Publications by authors named "Mohamed O"

208 Publications

Normal-Phase TLC and Gradient Reversed-Phase HPLC for the Simultaneous Determination of Enrofloxacin and Bromhexine HCl in Presence of Two of Their Official Impurities.

J Chromatogr Sci 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr el Aini Street, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

In this work, two chromatographic methods are developed and validated for the determination of enrofloxacin and bromhexine (BRM) HCl in the presence of two of their specified impurities, ciprofloxacin and BRM impurity C. The suggested chromatographic methods included the use of thin layer chromatography (TLC-densitometry) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In case of TLC-densitometry, good separation was achieved by using mobile phase of n.butanol:acetone:water:glacial acetic acid:triethylamine (10:3:1:0.5:0.5, by volume) on silica gel stationary phase at 254-nm detection. The developed HPLC method used BDS HYPERSIL C18 column with a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile:methanol:triflouroacetic acid. A linear gradient elution of 75-10%, 20-50% and 5-40% for water, acetonitrile and methanol, respectively, was applied in 13 min at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min-1. These methods were sufficient to separate the four substances simultaneously, and they are validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmac048DOI Listing
June 2022

Bacterial Community Structure and Potential Microbial Coexistence Mechanism Associated with Three Halophytes Adapting to the Extremely Hypersaline Environment.

Microorganisms 2022 May 30;10(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

Halophytes play a crucial ecological role in drought and saline-alkali environments. However, there is limited knowledge about the structure of bacterial communities and the potential microbial coexistence mechanism associated with halophytes. This study investigated the diversity and community structure of endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria associated with three halophytes by applying high-throughput sequencing and geochemistry analyses on the studied soils. We collected 18 plant and 21 soil samples, and sequenced the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene using next-generation sequencing (NGS). We also assessed geochemistry of the studied soils. The research suggested that rhizospheric bacterial richness and diversity associated with three halophytes were all significantly higher than for endophytic bacteria. The microbial community analysis indicated that , , and were the dominating bacterial phyla. Most unassigned operational taxonomic units (OTUs) implied that the microbes associated with halophytes contained abundant potential novel taxa, which are significant microbial resources. The high-abundance OTU phylogenetic tree supported the above views as well. Additionally, network analysis indicated that some conditional rare taxa (CRT) also might be keystone taxa during halophyte microbial community construction. The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination analysis indicated significant dissimilarities in the microbial community among different sample groups. Sixty-two biomarkers were detected from seven different sample groups by linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEFSe) analysis. Microbial functions predicted based on phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt2) demonstrated that the abundances of nitrogen metabolism genes of endophytic bacteria were significantly higher than in rhizobacteria. Environmental factor analysis confirmed that different soil properties have different degrees of influence on the abundance and composition of the microbiota. To better adapt to the extreme hypersaline environment, halophytes could specifically recruit some plant beneficial bacterial taxa, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and extremely halophilic or halotolerant bacteria, to help them robustly grow and proliferate. All our preliminary results highlight microbial diversity and community related to halophytes grown on saline-alkali land of arid areas. Simultaneously, this work also advanced our further understanding of the halophyte microbiome associated with plants, and their role in plant adaptation to the extremely hypersaline environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9228163PMC
May 2022

An Algorithmic Approach to Managing Parotid Duct Injury Following Buccal Fat Pad Removal.

Aesthet Surg J Open Forum 2022 25;4:ojac032. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

