Publications by authors named "Mohamed Talaat"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Micrometer aerosol deposition in normal and emphysematous subacinar models.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2021 Jan 30;283:103556. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Nakamachi 2-24-16, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

Emphysema is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by interalveolar septa destruction and enlarged air sacs. How the inhalation dosimetry in the pulmonary acini varies in the time course of emphysema is still unclear. The aim of this study is to numerically evaluate the impact of septal destructions on particle deposition in a pyramid-shape subacinar model that is composed of 496 alveoli. Four emphysematous models were generated by progressively removing the inter-alveolar septa from the normal geometry. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of particle deposition were quantified in expanding/contracting subacinar models on both total and regional basis using a well-validated discrete-phase Lagrangian model. Airflow fields in the subacinar cavities are sensitive to the septal raptures, with regular, radial streamlines in the proximal alveoli in the normal geometry in contrast to unsymmetrical and recirculating flows in the emphysematous subacini. Intensified collateral ventilation and significantly increased doses in the outer wall and base are observed in disease than heath. The deposition rate of small particles (1-1.5 μm) is more sensitive to the level of septal rapture than large particles (2.5-3 μm). Unexpectedly, more particles per unit area deposit on the outer wall and at the base of the subacinus than on the inner septal walls. The subacinus-averaged doses increase with progressing septal destructions, suggesting an escalating risk factor to the acinar health at the late stages of emphysema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2020.103556DOI Listing
January 2021

Alveolar size effects on nanoparticle deposition in rhythmically expanding-contracting terminal alveolar models.

Comput Biol Med 2020 06 4;121:103791. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Significant differences in alveolar size exist in humans of different ages, gender, health, and among different species. The effects of alveolar sizes, as well as the accompanying breathing frequencies, on regional and local dosimetry of inhaled nanoparticles have not been sufficiently studied. Despite a well-accepted qualitative understanding of the advection-diffusion-sedimentation mechanism in the acinar region, a quantitative picture of the interactions among these factors remains inchoate. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of alveolar size on the regional and local deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in alveolar models of varying complexities and to understand the dynamic interactions among different deposition mechanisms. Three different models were considered that retained 1, 4, and 45 alveoli, respectively. For each model, the baseline geometry was scaled by ¼, ½, 2, 4, and 8 times by volume. Temporal evolution and spatial distribution of particle deposition were tracked using a discrete-phase Lagrangian model. Lower retentions of inhaled nanoparticles were observed in the larger alveoli under the same respiration frequency, while similar retentions were found among different geometrical scales if breathing frequencies allometrically matched the alveolar size. Dimensional analysis reveals a manifold deposition mechanism with tantamount contributions from advection, diffusion, and gravitational sedimentation, each of which can become dominant depending on the location in the alveoli. Results of this study indicate that empirical correlations obtained from one sub-population cannot be directly applied to others, nor can they be simply scaled as a function of the alveolar size or respiration frequency due to the regime-transiting deposition mechanism that is both localized and dynamic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.103791DOI Listing
June 2020

Ventilation Modulation and Nanoparticle Deposition in Respiratory and Olfactory Regions of Rabbit Nose.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Dec 9;9(12). Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Greek Creek Toxicokinetics Consulting, LLC, Boise, ID 83701, USA.

The rabbit nose's ability to filter out inhaled agents is directly related to its defense to infectious diseases. The knowledge of the rabbit nose anatomy is essential to appreciate its functions in ventilation regulation, aerosol filtration and olfaction. The objective of this study is to numerically simulate the inhalation and deposition of nanoparticles in a New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit nose model with an emphasis on the structure-function relation under normal and sniffing conditions. To simulate the sniffing scenario, the original nose model was modified to generate new models with enlarged nostrils or vestibules based on video images of a rabbit sniffing. Ventilations into the maxilloturbinate and olfactory region were quantified with varying nostril openings, and deposition rates of inhaled aerosols ranging from 0.5 nm to 1000 nm were characterized on the total, sub-regional and local basis. Results showed that particles which deposited in the olfactory region came from a specific area in the nostril. The spiral vestibule played an essential role in regulating flow resistance and flow partition into different parts of the nose. Increased olfactory doses were persistently predicted in models with expanded nostrils or vestibule. Particles in the range of 5-50 nm are more sensitive to the geometry variation than other nanoparticles. It was also observed that exhaled aerosols occupy only the central region of the nostril, which minimized the mixing with the aerosols close to the nostril wall, and potentially allowed the undisruptive sampling of odorants. The results of this study shed new light on the ventilation regulation and inhalation dosimetry in the rabbit nose, which can be further implemented to studies of infectious diseases and immunology in rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9121107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940773PMC
December 2019

