Publications by authors named "Mohammad Amin Behzadi"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A chimeric hemagglutinin-based universal influenza virus vaccine approach induces broad and long-lasting immunity in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase I trial.

Nat Med 2021 01 7;27(1):106-114. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Seasonal influenza viruses constantly change through antigenic drift and the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses through antigenic shift is unpredictable. Conventional influenza virus vaccines induce strain-specific neutralizing antibodies against the variable immunodominant globular head domain of the viral hemagglutinin protein. This necessitates frequent re-formulation of vaccines and handicaps pandemic preparedness. In this completed, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I trial (NCT03300050), safety and immunogenicity of chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccines were tested in healthy, 18-39-year-old US adults. The study aimed to test the safety and ability of the vaccines to elicit broadly cross-reactive antibodies against the hemagglutinin stalk domain. Participants were enrolled into five groups to receive vaccinations with live-attenuated followed by AS03-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine (n = 20), live-attenuated followed by inactivated vaccine (n = 15), twice AS03-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 5, intranasal followed by intramuscular; n = 10, twice intramuscular) 3 months apart. Vaccination was found to be safe and induced a broad, strong, durable and functional immune response targeting the conserved, immunosubdominant stalk of the hemagglutinin. The results suggest that chimeric hemagglutinins have the potential to be developed as universal vaccines that protect broadly against influenza viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1118-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Development and Assessment of a Pooled Serum as Candidate Standard to Measure Influenza A Virus Group 1 Hemagglutinin Stalk-Reactive Antibodies.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Nov 9;8(4). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1124, New York, NY 10029, USA.

The stalk domain of the hemagglutinin has been identified as a target for induction of protective antibody responses due to its high degree of conservation among numerous influenza subtypes and strains. However, current assays to measure stalk-based immunity are not standardized. Hence, harmonization of assay readouts would help to compare experiments conducted in different laboratories and increase confidence in results. Here, serum samples from healthy individuals ( = 110) were screened using a chimeric cH6/1 hemagglutinin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that measures stalk-reactive antibodies. We identified samples with moderate to high IgG anti-stalk antibody levels. Likewise, screening of the samples using the mini-hemagglutinin (HA) headless construct #4900 and analysis of the correlation between the two assays confirmed the presence and specificity of anti-stalk antibodies. Additionally, samples were characterized by a cH6/1N5 virus-based neutralization assay, an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, and competition ELISAs, using the stalk-reactive monoclonal antibodies KB2 (mouse) and CR9114 (human). A "pooled serum" (PS) consisting of a mixture of selected serum samples was generated. The PS exhibited high levels of stalk-reactive antibodies, had a cH6/1N5-based neutralization titer of 320, and contained high levels of stalk-specific antibodies with ADCC activity. The PS, along with blinded samples of varying anti-stalk antibody titers, was distributed to multiple collaborators worldwide in a pilot collaborative study. The samples were subjected to different assays available in the different laboratories, to measure either binding or functional properties of the stalk-reactive antibodies contained in the serum. Results from binding and neutralization assays were analyzed to determine whether use of the PS as a standard could lead to better agreement between laboratories. The work presented here points the way towards the development of a serum standard for antibodies to the HA stalk domain of phylogenetic group 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712758PMC
November 2020

A cross-reactive mouse monoclonal antibody against rhinovirus mediates phagocytosis in vitro.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9750. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the main cause of the common cold worldwide. To date, more than 160 types of the virus have been recognized, categorized into three major species - A, B, and C. There are currently no approved vaccines available to prevent infection with RVs. To elicit antibodies against conserved regions located on capsid proteins of RV A viruses, mice were sequentially vaccinated with DNA plasmids encoding capsid proteins of different RV A types. After a final boost with whole virus, antibody-expressing hybridomas were generated. After isotyping, 11 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) expressing an IgG subtype Fc-domain were selected for further expansion and purification. Three mAbs showed cross-reactivity against multiple strains of RV A viruses by ELISA, including strains A1A, A1B, A15, A16 and A49. Other mAbs had strain-specific binding patterns, with the majority of mAbs showing reactivity to RV-A15, the strain used for the final vaccination. We found that the RV-A15-specific mAbs, but not the cross-reactive mAbs, had neutralizing activity against RV-A15. An antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) assay revealed substantial ADCP activity for one of the cross-reactive mAbs. Epitope mapping of the neutralizing mAbs via escape mutant virus generation revealed a shared binding epitope on VP1 of RV-A15 for several neutralizing mAbs. The epitope of the ADCP-active, non-neutralizing mAb was determined by microarray analysis of peptides generated from the VP1 capsid protein. VP1-specific, cross-reactive antibodies, especially those with ADCP activity, could contribute to protection against RV infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66600-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297972PMC
June 2020

