Publications by authors named "Mohamed Zain"

15 Publications

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Surveillance Study of Acute Neurological Manifestations among 439 Egyptian Patients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Feb 25:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Assiut University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt.

Background: COVID-19 can be accompanied by acute neurological complications of both central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). In this study, we estimate the frequency of such complications among hospital inpatients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan university hospitals.

Materials And Methods: We screened all patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted from 1 June to 10 August 2020 to the university hospitals of Assiut and Aswan in Upper Egypt. Clinical and laboratory tests, CT/MRI of the chest and brain, and neurophysiology study were performed for each patient if indicated.

Results: 439 patients had confirmed/probable COVID-19; neurological manifestations occurred in 222. Of these, 117 had acute neurological disease and the remainder had nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and depression. The CNS was affected in 75 patients: 55 had stroke and the others had convulsions (5), encephalitis (6), hypoxic encephalopathy (4), cord myelopathy (2), relapse of multiple sclerosis (2), and meningoencephalitis (1). The PNS was affected in 42 patients: the majority had anosmia and ageusia (31) and the others had Guillain-Barré syndrome (4), peripheral neuropathy (3), myasthenia gravis (MG, 2), or myositis (2). Fever, respiratory symptoms, and headache were the most common general symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities in patients with CNS affection.

Conclusion: In COVID-19, both the CNS and PNS are affected. Stroke was the most common complication for CNS, and anosmia and/or ageusia were common for PNS diseases. However, there were 6 cases of encephalitis, 2 cases of spinal cord myelopathy, 2 cases of MG, and 2 cases of myositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018217PMC
February 2021

Antitumor activity of extract and isolated compounds from and .

Saudi Pharm J 2018 Feb 27;26(2):279-285. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Total extracts of and in addition of two isolated compounds from their cultures [-2-ethylhexyl phthalate () and 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone ()] were tested for their antitumor activity using four human carcinoma cell lines. Antitumor activity was assessed by performing MTT assay to check the % cell viability. The % viability of HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and HepG-2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells decreased after treatment with and extracts, these effects were ranged from 059.0 ±  0.1 to 217.0  ±  0.3 µg/ml on all types of cancer cells. The best activity was recorded for extract (054.5 ± 0.3, 059.0 ± 0.5 and 059.0 ± 0.1 for HEp-2, Hela, and HepG-2 respectively). The isolated compounds (&) were found to be responsible about the activities because they recorded the lowest IC on tested cell lines with range of 9.5-20.3 μg/ml. Vinblastine sulphate was used as a reference standard and showed anticancer activity. This study demonstrated that all extracts and isolated compounds have antitumor activity against HCT-116, HeLa, HEp-2 and HepG-2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111196PMC
February 2018

Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of , and extracts.

Saudi Pharm J 2018 Jan 10;26(1):44-52. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of ethanolic extract of were determined. The highest antibacterial activity; 23.40 ± 0.58 mm (00.98 µg/ml) and 22.60 ± 2.10 mm (03.90 µg/ml) were obtained against by and , respectively. However, showed excellent antibacterial activity against (21.7 ± 1.5 mm; 1.95 µg/ml), (21.7 ± 0.58 mm; 1.95 µg/ml), (20.7 ± 1.2 mm; 1.95 µg/ml) and (20.1 ± 1.2 mm; 3.9 µg/ml). Moreover, the highest antifungal activity; 24.7 ± 2.0 mm (0.98 µg/ml), 23.7 ± 1.5 mm (0.98 µg/ml), 23.6 ± 1.5 mm (0.98 µg/ml) was obtained by against , and , respectively. The algal extracts showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner with maximum scavenging activity (77.6%, IC = 5.59 µg/ml and 77.07%, IC = 14.3 µg/ml) was provided by and , respectively. The antitumor activity revealed that the IC values of were 58.9, 115.0, 54.5, 59.0, 101.0, 101.0, and 97.6 µg/ml; were 55.2, 96.8, 104.0, 78.7, 117.0, 217.0, 169.0 µg/ml; and were 115.0, 221.0, 225.0, 200.0, 338.0, 242.0, and 189.0 µg/ml; respectively against A-549 (Lung carcinoma), Caco-2 (Intestinal carcinoma), HCT-116 (Colon carcinoma), Hela (Cervical carcinoma), HEp-2 (Larynx carcinoma), HepG-2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma), and MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma) cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5783824PMC
January 2018

Anticandidal Activity of Extracts and a Novel Compound, Amnomopin, Isolated From Petriella setifera.

