Publications by authors named "Mohammad Alizadeh"

227 Publications

Metabolic and hormonal effects of melatonin and/or magnesium supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jun 6;18(1):57. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Nutrition, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. This study was designed to investigate the effects of melatonin and/or magnesium supplementation on metabolic profile and levels of sex hormones in PCOS women.

Methods: In an 8-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 84 subjects with PCOS aged 18-40 years were randomly assigned based on the random block procedure to take magnesium, melatonin, magnesium plus melatonin, and placebo. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the study.

Results: After intervention, the mean Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score decreased significantly in both co-supplementation and melatonin groups (P < 0.001). Magnesium supplementation in combination with melatonin resulted in a significant greater decrease in testosterone concentrations compared with the placebo (P < 0.05). Co-supplementation of magnesium-melatonin had significantly reduced serum insulin levels (geometric means difference: - 1.11 (mIU/mL) (percent change: - 15.99)), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (- 0.28 (- 18.66)), serum cholesterol (mean difference: - 16.08 (mg/dl) [95% CI - 24.24, - 7.92]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) - 18.96 (mg/dl) [- 28.73, - 9.20]) and testosterone levels (- 0.09 (ng/ml) (- 25.00)), as compared to the baseline values (P < 0.05). An increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels was also observed following the administration of the melatonin alone (2.76 (mg/dl) [0.57, 4.95]) or in combination with magnesium (2.19 (mg/dl) [0.61, 3.77]) (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Co-supplementation with magnesium and melatonin had beneficial effects on sleep quality and total testosterone. Additionally, melatonin supplementation alone was found to be associated with a significant reduction in PSQI score. Moreover, combined melatonin and magnesium supplementation was more effective in improving serum levels of cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and insulin, and HOMA-IR.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial. http://www.irct.ir : IRCT20191130045556N1, January 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00586-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183043PMC
June 2021

Effect of probiotic supplementation along with calorie restriction on metabolic endotoxemia, and inflammation markers in coronary artery disease patients: a double blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial.

Nutr J 2021 Jun 1;20(1):47. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Faculty of Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Purpose: Alterations in the gut microbiome (dysbiosis) has been associated with increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD). It has been proposed that modulation of gut microbiota by probiotic might modify metabolic endotoxemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on endotoxin level, and biomarkers of inflammation in CAD participants.

Methods: This study was a 12-weeks randomized, double-blind, and intervention on 44 patients with CAD. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either one LGG capsule 1.6 × 10 colony-forming unit (CFU) or the placebo capsules for 12 weeks. In addition, all the participants were also prescribed a calorie-restricted diet. Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were assessed before and after the intervention.

Results: A significant decrease in IL1-Beta concentration (- 1.88 ± 2.25, vs. 0.50 ± 1.58 mmol/L, P = 0.027), and LPS levels (- 5.88 ± 2.70 vs. 2.96+ 5.27 mg/L, P = 0.016), was observed after the probiotic supplementation compared with the placebo. Participants who had ≥2.5 kg weight loss showed significantly improved cardiovascular-related factors, compared to patients with < 2.5 kg weight reduction, regardless of the supplement they took.

Conclusion: These data provide preliminary evidence that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on metabolic endotoxemia, and mega inflammation in participants with CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00703-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170788PMC
June 2021

Warming enabled upslope advance in western US forest fires.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(22)

Department of Civil Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725

Increases in burned area and large fire occurrence are widely documented over the western United States over the past half century. Here, we focus on the elevational distribution of forest fires in mountainous ecoregions of the western United States and show the largest increase rates in burned area above 2,500 m during 1984 to 2017. Furthermore, we show that high-elevation fires advanced upslope with a median cumulative change of 252 m (-107 to 656 m; 95% CI) in 34 y across studied ecoregions. We also document a strong interannual relationship between high-elevation fires and warm season vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The upslope advance of fires is consistent with observed warming reflected by a median upslope drift of VPD isolines of 295 m (59 to 704 m; 95% CI) during 1984 to 2017. These findings allow us to estimate that recent climate trends reduced the high-elevation flammability barrier and enabled fires in an additional 11% of western forests. Limited influences of fire management practices and longer fire-return intervals in these montane mesic systems suggest these changes are largely a byproduct of climate warming. Further weakening in the high-elevation flammability barrier with continued warming has the potential to transform montane fire regimes with numerous implications for ecosystems and watersheds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009717118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179236PMC
June 2021

Effects of Melatonin and/or Magnesium Supplementation on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Nutrition and Metabolic Disease Research Center, Clinical Science Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran.

