Publications by authors named "Mohamed Sheikh"

80 Publications

Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling, Characterization, and Functional Identification of Transcription Factors in Sorghum under Salt Stress.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Oct 13;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Salinity stress has become a significant concern to global food security. Revealing the mechanisms that enable plants to survive under salinity has immense significance. Sorghum has increasingly attracted researchers interested in understanding the survival and adaptation strategies to high salinity. However, systematic analysis of the DEGs (differentially expressed genes) and their relative expression has not been reported in sorghum under salt stress. The de novo transcriptomic analysis of sorghum under different salinity levels from 60 to 120 mM NaCl was generated using Illumina HiSeq. Approximately 323.49 million high-quality reads, with an average contig length of 1145 bp, were assembled de novo. On average, 62% of unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins. These DEGs were mainly involved in several important metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, photosynthesis, and hormone signaling. SSG 59-3 alleviated the adverse effects of salinity by suppressing oxidative stress (HO) and stimulating enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities (SOD, APX, CAT, APX, POX, GR, GSH, ASC, proline, and GB), as well as protecting cell membrane integrity (MDA and electrolyte leakage). Significant up-regulation of transcripts encoding the , , and families, transporters, the aquaporin protein family, photosynthetic genes, antioxidants, and compatible osmolyte proteins were observed. The tolerant line (SSG 59-3) engaged highly efficient machinery in response to elevated salinity, especially during the transport and influx of K ions, signal transduction, and osmotic homeostasis. Our data provide insights into the evolution of the TFs gene family and further support the hypothesis that these genes are essential for plant responses to salinity. The findings may provide a molecular foundation for further exploring the potential functions of TFs in developing salt-resistant sorghum lines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8533442PMC
October 2021

Scaffold mediated delivery of dual miRNAs to transdifferentiate cardiac fibroblasts.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Sep 15;128:112323. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 3508585, Japan; Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 3508585, Japan.

The standard scaffold-mediated delivery of drugs/biomolecules has been successful due to the unique attributes of scaffolds, specifically the electrospun polymeric scaffolds that mimic ECM are well suited for advanced regenerative applications. Cardiac tissue engineering includes the interpretation of cellular and molecular mechanisms concerning heart regeneration and identifying an efficient reprogramming strategy to overcome the limitation of delivery systems and enhance the reprogramming efficiency. This study is a step towards developing a functional scaffold through a parallel interpretation of electrospun PLLA scaffolds with two distinct topologies to achieve sustained delivery of two muscle-specific microRNAs (miR-1 and miR-133a) to directly reprogram the adult human cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Polyethyleneimine was used to form stable PEI-miRNA complexes through electrostatic interactions. These complexes were immobilized on the electrospun smooth and porous scaffolds, where a loading efficiency of ~96% for the fibronectin modified and ~38% for unmodified surfaces was observed, regardless of their surface topology. The in-vitro release experiment exhibited a biphasic release pattern of PEI-miRNA polyplexes from the scaffolds. These dual miRNA scaffold systems proved to be an excellent formulation since their combinatorial effect involving the topographic cues of electrospun fibers, and dual miRNAs helped control the cardiac fibroblast cell fate precisely.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112323DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of ocean acidification on the growth and biochemical composition of a green alga () and its associated microbiota.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Sep 20;28(9):5106-5114. Epub 2021 May 20.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527, Tanta, Egypt.

In marine ecosystems, fluctuations in surface-seawater carbon dioxide (CO), significantly influence the whole metabolism of marine algae, especially during the early stages of macroalgal development. In this study, the response of the green alga for elevating ocean acidification was investigated using four levels of CO ~ 280, 550, 750 and 1050 µatm. Maximum growth rate (6.6% day), protein (32.43 %DW) and pigment (2.9 mg/g) accumulation were observed at CO-550 with an increase of ~2-fold compared to control. On the other hand, lipid and carbohydrate contents recorded their maximum production (4.23 and 46.96 %DW, respectively) at CO-750 while control showed 3.70 and 42.37 %DW, respectively. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of unique bands in response to CO especially at 550 µatm. Dominant associated bacteria was shifted from of control at CO-1050. These findings suggest that ocean acidification at 550 µatm might impose noticeable effects on growth, protein, pigments, and protein profile of which could be a good source for fish farming. While, CO-750 was recommended for energetic purpose, due to its high lipid and carbohydrate contents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.05.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381011PMC
September 2021

Supplementation with selenium nanoparticles alleviates diabetic nephropathy during pregnancy in the diabetic female rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 22. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The bioactivity of nanoparticles has engendered a promise in scientific communities for developing novel therapeutic strategies. This study investigated the protective effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against kidney injury in streptozocin-induced diabetes during pregnant (DDP) rats. The female rats were separated into three groups (n = 8). Group 1 received the vehicle, normal saline. Group 2 received a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg/kg of streptozocin. Group 3 received a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozocin, followed by treatment with SeNPs at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg twice a week for 6 weeks (1 week before gestation and continuing for 5 additional weeks). The structure formed by the fabricated SeNPs with citric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid indicated that nano-Se was associated with a carbon matrix. The diabetic group suffered from polyuria, a reduction in body weight, delayed gestation, and only 40% successful pregnancy compared with the control rats. Interestingly, SeNPs significantly reduced the rate of urination, accelerated the start of gestation, and increased the percentage of successful pregnancy in females with DM. Severe changes were observed in the pancreatic β-cells of the diabetic rats, with darkly stained and fragmented chromatin in nuclei, while SeNPs partially restored the normal morphological features of the pancreatic β-cells. The concentrations of urea, creatinine, MDA, and glucose were significantly increased in the diabetic rats, while GSH was significantly reduced compared with controls. Interestingly, SeNPs restored all of these parameters to values at or near control levels. SeNPs were capable of improving the histological structure of the kidney in mothers with DDP. Hence, the present work is relevant to GDM demonstrating SeNPs shielding the kidney structure and function in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15905-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Availability of facility resources and services and infection-related maternal outcomes in the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study: a cross-sectional study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 09 21;9(9):e1252-e1261. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centro Rosarino de Estudios Perinatales (CREP), Rosario, Argentina.

