Publications by authors named "Mohamed Ramadan"

169 Publications

Binder-Free Electrospun Ni-Mn-O Nanofibers Embedded in Carbon Shells with Ultrahigh Energy and Power Densities for Highly Stable Next-Generation Energy Storage Devices.

Langmuir 2021 May 20;37(17):5161-5171. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Energy Materials Laboratory, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt.

We demonstrate the fabrication of binder-free electrospun nickel-manganese oxides embedded into carbon-shell fibrous electrodes. The morphological and structural properties of the assembled electrode materials were elucidated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and glancing-angle X-ray diffraction. The fibrous structure of the electrodes was retained even after annealing at high temperatures. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and HR-TEM analyses revealed the formation of nickel and manganese oxides in multiple oxidation states (Ni, Ni, Mn, Mn, and Mn) embedded in the carbon shell. The embedded nickel-manganese oxides into the carbon matrix fibrous electrodes exhibit an excellent capacitance (1082 F/g) in 1 M KSO at 1 A/g and possess a high rate capability of 73% at 5 A/g. The high rate capability and capacitance can be attributed to the presence of carbon cross-linked channels, the binder-free nature of the electrodes, and various oxidation states of the Ni-Mn oxides. The asymmetric supercapacitor device constructed of the as-fabricated nanofibers and the bio-derived microporous carbon as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively, sustains up to 1.9 V with a high specific capacitance at 1.5 A/g of 108 F/g. The nanofibrous//bio-derived device exhibits an outstanding specific energy of 54.2 W h/kg with a high specific power of 1425 W/kg. Interestingly, the tested device maintains a high capacitive retention of 92% upon cycling over 10,000 charging/discharging cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00088DOI Listing
May 2021

Endovascular repair and open repair surgery of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms cause drastically different types of spinal cord injury.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7834. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 600 Gresham Dr, Norfolk, VA, 23507, USA.

Both endovascular repair (EVR) and open repair (OR) surgery of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms cause spinal cord (SC) injury that can lead to paraparesis or paraplegia. It has been assumed that mechanisms responsible for SC damage after EVR are similar to those after OR. This pilot study compared the pathophysiology of SC injury after EVR versus OR using a newly developed EVR dog model. An increasing number of stents similar to those used in patients were inserted in the aorta of three dogs to ensure thoracic or thoracic plus lumbar coverage. The aorta of OR dogs was cross-clamped for 45 min. Behavior assessment demonstrated unique patterns of proprioceptive ataxia and evolving paraparesis in EVR versus irreversible paraplegia in OR. MRI showed posterior signal in lumbar SC after EVR versus central cord edema after OR. Histopathology showed white matter edema in L3-L5 localized to the dorsal column medial lemniscus area associated with loss of myelin basic protein but not neurons after EVR, versus massive neuronal loss in the gray matter in L3-L5 after OR. Metabolome analysis demonstrates a distinctive chemical fingerprint of cellular processes in both interventions. Our results call for the development of new therapeutics tailored to these distinct pathophysiologic findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87324-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035135PMC
April 2021

Indole Derivatives Obtained from Egyptian sp. Soil Isolates Exhibit Antivirulence Activities against Uropathogenic .

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

is a frequent cause of catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Several virulence factors contribute to its pathogenesis, but swarming motility, biofilm formation, and urease activity are considered the hallmarks. The increased prevalence in antibiotic resistance among uropathogens is alarming and requires searching for new treatment alternatives. With this in mind, our study aims to investigate antivirulence activity of indole derivatives against multidrug resistant isolates. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts from sp. (rhizobacterium), isolated from Egyptian soil samples were tested for their ability to antagonize the virulence capacity and biofilm activity of uropathogens. Extracts of two sp. isolates (coded Zch127 and Cbg70) showed the highest antivirulence activities against . The two promising rhizobacteria Zch127 and Cbg70 were isolated from soil surrounding: (Zucchini) and (Cabbage), respectively. Sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (Sub-MICs) of the two extracts showed potent antibiofilm activity with significant biofilm reduction of ten clinical isolates (-value < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the Zch127 extract showed anti-urease, anti-swarming and anti-swimming activity against the tested strains. Indole derivatives identified represented key components of indole pyruvate, indole acetamide pathways; involved in the synthesis of indole acetic acid. Additional compounds for indole acetonitrile pathway were detected in the Zch127 extract which showed higher antivirulence activity. Accordingly, the findings of the current study model the feasibility of using these extracts as promising antivirulence agent against the uropathogens and as potential therapy for treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065651PMC
March 2021

Levels of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in the Turkish domestic markets.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Agricultural Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.

In this work, pesticide residues in 493 fruit and vegetable samples obtained from markets in Turkey were detected after QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electron spray ionization (LC-ESI/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Validation of the method was tested based on the European Union SANTE/12682/2019 guidelines. The samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of 500 pesticide residues. The results indicated that 254 samples of 493 samples contaminated with pesticides, only 22% contained pesticide residues at or below maximum residue limits (MRLs), and 30% contained pesticide residues above MRLs. Chlorpyrifos was the most common pesticide (105 samples) from the detected pesticides; 49 samples were found above to MRLs with concentrations of 0.011-2.001 mg/kg. Among samples, peach (88%), dill (84%), mushroom (83%), arugula (73%), and spinach (72%) were the crops with the higher percentages of pesticide residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13538-wDOI Listing
March 2021

