mutation at residue 145 (G145R) within the 'a' region of the S gene was detected in one of the occult HBV infection cases who was in the non-responder group. This study showed that the prevalence of occult HBV infection and vaccine escape mutants was low in our HBV-vaccinated HIV-positive patients in both responder and non-responder groups, so there was no alarming evidence indicating breakthrough HBV infection in our vaccinated HIV-positive cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462415602419DOI Listing
October 2016

Lack of Association between Interleukin-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms with HIV Susceptibility and Progression to AIDS.

Iran J Pathol 2015 ;10(2):141-8

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine. Some authors believe that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene have been associated with susceptibility to HIV infection and progression to AIDS, but its role is not clearly defined yet. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the association between HIV infection susceptibility and progression with SNP in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene.

Methods: This study was carried out in 70 HIV infected patients (39 treatment naïve and 31 under treatment) and 31 matched healthy controls. The biallelic polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene promoter (-592 ,-1082) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing.

Results: At position -1082, G/A was the most common genotype and A was the most prevalent allele and at position -592, A/C was the most prevalent genotype and -592 C was the most common allele in HIV positive patients; although there was not any significant difference between cases and controls regarding genotypes and alleles of these regions.

Conclusion: Our study showed that genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 promoter region may not associate with HIV infection outcome and the lack of this association suggests that other genes may influence on HIV infection course.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539764PMC
September 2015

Frequency and subtype of BK virus infection in Iranian patients infected with HIV.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2016 Feb 4;205(1):57-62. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 13164, Pasteur Ave., Tehran, Iran.

Human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects approximately 90 % of the general population as a subclinical or mild infection. In immunosuppressed patients, such as HIV cases, BKV may be reactivated resulting hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, there are limited studies on prevalence and molecular epidemiology of BKV in Iran. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence and subtypes of BKV in Iranian HIV patients. A total of 99 patients with HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Presence of BKV DNA in plasma was evaluated by nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. BKV DNA was detected in 8.08 % of HIV patients. BKV viremia presented in 4 out of 25 patients (16 %) not receiving antiretroviral therapy in comparison with 4 out 74 of HAART-treated patients (5.4 %) (P = 0.023). In patients with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/mm(3), viremia was found more commonly (7/80 = 8.8 %) than in those with lower counts (1/19 = 5.2 %) (not significant). All sequenced BKV isolates belonged to subtype Ib-2. Our findings indicated that the prevalence of BKV viremia is relatively prevalent in patients with HIV infection and significantly higher in naïve than HAART-treated cases. Therefore, HAART can eliminate BKV infection from plasma and reduce viremia although the actual implication of BKV viremia in HIV patients is not clear.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-015-0426-xDOI Listing
February 2016

Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus among blood donors in Arak, central province of Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2014 Jun;6(3):190-3

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Tetanus and diphtheria are vaccine-preventable, infectious diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Immunization by the diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (DT) has been applied in Iran for almost 50 years. However, there are very few data about the rate of immunity to these diseases in the adult population. the humoral immunity to tetanus and diphtheria among blood donors in Arak city, central provice of Iran were investigated.

Patients & Methods: A total of 530 consecutive blood donor samples were collected from Blood Transfusion Organization, Central province of Iran. All samples were tested for diphteria and tetanus IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: From 530 cases, 91.9% were male and 8.1% were female. 99.6% of cases had protective levels of diphtheria antibody. Protective levels of tetanus antibody were found in 96% of subjects. There was not any significant difference between diphtheria and tetanus antibodies levels and age and sex.

Conclusion: The obtained data showed that high proportion of the adult population in Arak have sufficient protection against diphtheria and tetanus. The high protective level of immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in Iran can be due to widespread use of booster vaccines in Iranian high schools and during the military services or for pregnant women in their 3(rd) trimester.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393496PMC
June 2014

No evidence for occult HBV infection in hepatitis B vaccine non-responders.

Iran J Microbiol 2014 Oct;6(5):350-3

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Although hepatitis B vaccine immunogenicity is high, certain risk factors such as age, tobacco consumption, obesity and genetic background have been associated with low responsiveness to HBV vaccine. We aimed to evaluate the role of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in non-responder adults to HBV vaccine in a low endemic area for HBV.

Material And Methods: A total of 52 subjects who were non-responder to HBV vaccine were enrolled in the study. HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were tested in all subjects. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined in plasma samples by real-time PCR.

Results: A total of 52 cases with median age 34 years were enrolled in the study. 63.5% of patients were male and 36.5% were female. Isolated anti-HBc (HBsAg negative, anti-HBs negative and anti-HBc positive) was detected in 3.8% of cases. HBV-DNA was not detected in our cases.

Conclusion: This study showed no evidence of occult HBV infection in our HBV vaccine non-responders even in cases with isolated anti-HBc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4385577PMC
October 2014

Frequency and genotype of human parvovirus B19 among Iranian patients infected with HIV.

J Med Virol 2015 Jul 13;87(7):1124-9. Epub 2015 Mar 13.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

The human parvovirus B19 (B19) usually causes a subclinical infection in immunocompetent individuals. Whereas immunocompromised individuals such as patients infected with HIV are at risk of persistent anemia due to B19 infection. Only few studies have been carried out on distribution and molecular epidemiology of B19 in Iran. We aimed to determine the frequency and genotype of B19 among Iranian patients infected with HIV. We conducted a survey on 99 HIV patients and 64 healthy controls. IgG and IgM antibodies against B19 were detected by ELISA and B19 DNA was assessed by nested PCR. PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing and classified after phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of B19 immunoglobulin was 11.1% for IgG and 1% for IgM. B19 DNA was detected in 13.1% of cases. The prevalence of B19 IgG, IgM, and DNA in control group was 25%, 1.6%, and 9.4%, respectively. B19 IgG was significantly lower in HIV group than in normal controls. There was no significant difference regarding anemia between cases and controls. All sequenced B19 isolates belonged to genotype 1A with low genetic diversity. Our findings indicated that in the HAART era, the importance of B19 infections in HIV patients may be limited whereas persistent B19 viremia in the circulation of healthy controls raises a potential concern in blood donations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24169DOI Listing
July 2015

Prevalence of BK viremia in Iranian hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2015 May 6;47(5):345-8. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

From the Department of Infectious Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences , Kashan , Iran.