Background: Infections are among the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. The Global Maternal Sepsis and Neonatal Initiative, launched in 2016 by WHO and partners, sought to reduce the burden of maternal infections and sepsis and was the basis upon which the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) was implemented in 2017. In this Article, we aimed to describe the availability of facility resources and services and to analyse their association with maternal outcomes.

Methods: GLOSS was a facility-based, prospective, 1-week inception cohort study implemented in 713 health-care facilities in 52 countries and included 2850 hospitalised pregnant or recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed infections. All women admitted for or in hospital with suspected or confirmed infections during pregnancy, childbirth, post partum, or post abortion at any of the participating facilities between Nov 28 and Dec 4 were eligible for inclusion. In this study, we included all GLOSS participating facilities that collected facility-level data (446 of 713 facilities). We used data obtained from individual forms completed for each enrolled woman and their newborn babies by trained researchers who checked the medical records and from facility forms completed by hospital administrators for each participating facility. We described facilities according to country income level, compliance with providing core clinical interventions and services according to women's needs and reported availability, and severity of infection-related maternal outcomes. We used a logistic multilevel mixed model for assessing the association between facility characteristics and infection-related maternal outcomes.

Findings: We included 446 facilities from 46 countries that enrolled 2560 women. We found a high availability of most services and resources needed for obstetric care and infection prevention. We found increased odds for severe maternal outcomes among women enrolled during the post-partum or post-abortion period from facilities located in low-income countries (adjusted odds ratio 1·84 [95% CI 1·05-3·22]) and among women enrolled during pregnancy or childbirth from non-urban facilities (adjusted odds ratio 2·44 [1·02-5·85]). Despite compliance being high overall, it was low with regards to measuring respiratory rate (85 [24%] of 355 facilities) and measuring pulse oximetry (184 [57%] of 325 facilities).

Interpretation: While health-care facilities caring for pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed infections have access to a wide range of resources and interventions, worse maternal outcomes are seen among recently pregnant women located in low-income countries than among those in higher-income countries; this trend is similar for pregnant women. Compliance with cost-effective clinical practices and timely care of women with particular individual characteristics can potentially improve infection-related maternal outcomes.

Funding: UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, WHO, Merck for Mothers, and US Agency for International Development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00248-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370881PMC
September 2021

First evidence of microplastics occurrence in mixed surface and treated wastewater from two major Saudi Arabian cities and assessment of their ecological risk.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 26;416:125747. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain; Catalan Institute for Water Research, ICRA- CERCA, Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, 17003, Girona, Spain.

In this study, water of the channels and ponds that conduct residual water in two most important cities of Saudi Arabia were assessed to ascertain the influence of the population on the occurrence and pollution characteristics of microplastics (MPs) (> 20 µm in size). Riyadh has 7.6 million inhabitants and is an urban city even though also have industry while Al-Jubail has only 0.78 and is the biggest industrial city. MPs showed an average of 3.2 items/L in Riyadh and 0.2 items/L in Al-Jubail showing a statistically significant difference between both cities. Sampling with a Turton Tow Net of 20 µm mesh, fibers were dominant in all sites (60%). MPs size was mainly distributed between 80 and 250 µm (60%), and their major colors were white (40%), red (25%) and blue (20%). Infrared spectral analysis revealed that most of the selected particles were identified as MPs of polypropylene and polyethylene (48.3%). The risk assessment was carried out using both the hazard index (HI) and the pollution load index (PLI). The results showed that, in this case, the decisive index is the PLI since the main difference in the MPs characteristics between the two cities is their concentration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125747DOI Listing
August 2021

Global Invasion Risk Assessment of at Biome Level: Does Soil Matter?

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

is one of the most problematic invasive trees in tropical and subtropical regions. Understanding driving forces affecting the potential global distribution would help in managing its current and future spread. The role of climate on the global spatial distribution of has been well studied, but little is known about the role of soil and human impacts as potential drivers. Here, we used maximum entropy (MaxEnt) for species distribution modelling to understand the role of climate (C), soil (S) and human impacts (H), C+S, and C+S+H in controlling the potential invasion range of , and to project its global potential invasive risk. We defined the top threatened global biomes, as predicted by the best-selected model. The incorporation of the edaphic factors improved the model performance and enhanced the accuracy of the outcome. Our findings revealed that the potential invasion risk increases with increases in mean temperature of the driest quarter (Bio9), soil alkalinity and clay fractions. Arid and semi-arid lands are at the highest risk of invasion than other moist biomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10030203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999975PMC
March 2021