The principles of achieving an aesthetically pleasing and harmonious facial appearance are influenced by our evolving understanding of the three-dimensional topography of the face coupled with novel approaches to midface volumization and contouring. In parallel with the evolving landscape of facial aesthetic surgery, an increasing number of publications have emerged focusing on the role of intraoral buccal fat pad removal (BFPR) for the purposes of aesthetic midface contouring. The authors sought to emphasize an underreported and potentially preventable and untoward complication involving iatrogenic parotid duct injury following BFPR. The purpose of this publication is 3-fold: (1) to review the relevant anatomy and literature on intraoral BFPR, (2) to present a case example of this complication, and (3) to discuss treatment options as part of a proposed management algorithm. The authors detail the surgical indications for performing BFPR and review the relevant anatomic considerations. Complication prevention strategies are outlined, and details regarding avoidance of parotid duct injury are reviewed. The diagnostic criteria and clinical presentation of parotid duct injuries following BFPR are comprehensively outlined. The authors present a clinically actionable algorithm for managing a suspected or diagnosed parotid duct injury following BFPR. A clinical case example is discussed to highlight this complication, the diagnostic criteria, and the systematic and algorithmic approach to management. Intraoral BFPR is an incredibly valuable and powerful procedure that can improve facial contour in patients with buccal lipodystrophy or buccal fat pad pseudoherniation. The authors propose a proper diagnostic approach and treatment algorithm to manage this untoward complication.

Level Of Evidence 5:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asjof/ojac032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9154315PMC
April 2022

Genome-wide Association and Meta-analysis of Age-at-Onset in Parkinson Disease: Evidence From COURAGE-PD Consortium.

Neurology 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Sorbonne Université (SU) Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1127, INSERM U1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Paris, France.

Background And Objectives: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature concerning genetic determinants of the age of onset (AAO) of Parkinson's disease (PD), which could be attributed to lack of well-powered replication cohorts. The previous largest GWAS identified nd loci on chromosome (Chr) 4 with a significant influence on AAO of PD, these have not been independently replicated. The present study aims to conduct a meta-analysis of GWAS of PD AAO and validate previously observed findings in worldwide populations.

Methods: A meta-analysis was performed on PD AAO GWAS of 30 populations of predominantly European ancestry from the Comprehensive Unbiased Risk Factor Assessment for Genetics and Environment in Parkinson's Disease (COURAGE-PD) consortium. This was followed up by combining our study with the largest publicly available European ancestry dataset compiled by the International Parkinson disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC).

Results: The COURAGE-PD included a cohort of 8,535 patients with PD (91.9%: Europeans, 9.1%: East-Asians). The average AAO in the COURAGE-PD dataset was 58.9 years (SD=11.6), with an under-representation of females (40.2%). The heritability estimate for AAO in COURAGE-PD was 0.083 (SE=0.057). None of the loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5x10). Nevertheless, the COURAGE-PD dataset confirmed the role of the previously published variant as genetic determinant of AAO of PD with Bonferroni-corrected nominal levels of significance (P<0.025): (rs34311866:β(SE)=0.477(0.203), P=0.0185). The subsequent meta-analysis of COURAGE-PD and IPDGC datasets (N=25,950) led to the identification of two genome-wide significant association signals on Chr 4, including the previously reported locus (rs983361:β(SE)=0.720(0.122), P=3.13x10) and a novel locus (rs4698412:β(SE)=-0.526(0.096), P=4.41x10).

Discussion: Our study further refines the genetic architecture of Chr 4 underlying the AAO of the PD phenotype through the identification of as a novel AAO PD locus. These findings open a new direction for the development of treatments to delay the onset of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000200699DOI Listing
May 2022

A study of transformer-based end-to-end speech recognition system for Kazakh language.

Sci Rep 2022 05 18;12(1):8337. Epub 2022 May 18.

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Today, the Transformer model, which allows parallelization and also has its own internal attention, has been widely used in the field of speech recognition. The great advantage of this architecture is the fast learning speed, and the lack of sequential operation, as with recurrent neural networks. In this work, Transformer models and an end-to-end model based on connectionist temporal classification were considered to build a system for automatic recognition of Kazakh speech. It is known that Kazakh is part of a number of agglutinative languages and has limited data for implementing speech recognition systems. Some studies have shown that the Transformer model improves system performance for low-resource languages. Based on our experiments, it was revealed that the joint use of Transformer and connectionist temporal classification models contributed to improving the performance of the Kazakh speech recognition system and with an integrated language model it showed the best character error rate 3.7% on a clean dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12260-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117202PMC
May 2022