3,7-bis-benzylidene hydrazide ciprofloxacin derivatives as promising antiproliferative dual TOP I & TOP II isomerases inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 15;110:104698. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, 61519 Minia, Egypt; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, New Minia, Minia, Egypt. Electronic address:

We report herein design and synthesis of a new series of 3,7-bis-benzylidenes of ciprofloxacin. Most of the target compounds revealed good cytotoxic activity; the most potent 4e and 4i achieved strong broad spectrum antiproliferative activity with comparable activity to Doxorubicin with IC (M) of 1.21 ± 0.02, 0.87 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.02; 0.41 ± 0.02, 0.57 ± 0.06, 1.31 ± 0.04 and 1.26 ± 0.01, 1.79 ± 0.04, 0.63 ± 0.01 against leukemia cancer cell line HL-60 (TB), colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and breast cancer cell line MCF7, respectively. Moreover, the most potent derivative 4i induced apoptosis at G2/M phase Investigating the mechanism of action of compounds 4e, 4 h and 4i exhibited promising dual TOP Iα and TOP IIB % inhibition comparable to Camptothecin and Etoposide; respectively. Docking of 4e, 4 h and 4i into the active site of topo I and II proteins compared to Camptothein and Etoposide revealed acceptable binding score and augmented enzyme assay data. Hence, 4e and 4i are promising targeted antiproliferative dual acting TOP Iα TOP IIB inhibitors that require further optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104698DOI Listing
May 2021

Psychophysiological responses to manual lifting of unknown loads.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(2):e0247442. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The handling of unknown weights, which is common in daily routines either at work or during leisure time, is suspected to be highly associated with the incidence of low back pain (LBP).

Objectives: To investigate the effects of knowledge and magnitude of a load (to be lifted) on brain responses, autonomic nervous activity, and trapezius and erector spinae muscle activity.

Methods: A randomized, within-subjects experiment involving manual lifting was conducted, wherein 10 participants lifted three different weights (1.1, 5, and 15 kg) under two conditions: either having or not having prior knowledge of the weight to be lifted.

Results: The results revealed that the lifting of unknown weights caused increased average heart rate and percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) but decreased average inter-beat interval, very-low-frequency power, low-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. Regardless of the weight magnitude, lifting of unknown weights was associated with smaller theta activities in the power spectrum density (PSD) of the central region, smaller alpha activities in the PSD of the frontal region, and smaller beta activities in the PSDs of both the frontal and central regions. Moreover, smaller alpha and beta activities in the PSD of the parietal region were associated only with lifting of unknown lightweights.

Conclusions: Uncertainty regarding the weight to be lifted could be considered as a stress-adding variable that may increase the required physical demand to be sustained during manual lifting tasks. The findings of this study stress the importance of eliminating uncertainty associated with handling unknown weights, such as in the cases of handling patients and dispatching luggage. This can be achieved through preliminary self-sensing of the load to be lifted, or the cautious disclosure of the actual weight of manually lifted objects, for example, through clear labeling and/or a coding system.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247442PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909684PMC
February 2021

Isolation and molecular identification of Brucella spp. in bovine herds kept at householders in the Delta region of Egypt by MALDI-TOF and AMOS-PCR.

Vet Ital 2020 Dec 1;56(4):297-300. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, Toukh 13736, Egypt..

Brucellosis is a widespread disease in Egypt which cause huge economic losses in the dairy industry. The present study aims at isolating and identifying Brucella (B.) spp. circulating in bovine and buffalo dairy herds kept at farmers houses in four districts of the Delta region of Egypt. One hundred and five tissue specimens were collected from seropositive cattle and buffaloes. The samples included 10 vaginal swabs, 3 placentas, 3 uteri and 86 supra-mammary lymph nodes from dams, as well as 3 stomach contents from aborted fetuses. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and the conventional biotyping techniques were used for preliminary identification of isolates into the genus level. AMOS-PCR was applied to differentiate Brucella isolates into species level. Nineteen Brucella strains have been identified, four B. abortus strains were recovered from cattle and 15 B. melitensis strains were isolated from both cattle (n = 8) and buffaloes (n = 7). The predominant occurrence of B. melitensis in bovines raises the fact that B. melitensis clone can cross species barriers and can establish a permanent reservoir in cattle and buffaloes. Presence of culture-positive animals at householders represent a high-risk factor for human infection. This knowledge is of significant importance in the control of brucellosis in bovines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1980.10596.3DOI Listing
December 2020

Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 mediated Pooled-sgRNAs assembly accelerates targeting multiple genes related to male sterility in cotton.

Plant Methods 2021 Feb 8;17(1):16. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China.

Background: Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), harboring a complex allotetraploid genome, consists of A and D sub-genomes. Every gene has multiple copies with high sequence similarity that makes genetic, genomic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The recent accessibility of CRISPR/Cas9 tool provides the ability to modify targeted locus efficiently in various complicated plant genomes. However, current cotton transformation method targeting one gene requires a complicated, long and laborious regeneration process. Hence, optimizing strategy that targeting multiple genes is of great value in cotton functional genomics and genetic engineering.

Results: To target multiple genes in a single experiment, 112 plant development-related genes were knocked out via optimized CRISPR/Cas9 system. We optimized the key steps of pooled sgRNAs assembly method by which 116 sgRNAs pooled together into 4 groups (each group consisted of 29 sgRNAs). Each group of sgRNAs was compiled in one PCR reaction which subsequently went through one round of vector construction, transformation, sgRNAs identification and also one round of genetic transformation. Through the genetic transformation mediated Agrobacterium, we successfully generated more than 800 plants. For mutants identification, Next Generation Sequencing technology has been used and results showed that all generated plants were positive and all targeted genes were covered. Interestingly, among all the transgenic plants, 85% harbored a single sgRNA insertion, 9% two insertions, 3% three different sgRNAs insertions, 2.5% mutated sgRNAs. These plants with different targeted sgRNAs exhibited numerous combinations of phenotypes in plant flowering tissues.