Magnesium and melatonin are known to exert multiple beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. This study was designed to determine the effects of magnesium and/or melatonin supplementation on metabolic profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 84 subjects with PCOS aged 18-40 years old. Patients were randomly assigned based on the random block procedure to take magnesium, melatonin, magnesium plus melatonin, or placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after the intervention to quantify related variables. After the 8-week intervention, an insignificant marginal difference was seen in waist circumference (WC) between groups (P = 0.085). Magnesium-melatonin co-supplementation resulted in more reductions in hirsutism compared with other groups (P < 0.001). Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) declined significantly in the melatonin and co-supplementation groups compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Also, magnesium plus melatonin was associated with a more increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, as compared to the other treatment groups (P = 0.001). Overall, we found a favorable effect of co-supplementation of magnesium and melatonin for 8 weeks in women with PCOS on hirsutism, serum TNF-α, and TAC levels. Furthermore, melatonin independently contributed to decreased serum values of TNF-α.Clinical trial registration number http://www.irct.ir : IRCT20191130045556N1, January 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02725-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Carotenoids supplementation and inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 17:1-17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of carotenoids on selected inflammatory parameters. PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of science were searched from inception until April 2021. The random-effect model was used to analyze data and the overall effect size was computed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and corresponding 95% of confidence interval (CI). A total of 26 trials with 35 effect sizes were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated significant effects of carotenoids on C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD: ‒0.54 mg/L, 95% CI: ‒0.71, ‒0.37,  < 0.001), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (WMD: ‒0.54 pg/mL, 95% CI: ‒1.01, ‒0.06,  = 0.025), however the effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was not significant (WMD: ‒0.97 pg/ml, 95% CI: ‒1.98, 0.03,  = 0.0.059). For the individual carotenoids, astaxanthin, (WMD: ‒0.30 mg/L, 95% CI: ‒0.51, ‒0.09,  = 0.005), lutein/zeaxanthin (WMD: ‒0.30 mg/L, 95% CI: ‒0.45, ‒0.15,  < 0.001), and β-cryptoxanthin (WMD: ‒0.35 mg/L, 95% CI: ‒0.54, ‒0.15,  < 0.001) significantly decreased CRP level. Also, only lycopene (WMD: ‒1.08 pg/ml, 95%CI: ‒2.03, ‒0.12,  = 0.027) led to a significant decrease in IL-6. The overall results supported possible protective effects of carotenoids on inflammatory biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1925870DOI Listing
May 2021

MIND diet and cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 14:1-19. Epub 2021 May 14.

Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Cognitive decline is a rapidly increasing public health concern. A healthy diet has potential in preserving brain and maintaining cognitive health. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the relationship between Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet and cognitive functioning in older adults. PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched to extract original studies on humans published until July 2020, without date restrictions. Articles that evaluated the association between MIND diet and cognitive performance in older adults were included. Duplicated and irrelevant studies were screened out and data were obtained through critical analysis. Quality of the articles and risk of bias was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa and Cochrane Collaboration's quality assessment tools. Of the 135 studies retrieved, 13 articles (9 cohort, 3 cross-sectional, and 1 RCT studies) were included in the final review. All of the included studies indicated that adherence to the MIND diet was positively associated with specific domains, but not all, of cognition and global cognitive function (78% of the studies) in older adults. MIND diet was superior to other plant-rich diets including Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, Pro-Vegetarian and Baltic Sea diets, for improving cognition. Adherence to the MIND diet may possibly be associated with an improved cognitive function in older adults. MIND diet may be superior to other plant-rich diets for improving cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1925220DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of garlic powder supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, insulin resistance, fatty liver index, and appetite in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing. It is closely linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Garlic consumption as a strategy for the management of MetS has been suggested. We investigated the effect of garlic supplementation on MetS components, insulin resistance, fatty liver index (FLI), and appetite in subjects with MetS. Ninety subjects were assigned to receive 1,600 mg/d garlic powder or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcomes included MetS components. The secondary outcomes included insulin resistance, FLI, and appetite. Garlic supplementation compared with the placebo led to a significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.5 vs. -1.8, p < .001) and a significant reduction in waist circumference (-1.3 vs. 0.0, p = .001), diastolic blood pressure (-6.7 vs. 0.0, p < .001), systolic blood pressure (-7.7 vs. 0.5, p < .001), triglyceride (-40.0 vs. 0.1, p < .001), γ-glutamyl transferase (-3.2 vs. 0.6, p = .01), FLI (-5.5 vs. 0.1, p < .001), insulin (-2.9 vs. -1.1, p < .001), homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (-0.5 vs. -0.3, p < .001) and appetite (hunger: -11.7 vs. 1.7, p < .001; fullness: 10.0 vs. 0.3, p = .001; desire to eat: -6.7 vs. 2.1, p < .001; and ability to eat: -11.5 vs. -1.0, p < .001). Garlic improves MetS components, insulin resistance, FLI, and appetite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7146DOI Listing
May 2021

Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Related to Heart Failure Risk and Cardiac Function: A Case-Control Study in Heart Failure Patients.

Front Nutr 2021 6;8:605396. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Previous studies suggest that diet and inflammation are important risk factors for heart failure (HF); however, the associations remain unclear. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was established to measure the inflammatory capacity of individuals' diet. This study aimed to explore the DII in HF subjects compared with controls. We conducted a case-control (116 cases and 113 controls) study that recruited in the similar clinics. DII scores were calculated based on dietary intakes. N-Terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and ejection fraction (EF) were assessed in both groups. In order to analyze DII scores with HF as the outcome, we used conditional logistic regression. A linear regression was applied to explore the associations between the DII and left ventricular EF (LVEF). There was statistically significant difference in DII scores in cases vs. controls (-0.16 ± 1.37 vs. -0.33 ± 1.67; = 0.040). Conditional logistic regression has shown that subjects with higher DII scores had higher risk of HF. For every one-point rise in DII score, the odds of having HF increased by 30% (OR: 1.30; CI: 1.03, 1.69; = 0.047). The EF was inversely associated with saturated fatty acid (β = -0.34, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.07; = 0.012). Subjects with higher DII scores had higher NT-proBNP levels and had lower EF. The DII score was associated with high probability of HF. It appears that consumption of anti-inflammatory diet may lead to the prevention of HF and therefore suggests that dietary modification with the goal of reducing DII scores could be a valuable strategy for improving clinical outcomes in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.605396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056025PMC
April 2021