Background: BK virus (BKV) is a common human polyomavirus which infects up to 90% of the general population with little clinical significance and with various epidemiological patterns of infection. Immune suppression is considered the main risk factor for BKV reactivation. Owing to their impaired cellular and humoral immunity, patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) are at high risk of infectious diseases such as BKV infection. BKV presents with different distributions in different populations. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BKV in Iranian patients with chronic renal disease undergoing HD and PD.

Methods: Sixty-three HD patients and 33 PD cases from the main dialysis units in Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in the study. BK viremia was determined by qualitative polymerase chain reaction in all subjects.

Results: Sixty-three cases under HD (mean age 59.3 ± 14.5 years) and 33 subjects on PD (mean age 53.7 ± 13 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean duration of HD was 59.1 ± 53.8 months and the dialysis interval was three times a week. In the PD group, the mean duration of dialysis was 38.9 ± 35.2 months. The prevalence of BK viremia was 3.03% in PD and 0% in HD subjects.

Conclusions: This study showed a low rate of BK viremia in chronic renal disease patients undergoing HD or PD. Differently from other studies in various populations, our results demonstrated low or absent BKV replication in Iranian dialysis patients, highlighting the varying epidemiological pattern of BKV distribution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365548.2014.1002107DOI Listing
May 2015

Isolated anti-hbc and occult HBV infection in dialysis patients.

Nephrourol Mon 2015 Jan 30;7(1):e22674. Epub 2014 Nov 30.

Department of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of HBV-DNA in the liver or serum with undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk of acquiring parenterally transmitted infections.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of OBI in HD patients.

Patients And Methods: A hundred HBsAg negative HD patients were included in this study from main dialysis units in Tehran, Iran. HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and liver enzymes levels were examined in all subjects. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined in plasma samples using real-time PCR.

Results: A hundredpatients with a mean age of 58.5 ± 16.1 years were enrolled in this study. In total, 56.7% were male and 43.3% female. Anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV were detected in 56.7%, 2%, 5.2% and 1% of patients, respectively. Isolated anti-HBc was detected in 2% of cases. HBV-DNA was detected in 1% of HBsAg negative patients.

Conclusions: This study showed a low rate of isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection in HD patients. It can be due to improvement of people's knowledge about HBV transmission routes, HBV vaccination of HD patients and regular surveillance of HBV infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.22674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330694PMC
January 2015

Lack of human papillomavirus DNA in colon adenocarcinama and adenoma.

J Cancer Res Ther 2014 Jul-Sep;10(3):531-4

Department of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Human papilloma viruses (HPV) have been detected in several types of cancers. Over the last few years, a possible correlation between HPV infection and colon cancers has been suggested. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of HPV-DNA in colon adenocarcinomas and adenomas to describe the relationship of HPV infection with these pathologic features.

Materials And Methods: The study included formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 70 patients with colon adenocarcinoma and 30 patients with adenoma (as study group) and 30 tumor adjacent tissues (as control). HPV-DNA was purified and first amplified through MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primers. Subsequently, for more precision, another PCR was performed using PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primer system.

Results: All tested adenocarcinomas and adenomas as well as normal tumor adjacent tissues were negative for all types of HPV in two PCR assays.

Conclusion: Our results do not support the relationship between HPV infection and colon carcinoma or adenoma. Attributing a role to the HPV in the etiology of colon carcinogenesis will require further studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.137674DOI Listing
June 2015

Serological response to one intradermal or intramuscular hepatitis B virus vaccine booster dose in human immunodeficiency virus-infected nonresponders to standard vaccination.

Perspect Clin Res 2014 Jul;5(3):134-8

Department of Tuberculosis and Pediatric Infectious Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Purpose: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients without HBV immunity. However, serological response to standard HBV vaccination is frequently suboptimal in this population and the appropriate strategy for revaccination of HIV-infected nonresponders remained controversial. We aimed to determine the serological response to one booster dose of HBV vaccine given by intradermal (ID) or intramuscular (IM) route in HIV-positive nonresponders to standard HBV vaccination.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 42 HIV-infected nonresponders were enrolled. We randomized them to receive either 10 μg (0.5 mL) for ID (20 cases) or 20 μg (1 mL) for IM (22 cases) administration of HBV vaccine as a one booster dose. After 1 month, anti-HBs titer was checked in all cases. A protective antibody response (seroconversion) defined as an anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L.

Results: Seroconversion was observed in 47.6% of subjects after 1 ID dose. A total of 30% showed antibody titers above 100 IU/L. Except one case, all responders had CD4(+) >200 cells/mm(3). Mean anti-HBs titer was 146.5 ± 246 IU/L. After the one IM booster dose, seroconversion was observed in 50% of cases. A total of 36.3% of subjects had anti-HBs ≥100 IU/L. All responders had CD4(+) >200 cells/mm(3), except one case. Mean anti-HBs titer was 416.4 ± 765.6 IU/L. Responders showed significantly higher CD4(+) cell counts, in comparison to nonresponders (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: One booster dose administered IM or ID to HIV-infected nonresponders resulted in similar rates of seroconversion, overall response rate 50%. However, higher anti-HBs titers observed more frequently in IM group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.134318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073551PMC
July 2014