Conclusion: All targeted genes were successfully edited with high specificity. Our pooled sgRNAs assembly offers a simple, fast and efficient method/strategy to target multiple genes in one time and surely accelerated the study of genes function in cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13007-021-00712-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869495PMC
February 2021

Postpartum infection, pain and experiences with care among women treated for postpartum hemorrhage in three African countries: A cohort study of women managed with and without condom-catheter uterine balloon tamponade.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(2):e0245988. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Gynuity Health Projects, New York, New York, United States of America.

Objective: We aimed to determine the risk of postpartum infection and increased pain associated with use of condom-catheter uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) among women diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in three low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We also sought women's opinions on their overall experience of PPH care.

Methods: This prospective cohort study compared women diagnosed with PPH who received and did not receive UBT (UBT group and no-UBT group, respectively) at 18 secondary level hospitals in Uganda, Egypt, and Senegal that participated in a stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial assessing UBT introduction. Key outcomes were reported pain (on a scale 0-10) in the immediate postpartum period and receipt of antibiotics within four weeks postpartum (a proxy for postpartum infection). Outcomes related to satisfaction with care and aspects women liked most and least about PPH care were also reported.

Results: Among women diagnosed with PPH, 58 were in the UBT group and 2188 in the no-UBT group. Self-reported, post-discharge antibiotic use within four weeks postpartum was similar in the UBT (3/58, 5.6%) and no-UBT groups (100/2188, 4.6%, risk ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45-3.35). A high postpartum pain score of 8-10 was more common among women in the UBT group (17/46, 37.0%) than in the no-UBT group (360/1805, 19.9%, relative risk ratio = 3.64, 95% CI:1.30-10.16). Most women were satisfied with their care (1935/2325, 83.2%). When asked what they liked least about care, the most common responses were that medications (580/1511, 38.4%) and medical supplies (503/1511, 33.3%) were unavailable.

Conclusion: UBT did not increase the risk of postpartum infection among this population. Women who receive UBT may experience higher degrees of pain compared to women who do not receive UBT. Women's satisfaction with their care and stockouts of medications and other supplies deserve greater attention when introducing new technologies like UBT.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245988PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869979PMC
February 2021

Alginate, gelatin, and carboxymethyl cellulose coated nonwoven fabrics containing antimicrobial AgNPs for skin wound healing in rats.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 20;173:203-210. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Nonwoven fabrics containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely utilized to assist management of infected wounds and those at risk of infection. However, such materials have varied responses due to their chemical nature. Herein we investigated the correlation between the concentration of AgNPs taken up by nonwoven viscose material and antibacterial activity in a simulated wound fluid model against two bacterial models (i.e., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Thereafter, the developed nonwoven viscose containing AgNPs were independently coated with two polyacid carbohydrate polymers (i.e., carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCs), alginate (ALG)), and gelatin (GEL) protein in order to study their influence on the physical and biological attributes in vitro and in vivo. Intensive characterizations were utilized to monitor the physicochemical features of the developed nonwoven viscose. The results demonstrated that higher concentrations of AgNPs were taken up by viscose fabric whilewhile increasing AgNPs in the colloidal solution during padding process. Overall, the treated nonwoven fabric with and without polymers' coatings showed remarkable antibacterial activity against two bacterial models in vitro. As well as they achieved high and speed wound recovery in rats which was almost similar to commercial dermazin treatment. Therefore, it validates excellent nonwoven dressing clinically relevant to the wound type and condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.123DOI Listing
March 2021

Design and synthesis of hydrazinecarbothioamide sulfones as potential antihyperglycemic agents.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 May 6;354(5):e2000336. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty Pharmacy, Al-Azahr University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt.

New hydrazinecarbothioamides with a phenylsulfonyl group were synthesized and their structures were identified by different spectroscopic data ( H NMR, C NMR, two-dimensional NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray analysis). The mechanism describing the formation of the products was also discussed. The antidiabetic activity of the isolated products was investigated histochemically. The synthesized sulfonylalkylthiosemicarbazide exhibited antihyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Compounds 5a and 5c significantly lowered the blood glucose level to 103.3 ± 1.8 and 102 ± 3.9 mg/dl, respectively. Also, they caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and normalized the glutathione levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, compared with the diabetic group. The results suggest that the synthesized hydrazinocarbothioamides may effectively inhibit the development of oxidative stress in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202000336DOI Listing
May 2021

Complications of endourological procedures and their treatment.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2020 Dec 18;92(4). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Urology, Policlinico San Martino Hospital, University of Genova.