Nanoparticle Deposition in Rhythmically Moving Acinar Models with Interalveolar Septal Apertures.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Aug 4;9(8). Epub 2019 Aug 4.

Department of Aerospace, Industrial, and Mechanical Engineering, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA 92504, USA.

Pulmonary delivery of nanomedicines has been extensively studied in recent years because of their enhanced biocompatibility, sustained-release properties, and surface modification capability. The lung as a target also offers many advantages over other routers, such as large surface area, noninvasive, quick therapeutic onset, and avoiding first-pass metabolism. However, nanoparticles smaller than 0.26 µm typically escape phagocytosis and remain in the alveoli for a long time, leading to particle accumulation and invoking tissue responses. It is imperative to understand the behavior and fates of inhaled nanoparticles in the alveoli to reliably assess therapeutic outcomes of nanomedicines or health risk of environmental toxins. The objective of this study is to numerically investigate nanoparticle deposition in a duct-alveolar model with varying sizes of inter-alveolar septal apertures (pores). A discrete phase Lagrangian model was implemented to track nanoparticle trajectories under the influence of rhythmic wall expansion and contraction. Both temporal and spatial dosimetry in the alveoli were computed. Wall motions are essential for nanoparticles to penetrate the acinar region and deposit in the alveoli. The level of aerosol irreversibility (i.e., mixing of inhaled nanoparticles with residual air in the alveolar airspace) is determined by the particle diffusivity, which in turn, dictates the fraction of particles being exhaled out. When deposition in the upper airways was not considered, high alveolar deposition rates (74-95%) were predicted for all nanoparticles considered (1-1000 nm), which were released into the alveoli at the beginning of the inhalation. The pore size notably affects the deposition pattern of inhaled nanoparticles but exerts a low impact upon the total deposition fractions. This finding indicates that consistent pulmonary doses of nanomedicine are possible in emphysema patients if breathing maneuver with the same tidal volume can be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9081126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723253PMC
August 2019

Audiological Evaluation of Vestibular Schwannoma Patients with Normal Hearing.

Audiol Neurootol 2019 2;24(3):117-126. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Neurotology and Skull Base Surgery, Gruppo Otologico, Piacenza/Rome, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate the audiological aspects of vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients with normal hearing.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Quaternary referral center for skull base pathologies.

Patients: The records on 4,000 patients who had been diagnosed with VS between 1986 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients included in the study were the ones who complied with the strict audiological normality criteria, as follows: a pure tone hearing threshold (at the 6-octave-spaced frequencies from 250 to 8,000 Hz) ≤25 dBHL; a word recognition score >90%; and interaural differences ≤10 dB at each frequency.

Interventions: Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and radiological imaging.

Main Outcome Measures: The incidence of normal objective hearing among VS patients, and the diagnostic utility of the ABR and the effect of tumor size and site on the response.

Results: The incidence of normal hearing among VS patients was 4.2%. Tinnitus and vertigo were the most common symptoms across tumor grades; 5.6% of the tumors were large and giant tumors. The ABR yielded a sensitivity of 73.6%, with a false negative rate of 26.3% using a cutoff point of 0.2 ms for interaural latency differences.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of VS should not be based on audiometric thresholds alone. Alarming signs of VS should be clear to the physician in order not to miss or delay the diagnosis of the disease. The ABR is useful in the diagnosis of VS, but normal results do not exclude the occurrence of the disease in patients with normal hearing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500660DOI Listing
April 2020

Airflow and Particle Deposition in Acinar Models with Interalveolar Septal Walls and Different Alveolar Numbers.