Effect of sulfur dioxide exposure on histopathology and morphometry of pancreatic islet cells and glycemic indices in Wistar rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Sulfur dioxide (SO) is a ubiquitous air pollutant. Recent studies suggest that SO is a momentous risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM). The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effects of SO exposure on histopathology and morphometry of pancreatic islet cells and serum glycemic indices in rats. Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided equally into SO and control groups. SO group was exposed to 10 parts per million (ppm) SO for 5 weeks (6 days a week, 3 h/day) and control group to filtered air for the same time as SO group. Blood serums were collected and pancreatic tissue isolated. Glycemic indices were measured. Pathological and morphometric changes were studied in the pancreatic tissues. Exposure to SO caused a significant increase in blood glucose but did not significantly change insulin and HbA1c serum levels and HOMA-IR. There were significant differences in vascular congestion (p= 0.02) and insulitis (p= 0.04) between the groups. SO inhalation significantly reduced beta cell number and beta-alpha cell ratio compared with the control group (p=0.03 and p<0.0001, respectively). These findings suggest that SO exposure damages pancreatic tissue which subsequently influences either the incidence of DM or the trend of diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12672-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Nigella sativa oil supplementation on selected metabolic parameters and anthropometric indices in patients with coronary artery disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Various metabolic parameters are risk factors related to the amplified risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A wide variety of data exist on Nigella sativa (NS) and metabolic parameters. The current study is designed to examine NS supplementation on lipid profile, blood pressure, glycemic control, anthropometric indices, and insulin resistance in individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 patients with CAD received either 2 g of NS oil or sunflower oil as a placebo for 8 weeks. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were assessed. NS significantly reduced weight (-1.82 Kg; 95% C, [2.72, 4.13]), body mass index (-0.67 kg/m ; 95% C, [0.33, 1.01]), waist circumference (-2.15 cm; 95% C, [1.06, 3.23]), hip circumference (-1.26 cm; 95% C, [0.61, 1.910]), waist-to-hip ratio (0.008; 95%C, [0.001, 0.01]), systolic (-9.52 mmHg; 95% C, [7.14, 11.9]), diastolic blood pressure (-8.26 mmHg; 95% C, [4.89, 11.62]), and fasting blood glucose (FBS) (-4.32 mg/dl; 95% C, [-0.51, 9.15]) as compared with the placebo group. The results indicate a potential beneficiary effect of NS on the metabolic parameters in CAD patients including improvements in anthropometric indices, blood pressure, and FBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7115DOI Listing
April 2021

Mean Platelet Volume, Association with Inflammatory and Nutritional Markers in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2021 Mar;1(2):143-147

Clinical Research Development Unit of Shohada Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) has been revealed to be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in the hemodialysis patients .The aim of present study is to investigate the association between MPV level with inflammatory and nutritional factors in patients requiring chronic hemodialysis.

Methods: 100 patients who were on maintenance hemodialysis were included. Based on the median MPV (8.7 fL) patients were divided into two groups of low and high MPV level to assess and compare in terms of inflammatory (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and transferrin), and nutritional (albumin, ferritin, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein) parameters.

Results: The median MPV level in our patients was 8.7 ± 1.8 fl. There was no statistical difference in the level of inflammatory and nutritional markers between the two groups, and none of them were related to MPV level (P > .05). The prevalence of IHD was significantly higher in the high MPV group (P < .05). After adjustment for the age, no association was observed between different parameters and MPV level except for transferrin in patient's ≤ 60 years old. Mean transferrin levels were significantly lower in the high MPV group (P < .05).

Conclusion: Present study did not show any association between inflammatory and nutritional markers with MPV level in hemodialysis patients except for the transferrin level in younger cases.
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March 2021

Erratum: Correction of Title.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Jan 7;11(1):205. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.15171/apb.2018.012.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2021.089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961216PMC
January 2021

Maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy and risk of low birth weight in newborns: A systematic review.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Jan 21:1-32. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Nutrition Research center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is a key factor influencing birth outcome. Dietary diversity is a proxy for multiple macro- and/or micronutrient sufficiency of an individual's diet. This systematic review aimed to summarize the findings on the association between maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (LBW) in newborns.

Design: This is a systematic review study.

Setting: Google and the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched to extract original studies on humans published until June 2020, without date restrictions. There was no limitation regarding geographic region or economic condition of countries. Duplicated and irrelevant studies were screened out and data were obtained through critical analysis.

Participants: Articles that examined the association between maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy and the risk of LBW in infants were included.

Results: Of the 98 studies retrieved, 15 articles were included in the final review. All included articles represent low- and middle-income countries. 80% of the studies (n=12) indicated that low maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of LBW infants. Three studies that included a small number of LBW infants and did not take into account factors which may bias study results, failed to show this association.