Endourological treatment for urinary stones and other obstructive urinary tract diseases is minimally invasive but in some cases it involves serious complications. This collection of cases describes some complications of endourological procedures and how they were treated. Case 1: A case of right ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrostomy found to be misplaced in the inferior vena cava. The case was safely managed, but it showed that ultrasound guidance alone may be insufficient so it is recommended that percutaneous nephrostomy should be always placed under fluoroscopic control, either alone or in combination with ultrasound guidance. Case 2: A case of renal subcapsular hematoma occurring on retrograde intrarenal surgery at high perfusion pressure. The hematoma was drained under combined ultrasonic and radiological guidance. Post treatment recovery was uneventful. Large stone size, severe ipsilateral hydronephrosis, long operation time, higher hydrostatic pressure of the irrigating solution and low ureteral wall compliance are supposed to be risks factors associated with renal subcapsular formation. Management strategy should be tailored to patient's clinical conditions. In hemodynamically stable patients, large hematoma drainage is recommended to prevent further complications and favours early recovery. Case 3: A case of double J stent fracture discovered one month after the insertion to relieve obstruction from a 1 cm stone in the right proximal ureter. The distal fragment of the stent was removed by cystoscopy while the proximal fragment was removed by semirigid ureteroscopy in two sessions due to fever and extensive calcification. Case 4: A mini-invasive technique for transurethral replacement of completely encrusted urinary stents in female patients. This technique allows the interventional radiologist to replace obstructed urinary stents by avoiding more invasive and traumatic urological procedures with sedation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/aiua.2020.4.321DOI Listing
December 2020

Development and Optimization of Tin/Flux Mixture for Direct Tinning and Interfacial Bonding in Aluminum/Steel Bimetallic Compound Casting.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

College of Engineering, University of Ha'il, Ha'il P.O. Box 2440, Saudi Arabia.

Interfacial bonding highly affects the quality of bimetallic bearing materials, which primarily depend upon the surface quality of a solid metal substrate in liquid-solid compound casting. In many cases, an intermediate thin metallic layer is deposited on the solid substrate before depositing the liquid metal, which improves the interfacial bonding of the opposing materials. The present work aims to develop and optimize the tinning process of a solid carbon steel substrate after incorporating flux constituents with the tin powder. Five ratios of tin-to-flux-i.e., 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20-were used for tinning process of carbon steel solid substrate. Furthermore, the effect of volume ratios of liquid Al-based bearing alloy to solid steel substrate were also varied-i.e., 5:1, 6.5:1 and 8.5:1-to optimize the microstructural and mechanical performance, which were evaluated by interfacial microstructural investigation, bonding area determination, hardness and interfacial strength measurements. It was found that a tin-to-flux ratio of 1:10 offered the optimum performance in AlSn12Si4Cu1/steel bimetallic materials, showing a homogenous and continuous interfacial layer structure, while tinned steels using other percentages showed discontinuous and thin layers, as in 1:5 and 1:15, respectively. Furthermore, bimetallic interfacial bonding area and hardness increased by increasing the volume ratio of liquid Al alloy to solid steel substrate. A complete interface bonding area was achieved by using the volume ratio of liquid Al alloy to solid steel substrate of ≥8.5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13245642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763545PMC
December 2020

Synthesis of potentially new schiff bases of -substituted-2-quinolonylacetohydrazides as anti-COVID-19 agents.

J Mol Struct 2021 Apr 16;1230:129649. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Science and Technology Unit (STU), Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia.

We report herein a new series of synthesized -substituted-2-quinolonylacetohydrazides aiming to evaluate their activity towards SARS-CoV-2. The structures of the obtained products were fully confirmed by NMR, mass, IR spectra and elemental analysis as well. Molecular docking calculations showed that most of the tested compounds possessed good binding affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M) comparable to.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2020.129649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668221PMC
April 2021

Evaluation of the Cesarean Scar Niche In Women With Secondary Infertility Undergoing ICSI Using 2D Sonohysterography Versus 3D Sonohysterography and Setting a Standard Criteria; Alalfy Simple Rules for Scar Assessment by Ultrasound To Prevent Health Problems for Women.

Int J Womens Health 2020 3;12:965-974. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Kasr Alainy, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt, Algezeera Hospital, Egypt.

Background: Many expressions were used to define the defect that is seen by ultrasound after cesarean section (CS) namely scar defect, niche, isthmocele, uterine pouch or diverticula.

Objective: To compare the accuracy of 2 dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG) to 3 dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in evaluating cesarean section uterine scar depth (D), base width (BW), width (W) and residual myometrial thickness (RMT) in women with secondary infertility and establishment of a standard criteria; Alalfy simple rules for scar assessment.

Patients And Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional comparative study that was conducted on women who presented with secondary infertility and were candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and giving a history of a previous cesarean section. Assessment of uterine scar in each woman was performed using 2D transvaginal ultrasound with sonohysterography (SHG) followed by 3D transvaginal with SHG with evaluation of niche depth, width, RMT, niche BW and RMT/depth ratio. The study was conducted at Algezeera hospital, Egypt.

Results: The present study revealed that 3D ultrasound with SHG is superior in evaluation of the RMT and niche width prior to ICSI providing better characterization of the scar niche.

Conclusion: Scar niche should be assessed by a combined integrated 2D SHG and 3D SHG scan with the specific geometrical and anatomical considerations, Alalfy simple rules for scar niche assessment that involvemeasurement of niche depth, (Base width) BW, width, RMT and RMT/depth ratio in sagittal plane, RMT in coronal plane / niche width in coronal plane ratio (ratio less than 1 denotes scar weakness with more liability for dehiscence).

Trial Registration: Clinical Trials.gov Id NCT04076904.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S267691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650036PMC
November 2020

Design and synthesis of new pyranoquinolinone heteroannulated to triazolopyrimidine of potential apoptotic antiproliferative activity.