Seroprevalence of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D and E viruses in the Hormozgan province southern Iran.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Dec 3;19(1):1027. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Virology, Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Viral hepatitis is a global public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of deaths due to acute and persistent infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Providing updated serologic data can improve both surveillance and disease control programs. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of markers for viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D and E) and the epidemiology of such infections in the general population of southern Iran's Hormozgan province.

Methods: Between 2016 and 2017, a total of 562 individuals with ages ranging from 1 to 86 years, who visited governmental public laboratories for routine check-ups, were tested for the presence of serological markers to hepatitis virus types A to E using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: The overall anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody seroprevalence was 93.2% (524/562). The prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies was 15.8% (89/562) among which 1.6% (9/562) of the seropositive individuals also had evidence of recent exposure to the virus (IgM positivity). Two and a half percent (14/562) were positive for hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen, whereas 11.6% (65/562) tested positive for anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) antibodies. Among anti-HBc positive patients, 11% (7/65) had HBs Ag and 5% (3/65) were positive for anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) antibodies. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies was 0.7% (4/562). The seroprevalence of anti-HAV, HEV IgG, anti-HBc antibodies, and HBs Ag increased with age.

Conclusion: The present study confirms a high seroprevalence of HAV infection among the examined population and reveals high levels of endemicity for HEV in the region. Planned vaccination policies against HAV should be considered in all parts of Iran. In addition, improvements on public sanitation and hygiene management of drinking water sources for the studied area are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4661-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889522PMC
December 2019

Overview of Current Therapeutics and Novel Candidates Against Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections.

Front Microbiol 2019 19;10:1327. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Emergence and re-emergence of respiratory virus infections represent a significant threat to global public health, as they occur seasonally and less frequently (such as in the case of influenza virus) as pandemic infections. Some of these viruses have been in the human population for centuries and others had recently emerged as a public health problem. Influenza viruses have been affecting the human population for a long time now; however, their ability to rapidly evolve through antigenic drift and antigenic shift causes the emergence of new strains. A recent example of these events is the avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus outbreak currently undergoing in China. Human H7N9 influenza viruses are resistant to amantadines and some strains are also resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors greatly limiting the options for treatment. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) may cause a lower respiratory tract infection characterized by bronchiolitis and pneumonia mainly in children and the elderly. Infection with RSV can cause severe disease and even death, imposing a severe burden for pediatric and geriatric health systems worldwide. Treatment for RSV is mainly supportive since the only approved therapy, a monoclonal antibody, is recommended for prophylactic use in high-risk patients. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerging respiratory virus. The virus was first recognized in 2012 and it is associated with a lower respiratory tract disease that is more severe in patients with comorbidities. No licensed vaccines or antivirals have been yet approved for the treatment of MERS-CoV in humans. It is clear that the discovery and development of novel antivirals that can be used alone or in combination with existing therapies to treat these important respiratory viral infections are critical. In this review, we will describe some of the novel therapeutics currently under development for the treatment of these infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594388PMC
June 2019

An Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Based Vaccine Platform Enables the Generation of Epitope Specific Human Cytomegalovirus Antibodies.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Jun 14;7(2). Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly prevalent pathogen with ~60%-90% seropositivity in adults. CMV can contribute to organ rejection in transplant recipients and is a major cause of birth defects in newborns. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against CMV. The epitope of a CMV neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved region of the envelope protein gH provided the basis for a new CMV vaccine design. We exploited the influenza A virus as a vaccine platform due to the highly immunogenic head domain of its hemagglutinin envelope protein. Influenza A variants were engineered by reverse genetics to express the epitope of an anti-CMV gH neutralizing antibody that recognizes native gH into the hemagglutinin antigenic Sa site. We determined that the recombinant influenza variants expressing 7, 10, or 13 residues of the anti-gH neutralizing antibody epitope were recognized and neutralized by the anti-gH antibody 10C10. Mice vaccinated with the influenza/CMV chimeric viruses induced CMV-specific antibodies that recognized the native gH protein and inhibited virus infection. In fact, the influenza variants expressing 7-13 gH residues neutralized a CMV infection at ~60% following two immunizations with variants expressing the 13 residue gH peptide produced the highest levels of neutralization. Collectively, our study demonstrates that a variant influenza virus inserted with a gH peptide can generate a humoral response that limits a CMV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7020051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630953PMC
June 2019