Conclusion: The results suggest that low maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy may be associated with the risk of LBW, more specifically in developing countries. Dietary diversity might be a valuable predictor of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and the chance of giving birth to a LBW infant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021000276DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of sulfur dioxide, ozone, and ambient air pollution on bone metabolism related biochemical parameters in a rat model.

Environ Anal Health Toxicol 2020 Dec 9;35(4):e2020023-0. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Ambient air pollution (AAP), as an important environmental health problem, affects everyone. A large body of literature links AAP, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3), with a wide range of non-communicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the pollutants on the bone metabolism biochemical parameters in a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided to four groups: control, SO2 (10 ppm), O3 (0.6 ppm), and AAP groups. After 5 weeks of exposure (3 hours/day, 6 days/week), blood samples were taken, and biochemical parameters were assayed. Vitamin D level of the AAP group was higher than the control and SO2 groups (p=0.004 and 0.003). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) level of the O3 group was significantly higher than the AAP group (p=0.006). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), phosphorus, magnesium levels of the SO2 group; Vit D, ALP, osteocalcin (OC), and PTH of O3 group; and OC and osteoprotegerin (OPG) of AAP group were higher than those of control group but differences were not significant. Calcium level of the SO2 group; OPG and calcium of O3 group; and PTH of AAP group were less than those of control group but differences were not significant (p>0.05). The results showed significant effect of AAP with natural daylight on vitamin D and also O3 on PTH of the rats. In the concentrations and conditions of the study, we didn't find any significant unwanted effects of AAP, SO2, and O3 on the bone biochemical parameters. More investigations with more concentrations and exposure time are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2020023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829409PMC
December 2020

Effect of 8 weeks' supplementation grape seed extract on insulin resistance in iranian adolescents with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Jan-Feb;15(1):197-203. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Attar Nishabouri St., Tabriz, Iran, Postal code: 5166614711, POBOX: 14711. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Insulin resistance in adolescents is a major health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract on insulin resistance in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods: Participants were divided into grape seed extract (GSE) and placebo groups (n = 24 each) and received 100 mg/day of GSE or placebo and were placed on a weight loss diet for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical indices, blood pressure, dietary intake, and physical activity were measured before and after the intervention.

Results: Forty-two participants completed the trial. After the intervention, the age, sex, baseline values, energy intake and physical activity as a covariate adjusted using ANCOVA for determine differences between groups. The MD (mean difference ±SEM) of HOMA-IR between the GSE group (-1.46 ± 0.45) and the placebo group (-0.48 ± 0.47), (p = 0.020), and the MD of insulin between the GSE group (-7.05 ± 2.11) and the placebo group (-1.71 ± 2.12), (p = 0.024), were significant. Although changes were observed in other variables, they were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: GSE improves insulin concentration and insulin resistance in adolescents with MetS and provides a basis for possible application of the GSE in the clinical management of MetS in adolescents. This study registered under Randomized Clinical Trials.gov Identifier no. IRCT2013112611288N7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.12.028DOI Listing
December 2020

Novel multi-targeted nanoparticles for targeted co-delivery of nucleic acid and chemotherapeutic agents to breast cancer tissues.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 9;118:111494. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Graduate Entry Medical School (GEMS), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Selective delivery of drugs to damaged tissues favorable to reduce the side effects while enhancing the therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of the present study was the design and synthesis of multi-targeted nanoparticles for co-delivery of both drug and nucleic acid to cancer cells. In this study biocompatible compounds such as chitosan, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polycaprolactone (PCL), folic acid (FA) and glucose (Glu) were used to synthesize the FA-PEG-Chitosan-PCL-Chitosan-PEG-FA (FPCP) and Glu-PEG-Chitosan-PCL-Chitosan-PEG-Glu (GPCP) copolymers. Then, paclitaxel (PTX), oleic acid-coated FeCO nanoparticles (FeCO-OA) and 6-carboxy-fluorescein phosphoramidate (FAM)-labeled siRNA (siRNA-FAM) were encapsulated into either FPCP or GPCP, or both FPCP and GPCP (GFPCP), using the solvent evaporation technique. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and drug delivery efficiency of FPCP/FeCO-OA/PTX, GPCP/FeCO-OA/PTX and GFPCP/FeCO-OA/PTX nanoparticles were determined by recording the MTT assay, weight loss and tumor volume respectively. In addition, the ability of FPCP/FeCO-OA/siRNA-FAM, GPCP/FeCO-OA/siRNA-FAM, and GFPCP/FeCO-OA/siRNA-FAM gene transfer was determined using flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, the effects of applying an external magnetic field to the tumor site on the efficiency of drug delivery using FPCP/FeCO-OA/siRNA-FAM/PTX (NPsA), GPCP/FeCO-OA/siRNA-FAM/PTX (NPsB) and GFPCP/FeCO-OA/siRNA-FAM/PTX (NPsAB) were also investigated in the present study. No significant toxicity was observed for the FPCP and GPCP copolymers. Meanwhile, PTX encapsulated FPCP, GPCP and GFPCP exhibited greater anticancer activities against MCF-7 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results showed that the nanoparticles targeted with both folic acid and glucose increased drug and RNA transfer efficiency compared to when folic acid or glucose alone used. Also, the efficiency of PTX and siRNA-FAM delivery to tumor tissues by nanoparticles increased significantly by applying an external magnetic field to the tumor area. The hydrophobic interactions between different amphipathic copolymers in appropriate is an efficient and easy technique to synthesize complex and multifunctional nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111494DOI Listing
January 2021

The role of climate change and vegetation greening on the variation of terrestrial evapotranspiration in northwest China's Qilian Mountains.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 16;759:143532. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China; Qilian Mountains Eco-environment Research Center in Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China.

Terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) reflects the complex interactions of climate, vegetation, soil and terrain and is a critical component in water and energy cycles. However, the manner in which climate change and vegetation greening influence ET remains poorly understood, especially in alpine regions. Drawing on the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) ET data, the interannual variability of ET and its ties to precipitation (P), potential evaporation (ET) and vegetation (NDVI) were analysed. The Budyko framework was implemented over the period of 1982 to 2015 to quantify the response of ET to climate change's direct (P and ET) and indirect (NDVI) impacts. The ET, P, ET and NDVI all showed significant increasing trends from 1981 to 2015 with rates of 1.52 mm yr, 3.18 mm yr, 0.89 mm yr and 4.0 × 10 yr, respectively. At the regional level, the positive contribution of increases in P and NDVI offset the negative contribution of ET to the change in ET (∆ET). The positive ∆ET between 1982 and 2001 was strongly linked with the concomitant increase in NDVI. Increases in vegetation contributing to a positive ∆ET differed among landscape types: for shrub, meadow and steppe they occurred during both periods, for alpine vegetation between 1982 and 2001, and for desert between 2002 and 2015. Climate change directly contributed to a rise in ET with P as the dominant factor affecting forested lands during both periods, and alpine vegetation between 2002 and 2015. Moreover, ET was a dominant factor for the desert between 1982 and 2001, where the variation of P was not significant. The contributions of factors having an impact on ∆ET are modulated by both the sensitivity of impact factors acting on ET as well as the magnitudes of factor changes. The greening of vegetation can influence ET by increasing vegetation transpiration and rainfall interception in forest, brush and meadow landscapes. These findings can help in developing a better understanding of the interaction of ecosystems and hydrology in alpine regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143532DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of core stabilization exercises on thickness and activity of trunk and hip muscles in subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2020 Oct 30;24(4):138-146. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Tehran University, School of Sport Medicine Sciences, Iran.

Background: Changes in trunk and hip muscles are believed to be important in subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP), but little is known about specific changes, or how they might be affected by core stabilization exercises. The aim of this study was to compare six key muscles before and after these exercises.

Methods: Thirty two NSCLBP patients were assigned randomly into two groups: exercise (n = 17) and control (n = 15). On 5 days per week for 4 weeks, the Exercise group performed 16 core stabilization exercises and the Control group received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and a 'hot-pack'. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to assess maximum bilateral activity of transversus abdominis (TrA), multifidus (MF) and gluteus maximus (Gmax) muscles. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure the rest and contracted thickness of these muscles. Pain and disability were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index.

Results: When left and right-side muscle data were combined, two-way ANOVAs showed a nonsignificant interaction effect for all dependent variables (P > 0.05), significant time effects on resting muscle thickness for TrA (P = 0.01), MF (P = 0.041) and Gmax (P = 0.003), EMG signals of TrA (P = 0.038), pain and disability (P = 0.000). There were a significant group effect on contracted thickness for TrA (P = 0.032) and Gmax (P = 0.026) and disability (P = 0.017).

Conclusions: Core stabilization exercises increased contracted thickness of TrA and Gmax muscles and decreased disability in subjects with NSCLBP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2020.06.026DOI Listing
October 2020

A comprehensive insight into potential roles of Nigella sativa on diseases by targeting AMP-activated protein kinase: a review.

Daru 2020 Dec 2;28(2):779-787. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objectives: Nigella sativa (NS) is a known medicinal herb with numerous therapeutic effects such as antidiabetic, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. It has been indicated that NS can regulate cellular metabolism by adjusting transduction signaling pathways. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the main physiological processes, such as energy hemostasis, cellular metabolism, and autophagy regulators. Herb-derived medicines have always been considered as one of the main AMPK activators, and surprisingly recent data has demonstrated that it can be a target for NS and its derivatives.

Evidence Acquisition: The literature search was conducted in PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, ProQuest, and Google Scholar electronic resources. Published articles up to September 2020 were considered, and those of which investigated Nigella sativa effects on the AMPK pathway after meeting the inclusion criteria were included.

Results: The search was performed on several online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest, and Google Scholar from inception until January 2020. Among the initial search, 245 studies were found. After removing duplicated data and meeting the inclusion criteria, only 14 studies were selected. They included the effects of NS and its bioactive compounds as anti-hyperglycemic (n = 5), on liver function (n = 4), cancers (n = 3), and on Neuroinflammation and Atherosclerosis (n = 2). Most of the included studies are animals or in-vitro investigations.