Bioorg Chem 2020 12 17;105:104392. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, 61519 El-Minia, Egypt. Electronic address:

Pyrano[3,2-c]quinoline derivatives have been synthesized and utilized to obtain various new hetero-annulated triazolopyrimidine, containing quinoline, pyran, 1,2,4-triazine and pyrimidine in good yields. Newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by spectral data and elemental analysis. Most of the synthesized compounds showed moderate to weak antiproliferative activity on most cancer cell lines, especially leukemia and breast cancer cell lines. The open chain formimidic acid ethyl ester is slightly more potent than hetero-annulated systems. The most active compounds were further investigated for caspase activation, Bax activation and Bcl-2 down regulation compared to doxorubicin as a standard, and indeed exhibited mainly cell cycle arrest at the Pre-G1 and G2/M phases. The transcription effects of 5a and 5b on the p53 were assessed and compared with the reference doxorubicin. The results revealed an increase of 12-19 in p53 level compared to the test cells and that p53 protein level of 5a and 5b was significantly inductive (991, and 639 pg/mL, respectively) in relation to doxorubicin (1263 pg/mL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104392DOI Listing
December 2020

Determining the time needed for workers to acclimatize to hypoxia.

Int J Biometeorol 2020 Dec 14;64(12):1995-2005. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Exercise Physiology, College of Sport Sciences & Physical Activity, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This study aimed to determine the influence of intermittent hypoxia and the days required for a worker to be acclimatized in high-altitude countries. We conducted an experimental study. Ten nonsmoking male students were randomly recruited from King Saud University. Fourteen days of exposure to intermittent normobaric hypoxia (15%) was the independent variable. Heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (RF), minute ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (VT), oxygen uptake (VO),VO/kg, VO/HR, VE/VO, and VE/VCO were the dependent variables. Our results showed that 12 days of exposure to intermittent hypoxia were sufficient for workers to acclimatize to hypoxia based on their respiratory responses (i.e., HR, RF, VE). This type of acclimatization session is very important for workers who are suddenly required to work in such an environment, because prolonged exposure to high altitude without acclimatization leads to cell death due to a lack of oxygen, and this, in turn, puts workers' lives at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-020-01989-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Regional Variation of Pancreatic Cancer Incidence in the Nile Delta Region of Egypt over a Twelve-Year Period.

J Cancer Epidemiol 2020 14;2020:6031708. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Gharbiah Cancer Society, Tanta, Gharbiah, Egypt.

Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, with incidence rates rising in many countries around the world. Geographic variation in pancreatic cancer incidence has not been studied extensively, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of pancreatic cancer incidence in the central Nile Delta region of Egypt and to examine differences by urban and rural patient residence using the nation's only population-based cancer registry.

Methods: Utilizing the Gharbiah province population-based cancer registry, data were abstracted for 1,089 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed over twelve years from 1999 to 2010. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and compared for urban and rural areas of the eight districts of Gharbiah.

Results: Age-adjusted incidence of pancreatic cancer within Gharbiah varied considerably by urban/rural patient residence and by district. Incidence rates were 1.3 times higher in urban compared to rural areas (4.45 per 100,000 in urban areas and 3.43 per 100,000 in rural areas). The highest incidence rates were observed in urban centers of Kotour, El Santa, and Kafr El-Zayat districts (12.94, 8.32, and 7.89, respectively).

Conclusion: Incidence rates varied greatly by urban and rural areas and by district of residence in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Future studies should examine potential environmental risk factors that may contribute to the geographic distribution of pancreatic cancer in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6031708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376424PMC
July 2020

The biosurfactants iturin, lichenysin and surfactin, from vaginally isolated lactobacilli, prevent biofilm formation by pathogenic Candida.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2020 08;367(15)

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), particularly lactobacilli, are major components of the vaginal microbiota. Lactobacilli are facultative anaerobes forming a critical line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms, including those forming biofilms, such as Candida spp. This study aimed to investigate the anti-adhesion capabilities of vaginal Lactobacillus isolates against biofilms formed by pathogenic Candida species. When the extracellular biosurfactant activities of culture supernatants from 120 Lactobacillus isolates were evaluated by the oil-spreading method, clear spreading zones were recognized. Biofilm formation was quantified by the crystal violet plate assay, and different isolates exhibited anti-adhesion activity that ranged from 65.6to 74.4% inhibition against Candida spp. biofilms. Liquid chromatography high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-HRESIMS) identified biosurfactants, extracted from three representative Lactobacillus isolates, as surfactin, iturin and lichenysin. Finally, the distribution of representative genes from six different biosynthetic clusters, related to the production of different biosurfactants, was investigated by the polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, surfactin, iturin and lichenysin were identified for the first time in vaginal Lactobacillus spp. These biosurfactants, which showed strong anti-adherence activity may be used as promising antibiofilm agents in equipment care to prevent vaginal infections by pathogenic Candida spp. with the prospect of reducing nosocomial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnaa126DOI Listing
August 2020

Fabrication and Characterization of Sn-Based Babbitt Alloy Nanocomposite Reinforced with AlO Nanoparticles/Carbon Steel Bimetallic Material.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jun 18;13(12). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

College of Engineering, University of Ha'il, Ha'il P.O. Box 2440, Saudi Arabia.