Metagenomic analysis exploring taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial communities of a Himalayan urban fresh water lake.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0248116. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Freshwater lakes present an ecological border between humans and a variety of host organisms. The present study was designed to evaluate the microbiota composition and distribution in Dal Lake at Srinagar, India. The non-chimeric sequence reads were classified taxonomically into 49 phyla, 114 classes, 185 orders, 244 families and 384 genera. Proteobacteria was found to be the most abundant bacterial phylum in all the four samples. The highest number of observed species was found to be 3097 in sample taken from least populated area during summer (LPS) whereas the summer sample from highly populated area (HPS) was found most diverse among all as indicated by taxonomic diversity analysis. The QIIME output files were used for PICRUSt analysis to assign functional attributes. The samples exhibited a significant difference in their microbial community composition and structure. Comparative analysis of functional pathways indicated that the anthropogenic activities in populated areas and higher summer temperature, both decrease functional potential of the Lake microbiota. This is probably the first study to demonstrate the comparative taxonomic diversity and functional composition of an urban freshwater lake amid its highly populated and least populated areas during two extreme seasons (winter and summer).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248116PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993826PMC
October 2021

Ecology of inland sand dunes "nafuds" as a hyper-arid habitat, Saudi Arabia: Floristic and plant associations diversity.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 8;28(3):1503-1513. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Arab Academy for Science Technology and Maritime Transport, Cairo, Egypt.

Sand seas of Saudi Arabia cover about one-third of the Arabian Peninsula and are still poorly explored in scientific literature. This study aimed to address the floristic structure and association diversity of the inland sand seas in central Saudi Arabia after 20 years of protection. Twenty-three relevés were selected in Nafud Al-Urayq reserve to cover different sandy dune variations. These relevés are subjected to floristic and multivariate analysis of classification with TWINSPAN and ordination with DECORANA & CANOCO techniques. One hundred thirty-five species belonging to 108 genera in 37 families have been recorded. Annual and perennial species are equally represented. Four vegetation groups (i.e., plant associations) are identified as the following: VG I (--), VG II (-), VG III (--), and VG IV (-). The association of VG I inhabited in the wadi and non-dune or shallow sand habitat had the high species diversity indices (i.e., total species, species richness, species evenness and Shannon index). In contrast, the association of VG II inhabited hyper-arid and salinized habitat and had low species diversity indices. These associations are discussed and illustrated in accordance with competition and adaptation. The advantages of inland sand dune vegetation therefore apply specifically to habitat management and the conservation of plants. These studies extend the advantages of succession of sand dunes and show that rising vegetative diversity is consistent with the combat of desertification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938194PMC
March 2021

d-Carvone inhibits the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway and induced the apoptotic cell death in the human gastric cancer AGS cells.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 May 4;35(5):e22746. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First People's Hospital of Taizhou, Taizhou, Zhejiang, China.

Globally, gastric cancer is one of the leading cause of death. Surgical and chemotherapy constitute an important treatment regimen. Unfortunately, less than 20 persons out of 100 patients are live on almost 5 years. Hence, a nontoxic, effective and significantly enhancing novel therapeutic agent is required. d-Carvone is a natural terpenoid present in the essential oils and abundant in the seeds of caraway, as well as known folk medication for diarrhea, acidity, and other gastric disorders. Nevertheless, the role of d-carvone on gastric cancer and its underlying molecular mechanism resides enigmatic. Cells were treated with d-carvone to find out the IC by MTT assay. This study shows that 20 and 25 μM d-carvone has induced the reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential in gastric cancer AGS cells, which were evaluated by 2,7-dichlorofluoresceindiacetate and Rh123 staining methods, respectively. The effect of d-carvone against the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway was studied through immunoblotting. Then, we found that it effectively inhibited the proliferation of cell, and the induction of cell apoptosis was scrutinized by dual, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and also propidium iodide staining methods. We also explored the fundamental molecular signaling mechanism of the d-carvone and our data depicts that d-carvone induced apoptosis cell death by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and downregulation of the and JAK and STAT3 signaling molecules. These overall findings support that the d-carvone inhibits the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway and induces cell death in the gastric cancer AGS cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22746DOI Listing
May 2021

A reconnaissance study of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances and organophosphorus flame retardants in the aquatic environment, wild plants and vegetables of two Saudi Arabia urban areas: Environmental and human health risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 14;776:145843. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.

In this study, the occurrence of 12 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), 64 pesticides, 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and 34 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface water, sediments and vegetation collected from seven locations along the South Riyadh and six locations along the Al-Jubail industrial city (Saudi Arabia) were reported. The median of the concentrations of ƩOPFRs, ƩPesticides, ƩPFASs and ƩPPCPs in water was 297, 231, 29.7 and 3794 ng L, respectively, in sediments 56.2, 40.4, 5.66 and 419 ng g d.w., in crops for human consumption of 45.6, 42.0, 0.46 and 42.0 ng g, in farm crops of 13.4, 57.5, 3.2 and 637 ng g, and in natural vegetation of 51.7, 10.3, 1.88 and 1580 ng g. Predominant compounds in all matrices were tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TClPP), acetamiprid, imidacloprid, caffeine, bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac and ibuprofen. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), tris-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TPhP), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFOS) and paracetamol were also in many samples but at low concentrations. The contaminants' levels showed similar values in both cities. However, pesticide levels were significantly higher in surface water (p < 0.05) and lower in natural vegetation (p < 0.05) of Riyadh than those of Al-Jubail. The risk assessment for the aquatic biota showed that abamectin, diazinon (pesticides), bisphenol A and caffeine (PPCPs) had the highest risk levels. The cumulative risk assessment showed that the contaminant mixture in all water samples is of concern. As far as the risk to human health is concerned, individual contaminants did not show a significant hazard for the population. However, OPFRs and pesticide requires a closed monitoring since % of admissible daily intakes (ADIs) or reference doses (RfD) are high. This is one of the most comprehensive study covering environmental and human risk assessment of emerging contaminants carried out in Saudi Arabia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145843DOI Listing
July 2021