Comput Math Methods Med 2018 25;2018:3649391. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Unique features exist in acinar units such as multiple alveoli, interalveolar septal walls, and pores of Kohn. However, the effects of such features on airflow and particle deposition remain not well quantified due to their structural complexity. This study aims to numerically investigate particle dynamics in acinar models with interalveolar septal walls and pores of Kohn. A simplified 4-alveoli model with well-defined geometries and a physiologically realistic 45-alveoli model was developed. A well-validated Lagrangian tracking model was used to simulate particle trajectories in the acinar models with rhythmically expanding and contracting wall motions. Both spatial and temporal dosimetries in the acinar models were analyzed. Results show that collateral ventilation exists among alveoli due to pressure imbalance. The size of interalveolar septal aperture significantly alters the spatial deposition pattern, while it has an insignificant effect on the total deposition rate. Surprisingly, the deposition rate in the 45-alveoli model is lower than that in the 4-alveoli model, indicating a stronger particle dispersion in more complex models. The gravity orientation angle has a decreasing effect on acinar deposition rates with an increasing number of alveoli retained in the model; such an effect is nearly negligible in the 45-alveoli model. Breath-holding increased particle deposition in the acinar region, which was most significant in the alveoli proximal to the duct. Increasing inhalation depth only slightly increases the fraction of deposited particles over particles entering the alveolar model but has a large influence on dispensing particles to the peripheral alveoli. Results of this study indicate that an empirical correlation for acinar deposition can be developed based on alveolar models with reduced complexity; however, what level of geometry complexity would be sufficient is yet to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3649391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176334PMC
February 2019

Precursor B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma With Double-Hit Gene Rearrangements () Presented With Spinal Cord Compression and Acquired Factor XIII Deficiency.

J Hematol 2017 Sep 20;6(2-3):62-67. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Double-hit lymphomas (DHLs) are aggressive mature B-cell neoplasms associated with rearrangements involving MYC and B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). Such DH events are extremely rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), especially in young adults. A 29-year-old male patient initially presented to emergency department with right mandibular mass of 2 months duration associated with intermittent fever. Laboratory workup revealed very high lactate dehydrogenase at 2,026.0 U/L. Peripheral blood revealed pancytopenia with many circulating blasts (about 77%). Bone marrow (BM) aspirate revealed infiltration with many small sized blasts of very high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, finely dispersed nuclear chromatin and prominent nucleoli. The BM biopsy reflected marked hypercellularity with diffuse replacement by sheets of blasts, positive for TdT, PAX-5, CD10, cMYC, BCL-2 and CD20 with Ki-67 > 90%. Flow cytometry on BM revealed a precursor B-immunophenotype (CD45 (dim), CD19, CD10, Tdt and CD20). The blasts are negative for cytoplasmic and surface IgM. Cytogenetics revealed complex karyotype: 46,XY,del(6)(q21q23),t(8;22)(q24.1;q11.2),t(14;18)(q32;q21)(20). A diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with t(8;22)(q24.1;q11.2) and t(14;18)(q32;q21) was made. Fluorescent hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed an abnormal hybridization signal pattern for CDKN2A probe, indicating biallelic (homozygous) deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p) in 94% of the cells analyzed. The patient had severe life-threatening bleeding despite of normal prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) due to acquired factor XIII deficiency, an overlooked rare coagulopathy disorder. In addition, the patient developed acute sudden onset paraplegia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine showed acute cord compression which necessitated emergency radiotherapy after which chemotherapy was started on hyper-CVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone) protocol. MRI showed dramatic resolution of the mass. Very few cases of B-ALL with DH rearrangement with true precursor B-cell phenotype (positivity for TdT with negativity for surface light chain) have been reported. Many of these had frequent central nervous system (CNS) involvement, with complex karyotypes, highly aggressive course, with short survival of less than 1 year. This case however showed very good response to treatment. In contrary to DHL, B-ALL with double-hit rearrangements is more prevalent in pediatrics and young adults. Although most of reported cases represent transformation of follicular lymphoma, our patient's young age, acute onset and absent lymphadenopathies all support ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jh329wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155824PMC
September 2017

Spinal cord compression secondary to extramedullary hematopoiesis: A rareness in a young adult with thalassemia major.