Sn-based Babbitt alloy was reinforced with alumina nanoparticles to prepare a novel class of nanocomposites. The route of liquid metallurgy in combination with stirring mechanism was chosen to prepare nanocomposites with three different loadings of alumina nanoparticles, i.e., 0.25 wt%, 0.50 wt% and 1.0 wt%. The molten mixture of metallic matrix and nanoparticles was poured over carbon steel substrate for solidification to manufacture a bimetallic material for bearing applications. The underlying aim was to understand the effect of nanoparticle addition on microstructural variation of Sn-based Babbitt alloy as well as bimetallic microstructural interface. The addition of 0.25 wt% and 0.50 wt% alumina nanoparticles significantly affected both the morphology and distribution of CuSn hard phase in solid solution, which changed from needle and asterisk shape to spherical morphology. Nanocomposites containing up to 0.50 wt% nanoparticles showed more improvement in tensile strength than the one containing 1.0 wt% nanoparticles, due to nanoparticle-agglomeration and micro-cracks at the interface. The addition of 0.5 wt% nanoparticles significantly improved the wear resistance of Sn-based Babbitt alloy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13122759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345653PMC
June 2020

Development and Experimental Verification of an Ergonomic Backpack.

Biomed Res Int 2020 15;2020:1437126. Epub 2020 May 15.

Industrial Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.

Carrying a heavy school backpack has extensively been reported as a prime cause of children's body strain. It is suggested that the load should not exceed 10 percent of the child's body weight; however, ensuring this requires continuous monitoring. The study explores how ergonomically designed school backpack based on the user anthropometric data ( = 280) and ergonomic parameters help reduce force concentration on shoulders and back. It provides a validation process of the developed prototype by experimental verification. The developed design was assessed in a comparison experiment with a commercially available local school backpack. An experimental study was used which recruited thirty healthy college students (aged 19 to 23 years). Two independent variables evaluated were school backpack type (developed backpack versus commercial one) and load levels as a percentage of body weight. Three load levels were employed 10%, 15%, and 20%. These variables were measured on the responses: bag comfort scale and the percent of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) of six muscles (right and left of erector spine, right and left of external abdominal oblique muscle, and right and left of trapezius). The developed backpack provided astonishing performance at levels of 15% and 20% of body weight in terms of subjective measure and electromyography (EMG) responses. It also showed that increasing the carried weight more than 10% result in reducing activity on the erector spinal muscles, while it increases on abdominal oblique muscles. The developed backpack design confirmed the efficiency of its bases by distributing the carried weight among the trunk through side pockets, attached to the body through two upper and lower straps. It helped the body to distribute the carried weight and avoid concentrating pressure on specific areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1437126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245669PMC
March 2021

The occurrence of periodontal diseases and its correlation with different risk factors among a convenient sample of adult Egyptian population: a cross-sectional study.

F1000Res 2019 11;8:1740. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

University of Vienna, Vienna, A-1090, Austria.

: Even though extensive studies on the prevalence of periodontal diseases in various populations worldwide have been carried out, data for the Egyptian population is limited.  The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence and the severity of periodontal disease and its correlation with different risk factors. : Periodontal examination was performed on 343 adults attending the outpatient clinics of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, as well as three private clinics. Socio-demographic data, brushing frequency, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits were recorded using a questionnaire. : It was found that 58.9% of participants had calculus deposits. The occurrence of periodontitis was 89.8%, where 70.8% of participants had stage I and 15.2% had stage II, while only 4.4% and 2.05% suffered from stage III and stage IV, respectively. Calculus was positively correlated with age, grains, and sugar in drinks and negatively correlated with socioeconomic status, education level, brushing frequency and milk. Calculus was not correlated with gender and BMI. Periodontitis was positively correlated with age, carbohydrates other than bread, grains, and crackers, as well as caffeinated drinks, while negatively correlated with gender, socioeconomic status, brushing frequency. Periodontitis was not correlated with BMI or education level. : The present study clarifies that age, brushing frequency, carbohydrates and caffeinated drinks consumption are significant factors influencing the occurrence and the severity of periodontal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.20310.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236581PMC
June 2020

Phthalates levels in olive oils and olive pomace oils marketed in Turkey.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2020 Aug 4;37(8):1332-1338. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Agricultural Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University , Zagazig, Egypt.

Phthalates are used as additives and plasticisers in packaging for personal care and food products. Several investigations reported the harmful impact of phthalates on human health. In this study, different types of olive oils (12 olive oil; 20 extra virgin oil; 4 refined pomace oil) in different packaging materials [polyethylene terephthalate (PET), glass and metal] obtained from local markets in Turkey in 2019, were analysed using GC-MS for the presence of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP). The average recoveries of the 5 phthalates in olive oils were 87%-100%, with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.09-2.28 mg/kg. DEHP was the abundant phthalate in all olive oil samples ranging from below the LOQ (0.23 mg/kg) to 602 mg/kg. In all analysed samples, the levels of DINP and DIDP were less than their LOQ, thus these phthalates were not detected. The highest DEHP content was found in an olive oil sample containing 602 mg/kg, whilst 5 samples did not contain detectable phthalate esters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2020.1766120DOI Listing
August 2020

A cluster-randomized, non-inferiority trial comparing use of misoprostol for universal prophylaxis vs. secondary prevention of postpartum hemorrhage among community level births in Egypt.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 May 24;20(1):317. Epub 2020 May 24.

Gynuity Health Projects, 220 E 42nd St, Suite 710, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Previous community-based research shows that secondary prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with misoprostol only given to women with above-average measured blood loss produces similar clinical outcomes compared to routine administration of misoprostol for prevention of PPH. Given the difficulty of routinely measuring blood loss for all deliveries, more operational models of secondary prevention are needed.