On the macro-micro-morphology of organs of host invasion in hemiparasite (Desv.) Danser.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Feb 3;28(2):1239-1245. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Loranthaceae family includes hemiparasitic members which are seen invading a wide range of commercial crops. (Desv.) Danser is very common on mango trees. Though parasitic in nature, this mistletoe is also medicinally important as fetoprotective, against vesicular calculi and kidney infections. This study is an attempt to document macro-microscopical features of parasitic root, fruit and host-mistletoe tissue interaction in the haustorium of growing on mango stems. Collection, preservation, sectioning, staining and photomicrography of the root, fruit and host-mistletoe union were done as per standard methodologies of anatomical studies. Though there is resemblance to the normal roots in morphology as well as anatomy, the microscopic finding of large number of branched stone cells in the roots is interesting. The morpho-anatomical features recorded would help in understanding the infection biology of this mistletoe. The eradication during the earlier stages of its establishment from seed or from the root creeping over the surface of the host can help in controlling this parasite infection on commercially important host plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878703PMC
February 2021

Spectral studies of . in Bioremediated Silk dyeing effluent with mixed biofertilizer inoculants.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Feb 24;28(2):1203-1212. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore 641 021, Tamil Nadu, India.

Microbial degradation as a treatment, with the combination of mixed inoculants of the Biofertilizer of sp.spi sp. and sp. was employed for the remediation of Silk dyeing effluent. Remediating studies was undertaken to assess the feasibility of the mixed biofertilizer inoculant source for degradation of the Azodye effluent from the Silk dyeing Industry. The Green leafy vegetable (GLV), used as investigational prototypical plant species is selected for examining the phytochemicals, functional groups and its compounds grown in the effluent and biotreated environment and compared. The laboratory scale investigation showed that leaves, stem and root of the was qualitatively analysed for 20 phytochemicals which was grown in the different treatments of raw effluent and the biotreated effluent and the results showed the phytochemicals on the effluent's influence reduced from strong positive to trace amounts while recovered on the biotreated environment. The FTIR analysis of the GLV grown in effluent and biotreated environments on comparison resulted in the functional group Alkene rescued in the biotreated effluent environment compared to the effluent contaminated area. The HPLC analysis of methanolic extracts of grown in fresh water has 6 peaks of retention time of 2.6, 3, 3.9, 4, 4.2, and 4.6 RT whereas GLV effluent had only one peak of retention time of 4.1 RT. In the GLV from biotreated environment have 4 peaks were found with the maximum percentage area of 95.2% which proves that the compounds are rescued in the biotreated environment and few active compounds were confirmed in GCMS analysis. The Soil analysis results also indicate that the biotreatment of mixed inoculant of biofertilizers in the biotreated soil had influence resulting in improved levels of Ca, N, P and K with 114, 213, 10.5, 268 kg/ha respectively in the mixed inoculant biotreated soil. Similarly the micronutrients suchas Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn ranges to 4.1, 20.22, 2.13, 1.13 ppm respectively in the mixed inoculant biotreated soil within the optimal range. The study revealed that mixed biofertilizer inoculant has the recovery effect on the Silk dyeing (Azodyes) effluents effective reducing the pollutant capacity thereby meeting the discharged standards.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878698PMC
February 2021

The impact of different weed management strategies on weed flora of wheat-based cropping systems.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(2):e0247137. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The world population will rise in future, which would demand more wheat production to fulfil dietary needs of wheat-dependent population of the world. Food security in wheat-dependent regions will greatly rely on wheat productivity. Weed infestation is a major constraint reducing wheat productivity globally. Nonetheless, cropping systems and weed management strategies strongly influence weed infestation in modern agriculture. Herbicides are the key weed management tool in conventional agriculture. However, frequent use of herbicides have resulted in the evolution of herbicide-resistance weeds, which made weed management a challenging task. Sustainable and eco-friendly weed management strategies shift weed-crop competition in the favour of crop plants. Limited studies have evaluated the interactive effect of cropping systems and weed management strategies on weed flora of wheat-based cropping systems (WBCSs). This two-year study evaluated the impact of different weed management strategies (WMSs) on weed flora of WBCSs, i.e., fallow-wheat (FW), rice-wheat (RW), cotton-wheat (CW), mungbean-wheat (MW) and sorghum-wheat (SW). The WMSs included in the study were, false seedbed, allelopathic water extracts and herbicide application, while weed-free and weedy-check were maintained as control treatments. Data relating to diversity and density of individual and total broadleaved and narrow-leaved weeds were recorded. The WBCSs, WMSs and their interaction significantly altered diversity and density of individual, total, broadleaved and narrow-leaved weeds. Weed-free and weedy-check treatments recorded the lowest and the highest values of diversity and density of individual, total, broadleaved and narrow-leaved weeds. Herbicide application effectively reduced density and diversity of weeds. Allelopathic water extracts and false seedbed proved less effective than herbicides. On the other hand, SW cropping system not only reduced weed density but also limited the weed flora. It is concluded that false seedbed and SW cropping system can be efficiently used to manage weeds in WBCSs. However, long-term studies are needed to infer the impact of SW cropping system and false seedbed on soil properties, soil microbes and productivity of wheat crop.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247137PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891686PMC
August 2021