Widespread circulation of West Nile virus, but not Zika virus in southern Iran.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 17;12(12):e0007022. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical Virology, Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are mosquito-borne viral infections. Over the past few decades, WNV has been associated with several outbreaks involving high numbers of neuroinvasive diseases among humans. The recent re-emergence of ZIKV has been associated with congenital malformation and also with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. The geographic range of arthropod-borne viruses has been rapidly increasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of IgG specific antibodies and the genome of WNV and ZIKV in human samples, as well as WNV and ZIKV genomes in wild-caught mosquitoes in urban and rural areas of the Hormozgan province, in southern Iran. A total of 494 serum samples were tested for the presence of WNV and ZIKV IgG antibodies using ELISA assays. One hundred and two (20.6%) samples were reactive for WNV IgG antibodies. All serum samples were negative for ZIKV IgG antibodies. Using the multivariable logistic analysis, age (45+ vs. 1-25; OR = 3.4, 95% C.I.: 1.8-6.3), occupation (mostly outdoor vs. mostly indoor; OR = 2.4, 95% C.I.: 1.1-5.2), and skin type(type I/II vs. type III/IV and type V/VI; OR = 4.3, 95% C.I.: 1.7-10.8 and OR = 2.7, 95% C.I.: 1.3-5.5 respectively, skin types based on Fitzpatrick scale) showed significant association with WNV seroreactivity. We collected 2,015 mosquitoes in 136 pools belonging to 5 genera and 14 species. Three pools of Culex pipiens complex were positive for WNV RNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). ZIKV RNA was not detected in any of the pools. All WNV ELISA reactive serum samples were negative for WNV RNA. In conclusion, we provided evidence of the establishment of WNV in southern Iran and no proof of ZIKV in serum samples or in mosquito vectors. The establishment of an organized arbovirus surveillance system and active case finding strategies seems to be necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312345PMC
December 2018

Molecular diagnosis of genital tract infections among HIV-positive women in Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2018 Aug;10(4):233-241

Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are usually at a higher risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than others. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), (CT), and (NG), and associated risk factors among HIV-infected women in Fars province, Iran.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cervical swab samples were collected from 71 HIV-infected women, aged 17-45 years (mean ± standard deviation: 31.11 ± 6.58 years), and tested for HPV, HSV, CT, and NG using PCR assays.

Results: Overall, 77.5% of patients were positive for the tested STIs with the following distribution: 36 (50.7%) HPV, 7 (9.9%) HSV, 4 (5.6%) NG, and 27 (38%) CT. From those, 39 (55%) were positive for only one infection, while 16 (22.5%) were positive for multiple infections. We observed that the prevalence of all tested STIs increased by age, except for HSV which showed a slight decrease, although not statistically significant. Socio-economic factors such as low educational level, multiple sex partners, and being a sex worker significantly correlated with higher positive prevalence of STIs in the studied population.

Conclusion: A high prevalence of STIs was observed among HIV-infected women in this region. These data might prompt policy makers and STI experts to focus on providing a comprehensive sex education, including participation in screening programs for STIs among high-risk groups.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243152PMC
August 2018

Antigenic sites in influenza H1 hemagglutinin display species-specific immunodominance.