Methods: This cluster-randomized, non-inferiority trial included women giving birth with nurse-midwives at home or in Primary Health Units (PHUs) in rural Egypt. Two PPH management approaches were compared: 1) 600mcg oral misoprostol given to all women after delivery (i.e. primary prevention, current standard of care); 2) 800mcg sublingual misoprostol given only to women with 350-500 ml postpartum blood loss estimated using an underpad (i.e. secondary prevention). The primary outcome was mean change in pre- and post-delivery hemoglobin. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin ≥2 g/dL and other PPH interventions.

Results: Misoprostol was administered after delivery to 100% (1555/1555) and 10.7% (117/1099) of women in primary and secondary prevention clusters, respectively. The mean drop in pre- to post-delivery hemoglobin was 0.37 (SD: 0.91) and 0.45 (SD: 0.76) among women in primary and secondary prevention clusters, respectively (difference adjusted for clustering = 0.01, one-sided 95% CI: < 0.27, p = 0.535). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes, including hemoglobin drop ≥2 g/dL, PPH diagnosis, transfer to higher level, or other interventions.

Conclusions: Misoprostol for secondary prevention of PPH is comparable to universal prophylaxis and can be implemented using local materials, such as underpads.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02226588, date of registration 27 August 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03008-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245883PMC
May 2020

Synergistic effects of pomegranate and rosemary extracts in combination with antibiotics against antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Sep 12;51(3):1079-1092. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University Giza, Giza, Egypt.

The combination of plant extract and antibiotic represents a template for developing of antibiofilm drugs. This study investigated the synergistic effects of pomegranate/rosemary/antibiotic combinations against antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that 17 (85%) of total P. aeruginosa isolates were biofilm producers; however, 5 (25%) isolates were demonstrated as a strong biofilm producer. The highest MIC level (1024 μg/ml) of tested antibiotics against strong biofilm producer isolates was observed with piperacillin, however the MIC ranges of ceftazidime, gentamycin, imipenem, and levofloxacin against these isolates were reached to (256-1024 μg/ml), (32-1024 μg/ml), (8-1024 μg/ml), and (8-512 μg/ml), respectively. PS-1 was the representative isolate for strong biofilm formation and high antibiotic resistance. 16S rRNA gene analysis suggested that PS-1 (accession No. MN619678) was identified as a strain of P. aeruginosa POA1. Pomegranate and rosemary extracts were the most effective extracts in biofilm inhibition, which significantly inhibited 91.93 and 90.83% of PS-1 biofilm, respectively. Notably, the synergism between both plant extracts and antibiotics has significantly reduced the MICs of used antibiotics at the level lower than the susceptibility breakpoints. Pomegranate/rosemary/antibiotic combinations achieved the highest biofilm eradication, which ranging from 90.0 to 99.6%, followed by the eradication ranges of pomegranate/rosemary combination, rosemary, and pomegranate extracts, which reached to (76.5-85.4%), (53.1-73.7%), and (41.2-71.5%), respectively. The findings suggest that pomegranate/rosemary/antibiotic combinations may be an effective therapeutic agent for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00284-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455646PMC
September 2020

Effects of Lifting Method, Safety Shoe Type, and Lifting Frequency on Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift, Physiological Responses, and Safety Shoes Discomfort Rating.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 26;17(9). Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Industrial Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.

This study aimed to investigate the physical effects of precision lifting tasks on the maximal acceptable weight of a lift (i.e., psychophysiological lifting capacity where the workers adjust the lifting weight in order to work without any fatigue or strain at the end of the work while wearing common safety shoe types). Additionally, the physical difference between the precise and non-precise lifting conditions associated with wearing safety shoes were assessed by respiration responses and shoe discomfort ratings. To achieve the objective of the study, ten healthy male workers were selected by age (between 25 to 35 years old). Their anthropometric characteristics, including knuckle height, knee height, and body mass index (BMI), were measured. A three-way repeated measures design with three independent variables was used; the variables included-the (1) lifting method (precise and non-precise), (2) lifting frequency (1 and 4 lifts per min), and (3) safety shoe type (light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy-duty). The physiological response variables and one of the subjective factors of this study were-(1) respiration responses, and (2) shoe discomfort rating, respectively. The data were analyzed using the Mauchly's test of sphericity, Shapiro-Wilk normality test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the use of heavy-duty safety shoes typically increased the shoe discomfort rating under precise lifting methods. Additionally, the lifting frequency was determined to be one of the main factors affecting respiratory responses and shoe discomfort rating. This study also found that respiration responses rose on four lifts per min as compared to 1 lift per min, regardless of the lifting method type. This study indicated that the replacement of some types of ordinary safety shoes used in some workplaces with those selected appropriately might significantly reduce the rating effort required to lift objects or tools. However, the benefits should be carefully evaluated before replacing the safety shoes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246667PMC
April 2020

Using Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Responses to Investigate the Effects of Ambient Oxygen Content, Safety Shoe Type, and Lifting Frequency on the Worker's Activities.

Biomed Res Int 2020 4;2020:7956037. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The study assesses the changes in electroencephalography (EEG) power spectral density of individuals in hypoxia when wearing a different type of safety shoes under different lifting frequencies. It also assesses the EEG response behavior induced via the process of lifting loads related to these variables.

Methods: The study was conducted in two consecutive phases: training and acclimatization phase and experimental lifting phase. Ten male college students participated in this study. A four-way repeated measures design was used in this research with independent variables: ambient oxygen content ("15%, 18%, and 20%"), safety shoes type ("light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy-duty"), lifting frequency ("1 and 4 lifts/min"), and replication ("first and second"). And the dependent variables were alpha, theta, beta, gamma, /, /, /, /, ( + )/, and ( + )/( + ). The participant was allowed to determine his maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) in fifteen minutes of lifting using psychophysically technique. Then, he continued lifting the MAWL for another five minutes, where all the data were collected.