Naringin inhibits the biofilms of metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) producing species isolated from camel meat.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 15;28(1):333-341. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Food producing animals harbouring bacteria carrying drug resistance genes especially the metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) pose high risk for the human population. In addition, formation of biofilm by these drug resistant pathogens represents major threat to food safety and public health. In this study, metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) producing spp. from camel meat were isolated and assessed for their biofilm formation. Further, and studies were performed to study the effect of flavone naringin on biofilm formation against isolated spp. A total of 55% isolates were found to produce metallo-β-lactamase enzyme. Naringin mitigated biofilm formation of isolates up to 57%. Disturbed biofilm architecture and reduced the colonization of bacteria on glass was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The biofilm related traits such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and alginate production was also reduced remarkably in the presence of naringin. Eradication of preformed biofilms (32-60%) was also observed at the respective 0.50 × MICs. Molecular docking revealed that naringin showed strong affinity towards docked proteins with binding energy ranging from -8.6 to -8.8 kcal mol. Presence of metallo-β-lactamase producers indicates that camel meat could be possible reservoir of drug-resistant species of clinical importance. Naringin was successful in inhibiting biofilm formation as well as eradicating the preformed biofilms and demonstrated strong binding affinity towards biofilm associated protein. Thus, it is envisaged that naringin could be exploited as food preservative especially against the biofilm forming food-borne species and is a promising prospect for the treatment of biofilm based infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785451PMC
January 2021

Interactive role of zinc and iron lysine on L. growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity irrigated with tannery wastewater.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2020 Dec 2;26(12):2435-2452. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451 Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: Untreated wastewater contains toxic amounts of heavy metals such as chromium (Cr), which poses a serious threat to the growth and physiology of plants when used in irrigation. Though, Cr is among the most widespread toxic trace elements found in agricultural soils due to various anthropogenic activities. To explore the interactive effects of micronutrients with amino acid chelators [iron-lysine (Fe-lys) and zinc-lysine (Zn-lys)], pot experiments were conducted in a controlled environment, using spinach ( L.) plant irrigated with tannery wastewater. . was treated without Fe and Zn-lys (0 mg/L Zn-lys and 0 mg/L Fe-lys) and also treated with various combinations of (interactive application) Fe and Zn-lys (10 mg/L Zn-lys and 5 mg/L Fe-lys), when cultivated at different levels [0 (control) 33, 66 and 100%) of tannery wastewater in the soil having a toxic level of Cr in it. According to the results, we have found that, high concentration of Cr in the soil significantly ( < 0.05) reduced plant height, fresh biomass of roots and leaves, dry biomass of roots and leaves, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, total chlorophyll contents, carotenoid contents, transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthesis (PN), and water use efficiency (WUE) and the contents of Zn and Fe in the plant organs without foliar application of Zn and Fe-lys. Moreover, phytotoxicity of Cr increased malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the plant organs (roots and leaves), which induced oxidative damage in . manifested by the contents of hydrogen peroxide (HO) and membrane leakage. The negative effects of Cr toxicity could be overturned by Zn and Fe-lys application, which significantly ( < 0.05) increase plant growth, biomass, chlorophyll content, and gaseous exchange attributes by reducing oxidative stress (HO, MDA, EL) and increasing the activities of various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Furthermore, the supplementation of Zn and Fe-lys increased the contents of essential nutrients (Fe and Zn) and decreased the content of Cr in all plant parts compared to the plants cultivated in tannery wastewater without application of Fe-lys. Taken together, foliar supplementation of Zn and Fe-lys alleviates Cr toxicity in . by increased morpho-physiological attributes of the plants, decreased Cr contents and increased micronutrients uptake by the soil, and can be an effective in heavy metal toxicity remedial approach for other crops.

Graphic Abstract:
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-020-00912-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772129PMC
December 2020