Acta Biomed 2017 08 23;88(2):237-242. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

.

We report a case of a thalassemia major male patient with back pain associated to severe weakness in lower extremities resulting in the ability to ambulate only with assistance. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of  thoracic and lumbosacral spine was requested. A posterior intraspinal extradural mass lesion compressing the spinal cord at the level of thoracic T5-8 was present, suggesting an extramedullary hematopoietic centre, compressing the spinal cord. He was treated successfully with thalassemia major alone. The patient was treated with blood transfusion, dexamethasone, morphine and paracetamol, followed by radiotherapy in 10 fractions to the spine (daily fraction of 2Gy from T3 to T9, total dose 20 Gy). His pain and neurologic examination quickly improved. A new MRI of the spine, one week after radiotherapy, showed an improvement of the extramedullary hematopoietic mass compression. In conclusion, EMH should be considered in every patient with ineffective erythropoiesis and spinal cord symptoms. MRI is the most effective method of demonstrating EMH. The rapid recognition and treatment can dramatically alleviate symptoms. There is still considerable controversy regarding indications, benefits, and risks of each of modality of treatment due to the infrequency of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v88i2.6221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166144PMC
August 2017

MPN10 score and survival of molecularly annotated myeloproliferative neoplasm patients.

Leuk Lymphoma 2018 04 22;59(4):844-854. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

b Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

JAK2, CALR, MPL and triple-negative mutational status has a direct impact on symptom severity and disease burden assessed by MPN10 score in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Among 93 patients; median MPN10 score was 48 (5-76) in JAK2 mutants versus 25 (4-80) in JAK2 negative (p < .001); 22.5 (4-65) in CALR mutants versus 35 (5-80) in CALR negative (p < .050) and 21 (10-48) in triple negative versus 40 (4-80) in JAK2/CALR/MPL mutants (p < .001). At three years, progression free and overall survival of JAK2-positive versus JAK2-negative patients were 62% versus 100% (p < .001); 85% versus 100% (p = .011) and were 100% versus 78% (p = .067); 100% versus 92% (p = .197) in CALR-positive versus CALR-negative patients and 100% versus 75% (p = .004); 100% versus 90% (p = .015) in triple negative versus mutant patients, respectively. MPN10 score in association with driver gene mutations can be used as a predictor of survival in MPN patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2017.1365852DOI Listing
April 2018

A Randomized Comparison Between Staple-Line Oversewing Versus No Reinforcement During Laparoscopic Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Obes Surg 2018 01;28(1):218-225

Overweight Clinics, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Varieties of intraoperative methods such as oversewing of staple lines or other reinforcement products are used for preventing the laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the complication rates of the gastric stapling alone versus stapling with oversewing invagination of the staple line in the LSG.

Methods: This is a single-center randomized study, Patients were randomized to two groups, 200 patients underwent LSG without reinforcement of the staple line and 200 patients underwent LSG with oversewing of the staple line. All patients were followed up for 1 year. The data collected prospectively for statistical analysis included demographics, BMI, preoperative comorbidities, operative time, complications, and hospital stay.

Results: The overall mean operative age was 33.7 ± 9.4 years and mean BMI was 42.4 ± 4.3 kg/m. Patient baseline characteristics (age, gender, weight, and BMI) and comorbidities were generally a nonsignificant different between the treatment arms. Surgical time was shorter in patients of the nonreinforced group (44.3 ± vs 51.3 ± 4.3 min; p < 0.01) with lower %EWL (73 ± 13.8 vs 80.7 ± 13.6%, p < 0.01). One patient in the nonreinforced group was complicated by gastric leak. The staple-line bleeding rate was significantly lower in patients underwent oversewing of the staple line during LSG (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Oversewing of the staple line during LSG is a nonexpansive and easy method to decrease the incidence and severity of the postoperative bleeding. However, it is time-consuming and should be performed by experienced surgeons to avoid the complications which may occur secondary to the seroserotomy suturing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-017-2835-yDOI Listing
January 2018

Screening of renal dysfunction among Burkitt lymphoma survivors by novel markers.