J Clin Invest 2018 11 8;128(11):4992-4996. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Microbiology.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers are a major correlate of protection for influenza-related illness. The influenza virus hemagglutinin possesses antigenic sites that are the targets of HI active antibodies. Here, a panel of mutant viruses each lacking a classically defined antigenic site was created to compare the species-specific immunodominance of the antigenic sites in a clinically relevant hemagglutinin. HI active antibodies of antisera from influenza virus-infected mice targeted sites Sb and Ca2. HI active antibodies of guinea pigs were not directed against any specific antigenic site, although trends were observed toward Sb, Ca2, and Sa. HI titers of antisera from infected ferrets were significantly affected by site Sa. HI active antibodies of adult humans followed yet another immunodominance pattern, in which sites Sb and Sa were immunodominant. When comparing the HI profiles among different species by antigenic cartography, animals and humans grouped separately. This study provides characterizations of the antibody-mediated immune responses against the head domain of a recent H1 hemagglutinin in animals and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI122895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205383PMC
November 2018

A diagnostic one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for accurate detection of influenza virus type A.

Arch Med Sci 2016 Dec 24;12(6):1286-1292. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Influenza A is known as a public health concern worldwide. In this study, a novel one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was designed and optimized for the detection of influenza A viruses.

Material And Methods: The primers and probe were designed based on the analysis of 90 matrix nucleotide sequence data of influenza type A subtypes from the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The influenza virus A/Tehran/5652/2010 (H1N1 pdm09) was used as a reference. The rtRT-PCR assay was optimized, compared with that of the World Health Organization (WHO), and its analytical sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility were evaluated. In total, 64 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and 41 samples without ILI symptoms were tested for the virus, using conventional cell culture, direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) methods, and one-step rtRT-PCR with the designed primer set and probe and the WHO's.

Results: The optimized assay results were similar to the WHO's. The optimized assay results were similar to WHO's, with non-significant differences for 10-10 copies of viral RNA/reaction ( > 0.05). It detected 10 copies of viral RNA/reaction with high reproducibility and no cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses. A specific cytopathic effect was observed in 6/64 (9.37%) of the ILI group using conventional culture and DFA staining methods; however, it was not seen in non-ILI. Also, the results of our assay and the WHO's were similar to those of viral isolation and DFA staining.

Conclusions: Given the high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of this novel assay, it can serve as a reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of influenza A viruses in clinical specimens and lab experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.62914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108395PMC
December 2016

Immunization with a Recombinant Expression Vector Encoding NS3/NS4A of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 3a Elicits Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in C57BL/6 Mice.

Viral Immunol 2016 Apr 24;29(3):138-47. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

1 Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz, Iran .

Today, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered as one of the most significant international health concerns. Although novel therapeutic regimens against the infection have shown satisfactory results, no approved vaccine exists yet. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine candidate for HCV-3a, based on nonstructural proteins NS3/NS4A, in C57BL/6 mice. Immunogenicity effect of pDisplay-NS3/NS4A was analyzed through immunization with 100 and 200 μg concentrations of the construct with complete Freund's adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), or without adjuvant. The frequencies of different splenic mononuclear cells were measured using the Mouse Th1/Th2/Th17 Phenotyping Kit. Moreover, the number of T-CD8(+) cells was determined using conjugated anti-CD8a and anti-CD3e antibodies by flow cytometry. As observed, the frequencies of Th1, T-CD8(+), and Th2 cells increased in all the experimental groups, compared with the controls. The highest levels of the respective cells were seen in the group immunized with 200 μg of the construct with MPL. Also, there were positive correlations between the frequency of Th1 cells and those of Th2 and T-CD8(+) cells in all the immunized groups, but were significant in those receiving adjuvants. The frequency of Th17 cells did not statistically change among the groups. Taken together, our findings revealed that the constructed DNA vaccine encoding HCV-3a NS3/NS4A gene induces the cell-mediated immune responses significantly. However, its coadministration with adjuvants exhibits more efficient results than the recombinant plasmid alone. Further study is currently underway to evaluate the specific immune responses and recognize the responsible antigenic epitopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2015.0085DOI Listing
April 2016

Expression of NS3/NS4A Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus in Huh7 Cells Following Engineering Its Eukaryotic Expression Vector.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Nov 26;8(11):e27355. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Although the development of novel therapeutic regimens to combat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been speeded up with successful results, no efficient vaccines exist yet.

Objectives: This study aimed to construct a eukaryotic expression vector encoding nonstructural proteins, NS3/NS4A, of HCV genotype 3a, and evaluate its expression on Huh7 cell surface.