Results: Results showed that the EEG responses at lower levels of the independent variables were significantly high than at higher levels; except for oxygen content, the EEG responses at lower levels were considerably lower than at a higher level. It also showed that an upsurge in the physical demand increased lifting frequency and replication and caused decreasing in alpha power, theta/beta, alpha/beta, (theta + alpha)/beta, (theta + alpha)/(alpha + beta) and increasing in the theta power and the gamma power. Furthermore, several interactions among independent variables had significant effects on the EEG responses.

Conclusion: The EEG implementation for the investigation of neural responses to physical demands allows for the possibility of newer nontraditional and faster methods of human performance monitoring. These methods provide effective and reliable results as compared to other traditional methods. This study will safeguard the physical capabilities and possible health risks of industrial workers. And the applications of these tasks can occur in almost all working environments (factories, warehouses, airports, building sites, farms, hospitals, offices, etc.) that are at high altitudes. It can include lifting boxes at a packaging line, handling construction materials, handling patients in hospitals, and cleaning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7956037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160726PMC
January 2021

Myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaf extract suppresses hepatotoxicity induced by monosodium glutamate and acrylamide through obstructing apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and cell cycle arrest.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 25;27(18):23188-23198. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Agricultural Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.

A large number of plant extracts have demonstrated to provide health benefits and mitigate several disease conditions. However, at the molecular and cellular levels, few studies have been conducted. The present work was designed to study the effect of Myrtus communis leaf extract (ME) (300 mg/kg bw) against hepatotoxicity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) (100 mg/kg bw), and acrylamide (ACR) (20 mg/kg bw) in male rats and determining its molecular and cellular mechanisms. The data showed that the treatment with MSG and/or ACR induced significant changes in numerous biomarkers (Bcl-2 and the programmed cell death protein-1) related to liver damage, as recorded by genotoxicity, apoptosis, and histopathological changes. On the other side, the oral administration of ME (300 mg/kg bw) improved the hepatic conditions as confirmed by the improvement in cell viability, programmed cell death, and histopathological alterations. It can be concluded that the consumption of ME might be useful for minimizing the occurred hepatotoxicity through up-regulation of the key apoptotic regulators as well as the improvement of DNA content and cell cycle restoration. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08780-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Efficiency of turnip bioactive lipids in treating osteoporosis through activation of Osterix and suppression of Cathepsin K and TNF-α signaling in rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 6;27(17):20950-20961. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Agricultural Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.

Vegetable oils are characterized by their bioactive phytochemicals including fatty acids, tocols, and phenolic compounds. In the current study, turnip (Brassica rapa) oil was evaluated for its fatty acid profiles, tocol composition, and total phenolic content. The radical scavenging properties of oil against DPPH· and galvinoxyl radicals were also evaluated. Turnip oil efficiency in treating osteoporosis was tested in rats. Fifty adult female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided to five groups (n = 10/group). An osteoporotic rat model was prepared by two separate 5-day (5 days on/9 days off) courses of methotrexate subcutaneous injection. Osteoporotic rats were orally gavaged with turnip oil (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Turnip oil efficiency in treating osteoporosis was studied by evaluation of Osterix, Cath K, and TNF-α transcript expression levels that involved in bone remodeling in femoral bones. Minerals and vitamin D were estimated in blood serum. Femoral bone histological and morphometric analyses were investigated in osteoporotic and turnip oil-treated rats. In vitro assays revealed strong antiradical potential of turnip oil. Treatment with turnip oil regulated the levels of Osterix, Cath K, and TNF-α mRNA that was accompanied with elevating the levels of calcium, phosphorous, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and vitamin D in osteoporotic rats. The histological and morphometric inspection revealed that turnip oil displayed progress in the osteoporotic rat bone formation that was clear in the enhancement of thickness of femur shaft cortical bone and femur head trabecular bone. Above-mentioned findings indicated that turnip oil has the potential to share in the treatment of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08540-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of Egyptian honeys and their floral origins: phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial characteristics.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 4;27(17):20748-20756. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Agricultural Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.

This study reports the physicochemical characterization of clover (Trifolium hybridum) and citrus (Citrus sinensis) honeys produced in Fayoum, Egypt, by evaluating the analysis of moisture content, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), electric conductivity (EC), total sugars, crude protein, ash content, total acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and total phenolic compounds (TPC). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of honey extracts and their flower extracts were determined. The results clearly indicated that ethanol gave the highest extraction yield of both clover and citrus flowers, while ethyl acetate showed the highest extraction recovery for the phenolic compounds, with TPC amounting to 338.5 and 536.4 mg gallic acid equivalent kg fresh weight in clover and citrus flower extracts, respectively. Honey samples have less TPC than their flowers. The results showed that the TPC of citrus honey and its flowers was higher than clover honey and its flowers, respectively. Antioxidant activity was higher in extracts obtained from citrus flower than extracts of clover flower. The same trend was noticed for honey samples. Both clover and citrus honeys showed antimicrobial effects against tested microorganisms. HPLC analysis showed that p-coumaric acid was the main phenolic component in ethanol extracts of clover and citrus honeys, contributing about 83.0% and 52.2%, respectively. In citrus and clover flower extracts, syringic acid and quercetin were the main phenolics, respectively. It would be expected that characteristics of honey samples are mainly depended on the floral origin of nectar foraged by bees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08586-7DOI Listing
June 2020