Hematology 2017 Jun 16;22(5):265-273. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

a Faculty of Medicine , Zagazig University , Egypt.

Background: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) represents the most common pathological type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in our region. Recently, high success rates have been achieved in BL treatment. Little is known about long-term renal dysfunction in this vulnerable group. In the present study, we tried to detect early chronic kidney diseases (CKD) among BL survivors by using novel screening modalities.

Patients And Methods: we investigated 53 children (aged 10 ± 2.8 years, 34 boys) who successfully treated for Burkitt lymphoma, based on LMB96 protocol, as "patient group" and 30 children as control. All eligible participants were subjected to history taking, physical assessment, and routine laboratory investigations including urine analysis, serum creatinine. Estimated glomerular filtration rates using new Schwartz formula (GFR) were calculated and chronic kidney disease prevalence was diagnosed accordingly. Also, serum Cystatin-C (Cys-C) and neutrophil-gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL) were determined as novel markers aiming at early and accurate detection of CKD in BL survivors.

Results: After 18.3 ± 5.2 months of BL cytotoxic therapy completion, almost one fifth of asymptomatic BL survivors showed evidence of subclinical CKD when estimated GFR (16.9%), serum Cystatin-C (15%) and serum neutrophil-gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (18.8%) were used for kidney function monitoring. This prevalence was four to fivefolds higher than that detected by routine serum creatinine screening (3.7%). Significant persistent albuminuria was diagnosed at 4/53 (7.5.3%) of BL survivors and asymptomatic hypertension was reported in 1/53 (1.9%) of them compared to none of the controls. Positive correlation could be displayed between serum Cys-C and serum NGAL. Conversely, negative correlations between both of them and estimated GFR were documented.

Conclusion: Novel modalities such new Schwartz formula (GFRCKD) estimation, serum Cys-C, and serum NGAL assessment should be incorporated in the routine follow-up screening for CKD among BL survivors for accurate diagnosis of such detrimental morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10245332.2016.1259713DOI Listing
June 2017

Survival of Nasal Tip Flap on Only the Columellar Attachment.

J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jan;28(1):e33-e35

Department of Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

The nose has a robust blood supply derived from both internal and external carotid arteries. The main blood supply of the nasal tip and skin is derived primarily from the lateral nasal arteries, with a variable contribution from the columellar arteries. We present a patient with cut nose resulting from a homicidal attack in which the lower two-thirds of the nose was severed starting at the bony-cartilaginous junction of the dorsum of the nose down to the tip of the nose. The skin-cartilage flap was attached only to the columella and to the caudalmost 3 mm of the left ala nasi. The detached skin-cartilage flap was replaced and sutured anatomically, and the flap completely survived in spite of cutting of both lateral and dorsal nasal arteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000003180DOI Listing
January 2017

Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt.

Indian J Plast Surg 2016 May-Aug;49(2):206-213

Department of Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life.

Patients And Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months.

Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome.

Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0358.191303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5052993PMC
November 2016

Investigation of factors affecting the synthesis of nano-cadmium sulfide by pulsed laser ablation in liquid environment.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016 Jan 18;153:315-20. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Pulsed laser ablation in a liquid medium is a promising technique as compared to the other synthetic methods to synthesize different materials in nanoscale form. The laser parameters (e.g., wavelength, pulse width, fluence, and repetition frequency) and liquid medium (e.g., aqueous/nonaqueous liquid or solution with surfactant) were tightly controlled during and after the ablation process. By optimizing these parameters, the particle size and distribution of materials can be adjusted. The UV-vis absorption spectra and weight changes of targets were used for the characterization and comparison of products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2015.08.007DOI Listing
January 2016