Phytother Res 2017 Oct 20;31(10):1504-1508. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

National Research Centre, Tanning Lab, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

A novel triterpenoidal compound named 'amnomopin' (3β-diglucoside-5,12-28-oic acid), which is named IUPAC as 3-O-(2' ➔ 1″diglucoside)1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,9,10,11,12,12a,12b,13,14b-octadecahydro-10-hydroxy-2,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethylpicene-4a-carboxylic acid, was isolated from the extract Petriella setifera. The total alcoholic extract of P. setifera showed a great activity against clinically isolated Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida famata, Candida glabrata, Candida inconspicua, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida norvegensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Also, the new compound amnomopin was active against all the investigated Candida species. The highest anticandidal activity of P. setifera extract was obtained against C. kefyr (22.6 ± 1.5 mm), C. albicans and C. norvegensis (21.3 ± 0.63 mm) and C. krusei (20.6 ± 1.5 mm). Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of both the total extract and the isolated compound were low. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the compound isolated from P. setifera was 0.49 μg/mL against C. kefyr, 0.98 μg/mL against C. albicans and C. norvegensis and 1.95 μg/mL against C. krusei. The oral dosing of the extract and the isolated compound did not show any significant effect on the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspirate aminotransferase and the levels of blood urea and serum creatinine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5870DOI Listing
October 2017

Amhezole, A Novel Fungal Secondary Metabolite from Aspergillus terreus for Treatment of Microbial Mouth Infection.

Phytother Res 2017 Mar 13;31(3):395-402. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Bio-guided fractionation of Aspergillus terreus extract leads to isolation of a novel terpenoidal secondary metabolite. The isolated compound and the total alcoholic extract of Aspergillus terreus showed a remarkable activity against microbial mouth infections; namely, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus gordonii, and S. mutan. Moreover, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the isolated compound was determined and showed low values. The combination of each of the alcoholic extract of A. terreus and the isolated compound Coe-Comfort tissue conditioner inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at concentrations of 500 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively, Lactobacillus acidophilus at concentrations of 250 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively, Streptococcus gordonii at concentrations of 1000 and 62.50 µg/mL, respectively, and S. mutans at concentrations of 1000 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. The oral dosing of the extract and the isolated compound did not show any significant effect on the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspirate aminotransferase, and the levels of blood urea and serum creatinine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5760DOI Listing
March 2017

Novel Compounds with new Anti-Ulcergenic Activity from Convolvulus pilosellifolius Using Bio-Guided Fractionation.

Phytother Res 2016 Dec 12;30(12):2060-2064. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

National Research Centre, Tanning Lab, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Oral administration of the total alcohol extract of Convolvulus pilosellifolius Desr. (250 and 500 md/kg) showed potent anti-ulcerogenic activity in absolute ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats; it showed percent protection of control ulcer by 69.2 and 84.6%, respectively, while standard ranitidine (100 mg/kg) exhibited 46.2%. Bio-guided work leads to isolation of two novel compounds (1 and 2), which were identified through H, C NMR, HMPC, HMQC and DEPT as: methyl 2-(hydroxymethyl) octanoate, named as amanitate, and 16-amino-9,13-dimethyl-17-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-hexadecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] phenanthren-3-ol, named as asmatol. Both compounds (50 mg/kg) possessed anti-ulcerogenic activity with 95.4% and 55.84% protection, respectively. Two known compounds (3 and 4) were also isolated and identified through comparison with authentic samples and confirmed through different NMR techniques as kampeferol and quercetin. These compounds also showed anti-ulcerogenic activity with 78.38% and 5.38% protection, respectively. The cytoprotective mechanism explains the potent anti-ulcerogenic activity of the total alcohol extract and the isolated compounds. The extract was highly safe as the LD was more than 5000 mg/kg. These results were well supported by the sub-chronic toxicity study, as the extract (500 mg/kg) administrated orally to rats for 35 consecutive days showed no alteration in the liver and kidney functions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5730DOI Listing
December 2016

New Activities for Isolated Compounds from Convolvulus austro-aegyptiacus as Anti-ulcerogenic, Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Their Mimic Synthesis Using Bio-guided Fractionation.

Phytother Res 2015 Sep 10;29(9):1311-1316. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Bio-guided fractionation of the total alcoholic extract of Convolvulus austro-aegyptiacus was screened for its anti-ulcerogenic activity, using an absolute-ethanol-induced ulcer model at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. Two compounds were isolated from the butanol extract of C. austro-aegyptiacus and identified by H and C nuclear magnetic resonance as scopoletin and scopolin. The isolated compounds (50 mg/kg) showed a remarkable anti-ulcerogenic activity because they exhibited control-ulcer protection by 16.7% and 90.8%, respectively. The acute toxicity study showed that the extract is highly safe; the median lethal dose (LD was more than 4000 mg/kg. Moreover, the obtained results were confirmed by the sub-chronic toxicity because the rats that have been administered 1000 mg/kg of the extract for 15 consecutive days showed no alteration in the liver and kidney functions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5379DOI Listing
September 2015

Synthesis and biological evaluation of certain 3-substituted benzylideneamino-2-(4-nitrophenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2015 Apr 18;30(2):270-6. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Salman bin Abdulaziz University , Al-Kharj , Saudi Arabia .