Conclusion: In this review, we discuss the latest findings on the molecular mechanism of NS effecting the AMPK signaling pathway. We also focus on the therapeutic effects of NS, including the prevention and treatment of metabolic and pro-inflammatory disease by targeting the AMPK pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-020-00376-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704809PMC
December 2020

Maternal excessive gestational weight gain as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder in offspring: a systematic review.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Oct 22;20(1):645. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a prenatal complication that may contribute to long-term behavioral and neurodevelopmental differences in offspring. This systematic review summarizes research on the association between maternal GWG and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring.

Methods: Google and electronic databases, including PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar, were searched for original human studies published in English through June 2020. Articles that examined the association between GWG and risk of ASD in offspring were included. Duplicate and irrelevant studies were removed; and data were obtained through critical analysis.

Results: Of 96 articles searched, eight studies were included in the final review. All studies (n = 7) investigating the association of maternal excessive GWG with risk of ASD in offspring indicated that high GWG was independently associated with an increased risk of ASD. Of five studies investigating the association of inadequate GWG with the risk of ASD, four indicated that low GWG was not associated with an increased risk of ASD. Of seven studies examining the association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI or weight with the risk of ASD, five reported that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI or weight did not appear to be independently associated with risk of ASD. The GWG-ASD association is independent of maternal BMI and child's intellectual disability, but offspring's genetic susceptibility connection to the GWG-ASD association remains a topic of debate.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that maternal excessive GWG may be associated with increased risk of ASD in offspring. However, insufficient GWG does not appear to have such association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03324-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579946PMC
October 2020

The effect of vitamin E supplementation on selected inflammatory biomarkers in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Sci Rep 2020 10 14;10(1):17234. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The previous meta-analysis of clinical trials revealed a beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations; however, it is unknown whether this vitamin has the same influence on other inflammatory biomarkers. Also, several clinical trials have been published since the release of earlier meta-analysis. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis to summarize current evidence on the effects of vitamin E supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers in adults. We searched the online databases using relevant keywords up to November 2019. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin E, compared with the placebo, on serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were included. Overall, we included 33 trials with a total sample size of 2102 individuals, aged from 20 to 70 years. Based on 36 effect sizes from 26 RCTs on serum concentrations of CRP, we found a significant reduction following supplementation with vitamin E (- 0.52, 95% CI - 0.80, - 0.23 mg/L, P < 0.001). Although the overall effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was not significant, a significant reduction in this cytokine was seen in studies that used α-tocopherol and those trials that included patients with disorders related to insulin resistance. Moreover, we found a significant reducing effect of vitamin E supplementation on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations at high dosages of vitamin E; such that based on dose-response analysis, serum TNF-α concentrations were reduced significantly at the dosages of ≥ 700 mg/day vitamin E (P = 0.001). Considering different chemical forms of vitamin E, α-tocopherol, unlike other forms, had a reducing effect on serum levels of CRP and IL-6. In conclusion, our findings revealed a beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation, particularly in the form of α-tocopherol, on subclinical inflammation in adults. Future high-quality RCTs should be conducted to translate this anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E to the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73741-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560744PMC
October 2020

Comparison of endocannabinoids levels, FAAH gene polymorphisms, and appetite regulatory substances in women with and without binge eating disorder: a cross- sectional study.

Nutr Res 2020 11 9;83:86-93. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Binge eating disorder (BED) is known as the most common eating disorder with both psychosocial and biological factors involved. In this regard, there is a need to recognize probable disturbances in substances involved in food intake regulation in BED. In this study, we hypothesized that the levels of endocannabinoids, fatty acid amid hydrolase (FAAH) gene polymorphisms, and appetite regulatory substances are different in overweight and obese women with and without BED. A Binge Eating Scale was used to estimate the prevalence of BED in 180 women classified as overweight or obese. The levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), leptin, insulin, and orexin-A were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The subjects were genotyped for polymorphisms of FAAH gene using amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. About 41.6% (n = 75) of the subjects were diagnosed with BED. Women with BED exhibited significantly higher levels of AEA, 2-AG, leptin, and insulin compared to non-BED women (P < .05). Binary logistic regression analysis also showed that AEA, leptin, and insulin were the predictors of having BED after adjusting for body mass index (P < .05). In addition, the frequency of A allele of FAAH gene was higher in women with BED compared to women without BED; however, there were no significant differences between these 2 groups (P = .08). These results supported our hypothesis in the cases of AEA, 2-AG, leptin, and insulin but not orexin and FAAH gene polymorphisms. The findings of the current study provide further evidence concerning the role of these substances in BED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2020.09.001DOI Listing
November 2020

A comprehensive insight into the effect of glutamine supplementation on metabolic variables in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 25;17:80. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important threats to human health in the twenty-first century. The use of complementary and alternative medicine to prevent, control, and reduce the complications of diabetes mellitus is increasing at present. Glutamine amino acid is known as a functional food. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the potential role of glutamine supplementation on metabolic variables in diabetes mellitus. For this review, PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception through April 2020. All clinical trial and animal studies assessing the effects of glutamine on diabetes mellitus were eligible for inclusion. 19 studies of 1482 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies, nine studies reported a significant increase in serum GLP-1 levels. Also, eight studies showed reducing in serum levels of fasting blood sugar, four studies reducing in postprandial blood sugar, and triglyceride after glutamine supplementation. Although glutamine resulted in a significant increase in insulin production in seven studies, the findings on Hb-A1c levels were inconclusive. In addition to, despite of the results was promising for the effects of glutamine on weight changes, oxidative stress, and inflammation, more precise clinical trials are needed to obtain more accurate results. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation could improve glycemic control and levels of incretins (such as GLP-1 and GIP) in diabetes mellitus. However, more studies are needed for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00503-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517657PMC
September 2020

A century of observations reveals increasing likelihood of continental-scale compound dry-hot extremes.