Materials And Methods: The NS3/NS4A sequence was isolated from a patient with HCV-3a chronic infection, cloned into intermediate vector pTZ57R/T, and then used for engineering a mammalian expression vector, pDisplay, to direct the respective protein to the secretory pathway and anchor it to the plasma membrane. The expression of the protein in Huh7 cell, which was transiently transfected with the vector using Lipofectamine, was determined by immunocytochemical staining assay with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated antibodies to the HA/myc tags located besides the fusion fragment.

Results: The results showed that the fragment was successfully amplified and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector. Sequencing and enzyme digestion analysis confirmed the cloned gene completion and its correct position in the pDisply-NS3/NS4A plasmid. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that the target protein was expressed as a membrane-anchored protein in the Huh7 cells.

Conclusions: This study can serve as a fundamental experiment for the construction of a NS3/NS4A eukaryotic expression vector and its expression in mammalian cells. Further research is underway to evaluate the fragment immunogenicity in lab animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.27355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4741058PMC
November 2015

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A and E Virus Infections Among Healthy Population in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Jul 27;8(7):e19311. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Department of Virology, Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Nemazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Enterically-transmitted acute viral hepatitis is caused predominantly by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV and HAV infections varies in different geographical regions.

Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HEV and HAV infections among Iranian healthy individuals in southern Iran.

Patients And Methods: Totally, 1030 samples were collected from healthy subjects in schools, those referred to tertiary outpatient clinics and health centers in Shiraz between November 2011 and May 2012. Their ages ranged between six months and 95 years. The presence of total anti-HAV and anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) in plasma was assessed by ELISA.

Results: The results showed that 66.2% and 0.6% of the general population in this area were positive for total anti-HAV and IgM antibodies by ELISA, respectively. As seen, 13.4% and 0.9% were positive for total anti-HEV and IgM antibodies, respectively. The difference in total anti-HAV and anti-HEV antibodies was significant among the age groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study showed that the prevalence rates of HAV and HEV antibodies were positively correlated with age. The results demonstrated that the infection with these two viruses in the region was high and some high-risk individuals including females at child-bearing age were more susceptible. HAV vaccination could be recommended for antibody-negative adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.19311v2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584134PMC
July 2015

The incidence of epstein-barr virus primary infection among suspected patients referred to namazi hospital of shiraz, iran.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Apr 18;8(4):e16109. Epub 2015 Apr 18.

Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran ; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Many children become infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) during their childhood. Since the clinical profile of EBV primary infection is challenging, it is important to use the best diagnostic clinical means. Detection of IgM against viral capsid antigen (VCA) by ELISA has been shown to be a reliable method.

Objectives: This study was conducted to demonstrate the incidence of EBV primary infection, among suspected patients referred to Namazi hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

Patients And Methods: The sample included 346 patients with an age range of 0 to 20 years (6.31 ± 4.66: 10.97 years). A volume of 5 mL of blood was collected from each case. The patients were divided to four age groups. The sera were tested for the presence of VCA-IgM by commercially available Anti-EBV-VCA ELISA kit.

Results: The results indicated that 104 (30.0%) of the patients were EBV VCA IgM positive, with no significant difference in the incidence of EBV primary infection between males and females. However, the incidence of infection was significantly different between age group I (0 - 5 years) and III (11 - 15 years), and also between age group I (0 - 5 years) and IV (16 - 20 years) (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Considering the results, accurate and on time diagnosis of EBV primary infection in both children and adolescents will help prevent unnecessary hospitalization, medication and incorrect medical decisions. In addition, this will decrease further treatment costs and related medical procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.8(4)2015.16109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449844PMC
April 2015

Determining major genotypes of hepatitis C virus among transplant recipients by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015 Feb 20;8(2):e16722. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still exists as a health concern among the transplant patients. Because of the severity of the disease, different responses to treatment, and side effects resulting from long therapeutic period, determination of genotypes and viral loads can help choose the best treatment protocols.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the HCV genotypes and its distribution patterns among liver, kidney, and bone marrow recipient candidates across Iran, referred to Namazi Hospital, southern Iran.

Patients And Methods: A total of 101 individuals, including 44 (43.6%) liver, 55 (54.5%) kidney, and 2 (2%) bone marrow recipient candidates, with ages ranging between 5 and 74 years (Mean ±SD: 46.53 ± 13.73 y) participated in this study. From those, whole blood sample were collected and anti-HCV antibodies, RNA detection, and genotyping were performed on plasma using commercial chromatographic immunoassay, TaqMan one-step real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and genotyping RT-PCR kits, respectively. The frequencies of anti-HCV antibodies, RNA, various genotypes, and the viral load were compared with respect to gender, age, and transplant recipient groups.