Certain new 3H-quinazolin-4-one Schiff's bases were synthesized and screened for their activities against ulcerative colitis "UC". Their activity against phospholipase A2 and protease enzymes was also investigated. Some compounds possessed remarkable effect with different potentials against acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Compound 14 (50 mg/kg) was more effective than dexamesathone (0.01 mg/kg). It produced 79.78% protection of control colitis; however, compound 13 produced 75.80% protection and was considered as effective as dexamesathone with 75.30% protection. The observed results could be explained partially by their anti-inflammatory activities which appear as phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) and/or through protease inhibitor potentials. However, all the compounds under test showed preferential inhibition towards hG-IIA type of PLA2 rather than DrG-IB with varying degrees. Interestingly, compounds 14, 13, 12 and 11 displayed excellent inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 accompanied by protease inhibitory profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14756366.2014.915398DOI Listing
April 2015

Anti-leishmanial activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Drechslera rostrata and Eurotium tonpholium.

Phytother Res 2014 May 4;28(5):774-80. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Chemistry Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.

The fungal extract of Drechslera rostrata and Eurotium tonpholium showed a significant anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania major; IC50 was 28.8 and 28.2 μg/mL, respectively. Seven compounds, five from D. rostrata (H1-H5) and two from E. tonpholium (H6 and H7), were isolated and identified using different spectroscopic analysis including (1) HNMR, (13) CNMR, Hetero-nuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC), Hetero-nuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (HMQC), and EI-MS. The isolated compounds are: di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (1), (22E)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-diene-3β-ol (2),1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-nthraquinone (3), aloe-emodine 8-O-glucopyranoside(4), 2R, 3R,4R,5R hexane 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexole (Mannitol) (5), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone (6) and 1, 4, 5-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methyl-anthraquinone (7). However, compounds (1) and (6) showed activity against L. major with IC50 of 3.2 and 10.38 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, oral administration of the two extracts (100 mg/kg) and compounds 1 and 6 (50 mg/kg) showed very good activity when compared with the anti-leishmanial drug Pentostam (125 mg/kg). Interestingly, the complete heeling activity of the extracts and compounds (1) and (6) was obtained after 13-17 days of treatment, while complete healing activity of Pentostam was obtained after 28 days. No alteration on liver and kidney functions was recorded on animals treated with the two extracts for 15 consecutive days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5096DOI Listing
May 2014

Synthesis and hypoglycemic activity of some new theophylline derivatives.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2014 Jun 23;29(3):443-8. Epub 2013 May 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and.

Thirty-one new theophylline derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their hypoglycemic activity. Compounds 24 (56% reduction) and 31 (57% reduction) showed better hypoglycemic activity than the standard drug glibenclamide which showed 52% reduction in serum glucose level. Compound 27 remarkably reduced serum glucose level by 53%. Ten compounds showed varying degrees of hypoglycemic activity ranging from 20 to 37% reduction in serum glucose level compared to the standard drug. The aromatic amide functionality is the common feature of these theophylline hypoglycemic derivatives. However, anthranilamide and or aliphatic amides proved to be the least active compounds in the present series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14756366.2013.795957DOI Listing
June 2014

Anti-ulcerative colitis activity of compounds from Euphorbia granuleta Forssk.

Phytother Res 2013 Nov 11;27(11):1729-34. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) activity of the total alcohol extracts of Euphorbia granuleta Forssk. (Euphorpiaceae), isolate and identify the active compounds that could be responsible for the activity, in addition to determination of the possible mechanism of action. Six compounds were isolated and identified from this plant: three phenolic compounds (kampferol, kampferol-3-glucoside and kampferol-3-galactoside) in addition to three steroidal compounds (1-ethoxypentacosane, heptacosan-1-ol and β-sitosterol). Three compounds (heptacosan-1-ol, β-sitosterol and kampferol-3-galactoside) were found to be responsible for the anti-UC activity of E. granuleta extract. The anti-UC activity of these compounds may be explained by reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), in addition to reduction of colonic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. No side effects were reported on liver and kidney functions. The active compounds reduced both serum TNF-α and mucosal MDA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.4985DOI Listing
November 2013

Development of merosporangia in Linderina pennispora (Kickxellales, Kickxellaceae).