Role of nanocatalyst in the treatment of organochlorine compounds - A review.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 4;268:128873. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Botany & Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Since a few centuries ago, organochlorine compounds (OCs) become one of the threatened contaminants in the world. Due to the lipophilic and hydrophobic properties, OCs always discover in fat or lipid layers through bioaccumulation and biomagnification. The OCs are able to retain in soil, sediment and water for long time as it is volatile, OCs will evaporate from soil and condense in water easily and frequently, which pollute the shelter of aquatic life and it affects the function of organs and damage system in human body. Photocatalysis that employs the usage of semiconductor nanophotocatalyst and solar energy can be the possible alternative for current conventional water remediation technologies. With the benefits of utilizing renewable energy, no production of harmful by-products and easy operation, degradation of organic pollutants in rural water bodies can be established. Besides, nanophotocatalyst that is synthesized with nanotechnology outnumbered conventional catalyst with larger surface area to volume ratio, thus higher photocatalytic activity is observed. In contrast, disadvantages particularly no residual effect in water distribution network, requirement of post-treatment and easily affected by various factors accompanied with photocatalysis method cannot be ignored. These various factors constrained the photocatalytic efficiency via nanocatalysts which causes the full capacity of solar photocatalysis has yet to be put into practice. Therefore, further modifications and research are still required in nanophotocatalysts' synthesis to overcome limitations such as large band gaps and photodecontamination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128873DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis of novel coumarin analogues: Investigation of molecular docking interaction of SARS-CoV-2 proteins with natural and synthetic coumarin analogues and their pharmacokinetics studies.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 12;28(1):1100-1108. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Research Department of Chemistry, Nehru Memorial College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Puthanampatti 621007, Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, India.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, identified as SARS-CoV-2, initially established in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, affects respiratory infections known as COVID-19. In an extraordinary manner, COVID-19 is affecting human life and has transformed a global public health issue into a crisis. Natural products are already recognized owing to the massive advantageous window and efficient antioxidant, antiviral immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory belongings. Additionally, the object of the present study was to demonstrate the inhibitory potential of the natural products coumarins and its analogues alongside SARS coronavirus. The present work, focuses on the synthesis of new coumarin analogues and characterized by FT-IR, H and C NMR, elemental analyses, and mass spectra. The recently synthesised compounds were projected conceptual association for COVID-19 protease and also to explore in anticipation if this protein will help target protease inhibitor drugs such as , , , , , , , , and . The natural coumarin analogues docking scores were compared to standard Hydroxychloroquine. While the 3D module of SARS coronavirus main protease was predicted with the SWISS MODEL web server, as well as biochemical interaction tests were performed with the AutoDock Vina tool between the target protein with ligands. This research further showed that all the protease inhibitors accessed the target protein with negative dock energy. Molecular docking studies found that the natural coumarin analogue showed an exceptional potential for inhibition with a binding energy of -8.4 kcal/mol. The synthetic coumarin analogues and both demonstrated a similar binding energy, inhibition potential of -7.9 kcal / mol as opposed to hydroxychloroquine and co-crystallized ligand alpha-ketoamide with binding energy values of -5.8 and -6.6 kcal / mol. All compounds evaluated were known as drug-like in nature, passing Lipinski's "Law of 5" with 0 violations except for alpha-ketoamide, passing Lipinski's "Rule of 5" with 1 violation (MW > 500). The inhibitor binding research thus offers a structural understanding of COVID-19 and molecular interactions across the known protease inhibitors centred on the findings of the multiple sequence alliance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658563PMC
January 2021

Ecotoxicological Effects of Ibuprofen on Plant Growth of L.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 2;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Environmental and Food Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Desertification Research Centre CIDE (CSIC-UV-GV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

Despite the prevalence of the common pharmaceutical ibuprofen (IBU) in water and sediments worldwide, the effects of IBU on plants are largely unknown. This study was designed to assess the ecotoxicological effects of emerging pharmaceutical pollutant IBU on plant growth and development in a series of toxicity experiments using cowpea (). Plant growth parameters (morphological and physicochemical) were investigated under a series of IBU concentrations (0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 ppm IBU). IBU exposure reduced the shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area, and chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid, total chlorophyll, mineral (K and Mg), glutathione reductase, and soluble protein contents. Simultaneously, increases in Ca and Mn contents, sodium translocation from roots to shoots, HO, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and IBU uptake were observed. The amount of bioaccumulated IBU varied between 7% and 8%. IBU was translocated from roots to shoots with a translocation factor of 3-16%. The IC values for biomass and plant length were 1253 and 1955 ppm IBU, respectively, which is much higher than the reported levels of IBU in the environment. This study demonstrates that cowpea plants develop several morphological and physicochemical adaptations to cope under ibuprofen stress; environmentally relevant concentrations of IBU are unlikely to produce negative impacts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692049PMC
November 2020

Remote sensing of 10 years changes in the vegetation cover of the northwestern coastal land of Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Nov 23;27(11):3169-3179. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61321, P.O. Box 9004, Saudi Arabia.

Accurate and up to date land use and land cover (LU/LC) changes information is the main source to understanding and assessing the environmental outcomes of such changes and is important for development plans. Thus, this study quantified the outlines of land cover variation of 10-years in the northwestern costal land of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Two different supervised classification algorithms are visualized and evaluated to preparing a policy recommendation for the proper improvements towards better determining the tendency and the proportion of the vegetation cover changes. Firstly, to determine present vegetation structure of study area, 78 stands with a size of 50 × 50 m were analysed. Secondly, to obtain the vegetation dynamics in this area, two satellite images of temporal data sets were used; therefore, SPOT-5 images were obtained in 2004 and 2013. For each data set, four SPOT-5 scenes were placed into approximately 250-km intervals to cover the northwestern coastal land of the Red Sea. Both supervised and non-supervised cataloguing methods were attained towards organise the study area in 4-major land cover classes through using 5 various organizations algorithms. Approximately 900 points were evenly distributed within each SPOT-5 image and used for assessment accuracy. The floristic composition exhibits high diversity with 142 species and seven vegetation types were identified after multivariate analysis (VG I: -, VG II: - VG III: -, VG IV: , VG V: , VG VI: - and VG VII: -) and ranged between halophytic vegetation on the coast to xerophytic vegetation with scattered trees inland. The dynamic results showed rapid, imbalanced variations arises between 3-land cover classes (areas as urban, vegetation and desert). However, these findings shall serve as the baseline data for the design of rehabilitation programs that conserve biodiversity in arid regions and form treasured resources for an urban planner and decision makers to device bearable usage of land and environmental planning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.07.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569144PMC
November 2020