Sci Adv 2020 Sep 23;6(39). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Civil Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725-2060, USA.

Using over a century of ground-based observations over the contiguous United States, we show that the frequency of compound dry and hot extremes has increased substantially in the past decades, with an alarming increase in very rare dry-hot extremes. Our results indicate that the area affected by concurrent extremes has also increased significantly. Further, we explore homogeneity (i.e., connectedness) of dry-hot extremes across space. We show that dry-hot extremes have homogeneously enlarged over the past 122 years, pointing to spatial propagation of extreme dryness and heat and increased probability of continental-scale compound extremes. Last, we show an interesting shift between the main driver of dry-hot extremes over time. While meteorological drought was the main driver of dry-hot events in the 1930s, the observed warming trend has become the dominant driver in recent decades. Our results provide a deeper understanding of spatiotemporal variation of compound dry-hot extremes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz4571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7531886PMC
September 2020

Prognostic Potential of the Preoperative Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score in Predicting Survival of Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Adv Nutr 2021 02;12(1):234-250

Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The nutritional status of a patient has prognostic potency concerning short- and long-term outcomes, including survival, in many diseases. The controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score is a method for assessing nutritional status and predicting outcomes of several diseases. This study sought to systematically identify the prognostic role of preoperative CONUT score on posttreatment overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with cancer. The PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar databases and Google were searched for all dates until December 2019. Original articles investigating the association of preoperative CONUT score with survival in cancer patients who underwent surgery were included. Duplicate and irrelevant reports were screened out and the remaining articles assessed for quality and data extracted during critical analysis. Results of multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic competence of CONUT score in predicting survival. The search method identified an initial 181 articles, of which 32 were included in the final analysis. Lower OS, CSS, and RFS rates were reported by 100%, 100%, and 87.0% of the included studies, respectively, in cancer patients with high CONUT scores. A prognostic role of the CONUT score for prediction of OS, CSS, and RFS in cancer patients was shown by 91.7%, 90.9%, and 52.6% of the studies, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic curve area under the curve (AUC) value of the CONUT score for predicting OS, CSS, and RFS was at an acceptable level (>0.5) in all studies with available AUC values (n = 19). Sixty percent (12 of 20) of the studies reported that high CONUT score was significantly related to lower BMI. The findings promote confidence that a high preoperative CONUT score is associated with poor survival rate and is an independent prognostic factor of OS and CSS in patients with various types of cancer. Evaluation of the preoperative CONUT score might help clinicians in decision-making with respect to surgical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850023PMC
February 2021

Process Evaluation of a National Elderly Nutrition-Care Program in Iran: Perspectives of Clients and Providers.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 13;13:1135-1147. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: As aging populations increase, many countries have begun implementation of policies to improve elder health and nutrition. This study evaluated key process components of nutrition sections of a national elderly integrated-care program in health-care centers in Iran.

Methods: With stratified three-stage random cluster sampling, a total of 256 elderly subjects (clients) and 76 staff members of health-care centers (providers) participated in the study. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using two self-administrated questionnaires to evaluate various components of process evaluation for clients and providers. Program reach was measured by the ratio of the number in the target group who underwent the program to the number of eligible individuals. Exposure rate was measured as clients' awareness of program services. Delivery and fidelity were assessed from providers' reports for each service. Satisfaction rates were assessed for the whole program and for each service of the program. All reasons behind strengths and weaknesses in each of the process-evaluation components were examined and are reported in detail.

Results: The clients reported low-reach (20.0%) and moderate-exposure rates of 77.5%, with a program target of 90%. Primary training sessions were delivered to the providers as intended (100%), but most planned services for clients, especially vitamin and mineral supplementation, follow-up, and physical activity sessions, were poorly implemented, as they were delivered correctly to 24.7% (n=63, vitamin and mineral supplementation), 24% (n=62, follow-up), and 40.3% (n=103, physical activity sessions) of the clients, with a set program goal of 60%. An overall low level of implementation fidelity was observed, and 39.3% (n=30) of the providers believed that most clients did not benefit from the nutritional services. Overall, less than half (42.8%, n=101) the clients were highly satisfied with the program.

Conclusion: The process evaluation showed insufficient reach, exposure, and fidelity of the program, as well as imprecise delivery of some services, which resulted in low levels of client satisfaction. The findings may have implications for further reinforcement of the program, and indicate the importance of continuous monitoring and evaluation of such programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S261121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434527PMC
August 2020

Recent Updates on Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Furan Natural Derivatives.