IMA Fungus 2012 Dec 20;3(2):103-8. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; ; Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The vegetative and sporulating structures of Linderina pennispora are described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The vegetative hyphae and sporangiophores were regularly septate, possessed a two-layered wall, and coated with rod-shaped, 0.2-0.7 μm long, 0.15-0.25 μm wide ornamentations. The sporangiophore was erect, cylindrical, and narrower (4-8 μm) than the vegetative mycelium (8-12 μm). The mature sporocladium was ovoid to dome-shaped, sessile, non-septate, 18-24 μm diam, possessed a two-layered wall, and coated with rod-shaped ornamentations. Mature pseudophialides were ellipsoid, 2.0-2.5 μm wide, 4-7 μm long, possessed a two-layered wall, and formed in a series of concentric groups radiating from the "apex" of the sporocladium. The pseudophialides had a round, ca. 1.5 μm diam, base with a narrower, 0.7-0.8 μm diam lobed, cylindrical neck structure in the distal region which extended to the pseudophialide neck. The merosporangia were obovate, 3-4 μm wide near the base, and narrowed distally to 2.0-2.5 μm wide, 18-23 μm long, possessed a three-layered wall, with regular surface annulation with interconnecting ridges, but lacked rod-shaped ornamentations. The merosporangia contained a single, obovate, 2.3-2.5 μm diam merosporangiospore, with a ca. 1 μm diam papilla-like base, that possessed a four-layered wall. Detached merosporangia had a single, acicular, unbranched, 3-5 μm long, ca. 0.1 μm diam "appendage" that was attached to the merosporangiospore inner cell wall layer and passed through the septum plug to the pseudophialide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2012.03.02.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3539312PMC
December 2012

Antiulcerogenic activities of the extracts and isolated flavonoids of Euphorbia cuneata Vahl.

Phytother Res 2013 Jan 24;27(1):126-30. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.

The total alcohol extracts of Euphorbia cuneata Vahl.(Euphorbiaceae) were screened for antiulcerogenic activity using an ethanol-induced ulcer model at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The extracts possessed antiulcerogenic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Four flavonoidal compounds were isolated and identified as naringenin, aromadendrin, apigenin and 4'-O-methoxy-luteolin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside, each demonstrating antiulcerogenic activity with curative ratios ranging from 75.78% to 88.23%. In addition, the alcohol extracts and isolated compounds were shown to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl radical by different ratio, with the most effective being 4'-O-methoxy-luteolin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside (91.14%). The antioxidant activity of the alcohol extracts and the isolated compounds may explain the antiulcerogenic properties. No side effects were observed on either liver or kidney functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.4872DOI Listing
January 2013

New antifungal compounds from Aspergillus terreus isolated from desert soil.

Phytother Res 2012 Dec 16;26(12):1872-7. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.

Two new butyrolactone I derivatives: 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-phenyl]-5-(-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methyl-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (1) and (Z)-3-[3-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-phenyl]-5-(-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-methyl-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (2), in addition to the previously described (S)-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-[4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-benzyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), were identified from a strain of Aspergillus terreus Thom (Trichocomaceae) isolated from desert soil. The antifungal activities of both intra- and extracellular metabolites of A. terreus grown on yeast extract sucrose and malt extract media were determined. Only the secondary metabolites of A. terreus grown on yeast extract sucrose medium were active against Aspergillus fumigatus RCMB 002008. The antifungal activity of A. terreus was attributed to the presence of the compounds (1) and (2), whose minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against A. fumigatus were found to be 32.00 and 16.00 µg/mL respectively. Structure elucidation was carried out using UV spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS), high resolution electron impact (HREIMS) spectrometry, (1)H- and (13) C-NMR, proton-proton correlation spectroscopy ((1)H-(1)H Cosy), distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlations (HMBC) spectroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.4668DOI Listing
December 2012

New biological activities of Casimiroa edulis leaf extract and isolated compounds.

Phytother Res 2012 Mar 15;26(3):452-7. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.

The phytochemical investigation of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex (Rotaceae) afforded four coumarins: umbelliferone (1), esculetin (2), imperatorin (3) and xanthotoxol (4). The identification of these compounds was achieved by using a combination of m.p., UV, EI-mass, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR spectroscopy. Essential oil extracts were analysed by GC/MS leading to the identification of 60 components. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for the major make up of the oil. Microbiological screenings of the oil and successive plant fractions were performed, showing promising activity against a number of microorganisms with Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) comparable to the standard antibiotics such as chloramphenicol and kanamycin. The plant ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and the isolated coumarins (60 mg/kg) showed anticoagulant activity. Analyses to determine the activity of the extracts on liver and kidney function were performed, revealing no negative or detrimental effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3690DOI Listing
March 2012