Exogenous abscisic acid and jasmonic acid restrain polyethylene glycol-induced drought by improving the growth and antioxidative enzyme activities in pearl millet.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 10;172(2):809-819. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Drought stress is one of the most immense and permanent constraints in agriculture, which leads to a massive loss of crop productivity. However, little is known about the mitigation role of exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) under PEG-induced drought stress. Therefore, the current study investigated the putative role of exogenous ABA and JA in improving drought stress tolerance in pearl millet. Thirteen-day-old seedlings were exposed to six different treatments as follow; control (ck), PEG-600 (20%), JA (100 μM), ABA (100 μM), PEG+JA, and PEG+ABA, and data were collected at 7 and 14 days after treatment (DAT). Results showed that PEG decreased plant growth while the oxidative damage increased due to over production of H O and MDA content as a result of decreased activities of the antioxidative enzymes including APX, CAT, and SOD in the leaves. However, exogenous ABA and JA positively enhanced the growth profile of seedlings by improving chlorophyll and relative water content under PEG treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the plant defense system resulting from increased activities of antioxidative enzymes due to exogenous ABA and JA under PEG. Overall, the performance of JA was found better than ABA under PEG-induced drought stress, and future investigations are needed to explore the potential effects of these phytohormones on the long-term crop management and productivity under drought stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13247DOI Listing
June 2021

Nano-clay as a solid phase microextractor of copper, cadmium and lead for ultra-trace quantification by ICP-MS.

Anal Methods 2020 11 7;12(41):4949-4955. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Heavy metal microextraction and determination in daily used water is accurately achieved by applying nano-clay as an extractor. The conditions for adsorption/elution of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) were investigated by adjusting the pH of samples, sample volume and the type of eluent. The nano-clay showed superior efficiency for microextraction of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) at pH 2 using 2 mL of nitric acid (1 M) as the eluent. The microextraction procedure showed high recovery% by changing the sample volume from 15 mL to 70 mL. The preconcentration factor was found to be 37.5. The LOD and LOQ were 1.8, 1.3, and 1.9 μg L and 5.3, 3.9, and 5.7 μg L for Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) respectively. The addition/recovery from different water samples showed recovery% in the range 88-105 which confirms the efficiency and the accuracy of the developed solid phase microextraction using nano-clay for enrichment of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ay01343aDOI Listing
November 2020

Target Activity of (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) Fungal Strains against Dengue Vector (Linn.) and Its Non-Target Activity Against Aquatic Predators.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Sep 29;6(4). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

The present investigation aimed to determine the fungal toxicity of (My-It) against the dengue mosquito vector L. and its non-target impact against the aquatic predator . Lethal concentrations (LC and LC) of My-It were observed in 2.27 and 2.93 log ppm dosages, respectively. The sub-lethal dosage (My-It-1 × 10 conidia/mL) displayed a significant oviposition deterrence index and also blocked the fecundity rate of dengue mosquitos in a dose-dependent manner. The level of major detoxifying enzymes, such as carboxylesterase (α-and β-) and SOD, significantly declined in both third and fourth instar larvae at the maximum dosage of My-It 1 × 10 conidia/mL. However, the level of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) declined steadily when the sub-lethal dosage was increased and attained maximum reduction in the enzyme level at the dosage of My-It (1 × 10 conidia/mL). Correspondingly, the gut-histology and photomicrography results made evident that My-It (1 × 10 conidia/mL) heavily damaged the internal gut cells and external physiology of the dengue larvae compared to the control. Moreover, the non-target toxicity against the beneficial predator revealed that My-It at the maximum dosage (1 × 10 conidia/mL) was found to be less toxic with <45% larval toxicity against . Thus, the present toxicological research on showed that it is target-specific and a potential agent for managing medically threatening arthropods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6040196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712577PMC
September 2020

Allelopathic Potential of Aqueous Extract from R. Br. on .

Plants (Basel) 2020 Sep 18;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo, Spain.

We studied the polyphenol (phenolic compounds and flavonoids) composition and allelopathic effects of R. Br. aerial foliage aqueous extract (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on the seedling growth and plant biomass of the general biotest species, lettuce ). Mean leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight were decreased following exposure to aerial foliage, flowers aqueous extract (AFE) and phyllodes aqueous extract (APE) after 6 days. The reduction in plant dry biomass was more than 50% following treatment with AFE. The decrease in mean root length was approximately 37.7% and 29.20% following treatment with flowers extract (AFE) at 75% and 100% concentration, respectively. Root dry weight of was reduced by both flowers and phyllodes extract. The reduction of protein contents in lettuce leaves following foliage extract proved that both AFE and APE exhibit polyphenols that causes the toxicity which led to decrease in leaf protein contents. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was employed to analyze the flowers and phyllodes. A total of 13 compounds (accounting for most abundant compounds in flowers and phyllodes) include different flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The phytochemical compounds detected were: Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, -hydroxybenzoic acid, -hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, syringic acid, -coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The major flavonoid compounds identified include rutin, luteolin, apigenin, and catechin. Allelopathic effects of flower and phyllodes extracts from may be due to the presence of above compounds identified by HPLC analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9091228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570383PMC
September 2020

Intraoral Dual Wavelength Laser Diode Therapy for Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis.

Laser Ther 2020 Jul;29(1):35-40

Lecturer of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background: Chronic sinusitis is one of the most common chronic diseases involving different age groups. The different etiological factors and difficult diagnostic procedures contribute to misdiagnosis and chronicity of sinusitis. There is no standard treatment for sinusitis. Long term use of corticosteroids and antibiotics may lead to numerous adverse side effects. Laser therapy has been suggested as a non-invasive treatment for sinusitis. It has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. When considering maxillary sinusitis, discharge tends to collect in the sinus base due to its anatomy and altered physiology. To improve penetration of laser into the maxillary sinus, intraoral laser at the vestibule depth of the maxilla may be more effective.