Results: Of 101 individuals, 47 (46.5%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies and 34 (33.7%) for RNA with a significant difference (P < 0.05). RNA copy number ranged from 4.6 × 103 to 3.11 × 107 copies/mL, median: 2.92 × 106 copies/mL, with no statistical differences in all groups. Analyses revealed no significant differences between the frequencies of anti-HCV antibodies or RNA in different groups. The frequencies of the genotypes 1 (50%) and 3 (35.3%) were higher than those of the genotypes 2 (2.9%), 4 (2.9%), and undetermined one (8.8%). Genotype 1 was significantly more prevalent in liver transplant recipients, those older than 40 years, and male cases (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Considering the high frequency of genotypes 1 and 3 among the studied groups, it is suggested that before and after transplantation programs be improved to manage and treat the disease efficiently, based on the standard protocols for such genotypes in the region. Accordingly, the occurrence of post-transplant complications due to immunosuppression among all the recipients as well as reinfection in HCV infected liver transplant patients can be diminished.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.16722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4353064PMC
February 2015

Hepatitis B virus DNA level Among the Seropositive Afghan Immigrants, Southern Iran.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014 May 1;7(5):e10127. Epub 2014 May 1.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran.

Background: Diagnosis and control programs for infectious diseases among immigrants are the most important aspects of epidemiological studies for both origin and destination countries. Data about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among the Afghan immigrants in Iran is limited.

Objectives: To the best of HBV treatment and prevention in Afghan immigrants in Iran, the present study was conducted to determine the virus DNA level, and the frequency of respective hepatitis B risk factors among the respective seropositive patients in Fars province, southern Iran.

Patients And Methods: A total of 64 HBsAg positive Afghan immigrants including 47 (73.4%) men and 17 (26.6%) women, with ages ranging between 15 and 74 years (mean ± standard deviation: 37.69 ± 15.02 years) participated in this study. From those, whole blood sample were collected and DNAs were extracted from the sera and analyzed by TaqMan real-time PCR assay with a set of primers and probe amplified core protein region of HBV genome.

Results: HBV DNA was detected in a total of 51/64 (79.7 %) serum samples; 37 (72.5%) male and 14 (27.5%) female. The copy number of HBV DNA ranged from 5 × 10(2) to 8.49 × 10(8) copies/mL in the serum samples; median 3.8 × 10(4) copies/mL. Demographic data and risk factors were also evaluated. The comparison of viral loads between the age groups and sex indicated no significant correlation (P > 0.05). However, the serum HBV DNA level significantly decreased in the treated patient group (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in medicine usage between the two sexes in the study population (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Considering the results, determining the HBV DNA load and evaluation of treatment response can help to reduce the costs of diagnosis and treatment procedures in such patients, as well as, decreasing the risk of HBV transmission in immigrant Afghan population. Moreover, HBV screening strategies in country border entrances among immigrant should be performed. Moreover, free vaccination and treatment programs, and improving the level of HBV knowledge among Afghan immigrants in Iran is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.10127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138643PMC
May 2014

Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2014 27;2014:347602. Epub 2014 May 27.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7193711351, Iran.

Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/347602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4058512PMC
July 2014

Prevalence and intensity of Oestrus ovis in sheep of Shiraz, southern Iran.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2009 Oct 31;41(7):1259-62. Epub 2009 Jan 31.

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, 1731, Shiraz, 71345, Iran.

Two thousand and two heads obtained from slaughtered sheep at the Fars abattoirs (Shiraz, Southern Iran) between April 2006 and April 2007 were examined for the presence of Oestrus ovis larvae. Of the total heads, 995 (49.7%) were infested with O. ovis larvae. O. ovis larvae were observed in both sexes and all age groups in each season of the year. A total of 6264 larvae were collected. The overall larval intensity for the infested sheep was 6.3, with 3.9 in spring, 5.3 in summer, 5.9 in autumn and 7.8 in winter. Prevalence ranged from 23.3% in spring to 80% in winter. Increased infestation was observed in older animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9309-8DOI Listing
October 2009