J Inflamm Res 2020 19;13:451-463. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Nutritional Sciences and Food Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The furan nucleus is found in a large number of biologically active materials. In recent years, many natural furan derivatives were isolated and their biological effects were investigated. In this review, we focused on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of some natural furans and discussed their effects on the immune system. Our investigation revealed that furan natural derivatives have effective antioxidant activities and exert regulatory effects on various cellular activities by modifying some signaling pathways such as MAPK (mitogen-activated Protein Kinase) and PPAR-ɣ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma). The antimicrobial activity of these natural compounds was performed through selective inhibition of microbial growth and modification of enzymes. Further studies are needed for isolation and detection of different furan derivatives from natural compounds and investigation of their precise mechanisms for revealing health beneficial effects of these compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S262132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443407PMC
August 2020

The Effects of Taurine Supplementation on Metabolic Profiles, Pentosidine, Soluble Receptor of Advanced Glycation End Products and Methylglyoxal in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Can J Diabetes 2021 Feb 17;45(1):39-46. Epub 2020 May 17.

Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Advanced glycation end products, along with methylglyoxal (MGO) as their precursor, play a major role in increased complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), a conditionally essential amino acid, is found in most mammalian tissues. Taurine is known as an antiglycation compound. This study was designed to investigate the effects of taurine supplementation on metabolic profiles, pentosidine, MGO and soluble receptors for advanced glycation end products in patients with T2DM.

Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 46 patients with T2DM were randomly allocated into taurine and placebo groups. Participants received either 3,000 mg/day taurine or placebo for 8 weeks. Metabolic profiles, pentosidine, MGO and soluble receptors for advanced glycation end products levels were assessed after 12 h of fasting at baseline and completion of the clinical trial. Independent t test, paired t test, Pearson correlation and analysis of covariance were used for analysis.

Results: The mean serum levels of fasting blood sugar (p=0.01), glycated hemoglobin (p=0.04), insulin (p=0.03), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p=0.004), total cholesterol (p=0.01) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.03) significantly were reduced in the taurine group at completion compared with the placebo group. In addition, after completion of the study, pentosidine (p=0.004) and MGO (p=0.006) were significantly reduced in the taurine group compared with the placebo group.

Conclusions: The results of this trial show that taurine supplementation may decrease diabetes complications through improving glycemic control and advanced glycation end products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2020.05.004DOI Listing
February 2021

Mechanistic Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Patients with or without Vitamin D Deficiency.

J Obes Metab Syndr 2020 Dec;29(4):270-280

Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

The prevalences of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and vitamin D deficiency are increasing dramatically worldwide. MetS is a major challenge because it can increase the risk of most non-communicable diseases. The beneficial effect of vitamin D on MetS components remains controversial, so the present review focused on the clinical effects of vitamin D supplementation on MetS components. Vitamin D can inhibit the protein expression of nuclear factor beta; improve arterial stiffness; decrease renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, parathyroid hormone levels, inflammatory cytokines, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, and lanosterol 14 α-demethylase enzyme activity; increase the activity of lipoprotein lipase; alter gene expression in C2C12 cells; and improve phospholipid metabolism and mitochondrial oxidation. We tried to elucidate and analyze almost all evidence from randomized controlled trial studies of the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in patients with MetS. The findings of the present study reported beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on mentioned factors. Vitamin D supplementation is recommended in people with vitamin D deficiency even if it has no considerable effect on most MetS factors. However, existing data from interventional studies are insufficient to reach a definitive conclusion about the effect of vitamin D supplementation on MetS components in patients without vitamin D deficiency. Thus, new clinical studies are needed to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation could alleviate MetS components in patients with sufficient intake of vitamin D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7570/jomes20003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789020PMC
December 2020

Nutritional adequacy in critically ill patients: Result of PNSI study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Feb 20;40(2):511-517. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Critically ill patients are provided with the intensive care medicine to prevent further complications, including malnutrition, disease progression, and even death. This study was intended to assess nutritional support and its' efficacy in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 50 ICU's patients out of 25 hospitals in the 10 major regions of Iran's health system and was performed using the multistage cluster sampling design. The data were collected from patient's medical records, ICU nursing sheets, patients or their relatives from 2017 to 2018. Nutritional status was investigated by modified NUTRIC score and food frequency checklist.

Results: This study included 1321 ICU patients with the mean age of 54.8 ± 19.97 years, mean mNUTRIC score of 3.4 ± 2.14, and malnutrition rate of 32.6%. The mean time of first feeding was the second day and most of patients (66%) received nutrition support, mainly through enteral (57.2%) or oral (37%) route during ICU stay. The patients received 59.2 ± 37.78 percent of required calorie and 55.5 ± 30.04 percent of required protein. Adequate intake of energy and protein was provided for 16.2% and 10.7% of the patients, respectively. The result of regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of mNUTRIC score was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.98) and APACHE II was 0.92 (95%CI = 0.89-0.95) for the prediction of energy deficiency. Nutrition intake was significantly different from patient's nutritional requirements both in terms of energy (p < 0.001) and protein (p < 0.001). Also, mean mNUTRIC score varied notably (p = 0.011) with changing in energy intake, defined as underfeeding, adequate feeding, and overfeeding.

Conclusion: The present findings shown that, provided nutritional care for ICU patients is not adequate for their requirements and nutritional status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.05.047DOI Listing
February 2021