Material And Subject: Thirty-four patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis were assigned into two groups. All were assessed before and after treatment. Group A received laser radiation plus standard medical treatment and group B received medical treatment only. The treatment plan was performed in 12 sessions using a Diode laser with a wavelength of 810 nm and 980nm. The SNOT-22 questionnaire and Computed Tomography were used to evaluate patients. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Both groups showed a significant improvement in symptoms following treatment (p < .001), however, the laser therapy group demonstrated greater improvements for all variables in response to treatment as compared to the traditional treatment group (p < .001).

Conclusions: Using high intensity intra-oral laser therapy with medical treatment is more effective than using medical treatment only for treatment of chronic maxillary sinusitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5978/islsm.20-OR-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447824PMC
July 2020

Zinc-lysine Supplementation Mitigates Oxidative Stress in Rapeseed ( L.) by Preventing Phytotoxicity of Chromium, When Irrigated with Tannery Wastewater.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Contamination of soil and water with metals and metalloids is one of the most serious problems worldwide due to a lack of a healthy diet and food scarcity. Moreover, the cultivation of oilseed crops such as rapeseed ( L.) with tannery wastewater could contain a large amount of toxic heavy metals [e.g., chromium (Cr)], which ultimately reduce its yield and directly influence oilseed quality. To overcome Cr toxicity in , a pot experiment was conducted to enhance plant growth and biomass by using newly introduced role of micronutrient-amino chelates [Zinc-lysine (Zn-lys)], which was irrigated with different levels [0% (control), 33%, 66%, and 100%] of tannery wastewater. According to the results of present findings, very high content of Cr in the wastewater directly affected plant growth and composition as well as gas exchange parameters, while boosting up the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced oxidative damage in the roots and leaves of . However, activities of antioxidants initially increased (33% of wastewater), but further addition of tannery wastewater in the soil caused a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, which also manifested by Zn content, while the conscious addition of wastewater significantly increased Cr content in the roots and shoots of . To reduce Cr toxicity in plants, exogenous supplementation of Zn-lys (10 mg/L) plays an effective role in increasing morpho-physiological attributes of and also reduces the oxidative stress in the roots and leaves of the oilseed crop (). Enhancement in different growth attributes was directly linked with increased in antioxidative enzymes while decreased uptake and accumulation of Cr content in when cultivated in wastewater with the application of Zn-lys. Zn-lys, therefore, plays a protective role in reducing the Cr toxicity of through an increase in plant growth and lowering of Cr uptake in various plant organs. However, further studies at field levels are required to explore the mechanisms of Zn-lys mediated reduction of Cr and possibly other heavy metal toxicity in plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9091145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569802PMC
September 2020

sp. ZB is a cell factory for the production of gibberellic acid using a cheap substrate in solid state fermentation.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Sep 2;27(9):2431-2438. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Zoology, Nesamony Memorial Christian College, Marthandam, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu 629 165, India.

Gibberellic acid from the fungi has been widely used in agriculture. In this study, more than 20 fungal isolates were screened and sp. ZB shown to produce more gibberellic acid than other fungal isolates. Cow dung was used as low cost substrate for gibberellic acid production in solid state fermentation (SSF). Carbon, nitrogen and ionic sources stimulated gibberellic acid production in SSF. Lactose emerged as the significant carbon source supporting more gibberellic acid production (731 µg/g). Among the nitrogen sources, glycine appeared to influence the production of more gibberellic acid (803 µg/g). The process parameters were optimized to enhance gibberellic acid production using a two-level full factorial design and response surface methodology. The amount of gibberellic acid production was influenced mainly by moisture and pH of the substrate. Gibberellic acid production was 1312 µg/g under the optimized conditions and the predicted response was 1339 µg/g. The gibberellic acid yield increased twofolds after medium optimization. The extracted gibberellic acid was sprayed on the growing Mung bean plant and it stimulated the growth of the plant effectively. To conclude, cow dung is a new alternative to produce gibberellic acid in SSF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451609PMC
September 2020

Physiological and Biochemical Response of (Regel) G. Nicholson under Acetic Acid Assisted Phytoextraction of Lead.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Aug 24;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Heavy metals (HMs) stress causes severe damage to physiology and biochemistry of plant species leading to stunted growth and low yield. Phytoremediation via phytoextraction, a viable low-cost and environment-friendly alternative to other techniques that are often too expensive, impractical and hazardous. However, phytoextraction potential, physiological and biochemical response of various plant species against HMs stress is not fully understood. Among other HMs, lead (Pb) is an inorganic pollutant with deleterious biotic effects. Bioavailability and mobility of the Pb can be enhanced by addition of organic acids. A pot scale experiment was done to assess the effects of Pb on (Regel) G. Nicholson and its ability to accumulate Pb with or without acetic acid (AA). The Results showed that Pb caused significant damage in , and its ecotoxicity was evident from increased levels of lipid peroxidation up to 107% under Pb stress. The significant decrease in plant height (32%), root length (21%), leaf area (38%) and number of leaves per plant (46%) was observed. On the other hand, application of AA to Pb stressed plants reduced the oxidative damage by further enhancing the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalases (CAT) up to 16% and 21% respectively. Moreover, addition of AA significantly improved plant total chlorophylls (15%) and carotenoids (50%). The application of AA also promoted Pb accumulation in leaf, stem and roots up to 70%, 65% and 66% respectively. This research concluded that AA has the ability to enhance the phytoextraction of Pb and support the plant growth and physiology under Pb stress condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9091084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570330PMC
August 2020
-->