Geopolymer concrete as green building materials: Recent applications, sustainable development and circular economy potentials.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 30;836:155577. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Dept. of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; Mechanical Engineering and Design, Aston University, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Environmental degradation and increased greenhouse gas emissions force communities to achieve sustainable green building and construction materials. The environmental and financial aspects of sustainable development and circular economy strongly depend on the recycling of wastes into new products. Geopolymers gained increasing attention because of their eco-friendly and superior mechanical characteristics and their ability to utilize numerous wastes as precursors. Although there are numerous studies on geopolymer, little attention was focused on geopolymer concrete (GeoC). Hence, This review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) investigated in detail GeoC. The first part of this study explores the recent synthesis processes, different precursors, and applications of geopolymer concrete (GeoC) in numerous sectors as well as the mechanical, microstructural, and physical related characteristics of GeoC developed from various wastes. The second part discusses in detail the contributions of GeoC to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) stated by the United Nations. The last part discusses the implementation of different wastes to develop GeoC-based circular economy to provide recommendations and prospects for GeoC science and technology. An eco-friendly, sustainable, structurally sound GeoC matrixes can be developed from numerous industrial, municipal, and agricultural wastes. Such GeoC is a good candidate to traditional concrete and some other building materials. GeoC is strongly contribute into 12 SDGs of the main 17 SDGs. Optimizing the elements of GeoC would decrease its cost and thus promote a green circular economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155577DOI Listing
August 2022

Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Insights into Population Diversity of Blooms: Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Genotypes, Including a Partial Operon That Can Be Abundant and Expressed.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2022 05 19;88(9):e0246421. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) degrade freshwater ecosystems globally. Microcystis aeruginosa often dominates cyanoHABs and produces microcystin (MC), a class of hepatotoxins that poses threats to human and animal health. Microcystin toxicity is influenced by distinct structural elements across a diversity of related molecules encoded by variant operons. However, the composition and distribution of operon variants in natural blooms remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized the variant composition of genes in western Lake Erie blooms from 2014 and 2018. Sampling was conducted across several spatial and temporal scales, including different bloom phases within 2014, extensive spatial coverage on the same day (2018), and frequent, autonomous sampling over a 2-week period (2018). Mapping of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequences to reference sequences revealed three genotypes: complete (all genes present []), partial (truncated , complete , and missing ), and absent (no genes). We also detected two different variants of that may influence the production of microcystin congeners. The relative abundance of these genotypes was correlated with pH and nitrate concentrations. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that partial operons were, at times, the most abundant genotype and expressed , suggesting the potential biosynthesis of truncated products. Quantification of genetic divergence between genotypes suggests that the observed strains are the result of preexisting heterogeneity rather than mutation during the sampling period. Overall, our results show that natural populations contain several cooccurring genotypes that dynamically shift in abundance spatiotemporally via strain succession and likely influence the observed diversity of the produced congeners. Cyanobacteria are responsible for producing microcystins (MCs), a class of potent and structurally diverse toxins, in freshwater systems around the world. While microcystins have been studied for over 50 years, the diversity of their chemical forms and how this variation is encoded at the genetic level remain poorly understood, especially within natural populations of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs). Here, we leverage community DNA and RNA sequences to track shifts in genes responsible for producing microcystin, uncovering the relative abundance, expression, and variation of these genes. We studied this phenomenon in western Lake Erie, which suffers annually from cyanoHAB events, with impacts on drinking water, recreation, tourism, and commercial fishing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aem.02464-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9088275PMC
May 2022

Lab-scale Preparation of Recombinant Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Escherichia coli and its Potential Safety on Normal Human Lung Cell Line.

Recent Pat Biotechnol 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is structurally similar to insulin and acts as an endocrine hormone that is secreted by the liver.

Objective: Production of recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) in Escherichia coli (E.coli) and evaluation of its proliferation stimulatory activity.

Methods: hIGF-1 gene cloned into pBSK (+) simple vector was transformed into TOP 10 chemically competent cells of E. coli. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was achieved using specific hIGF-1 gene primers to confirm successful transformation. To express the rhIGF-1 in E. coli (Rosetta (DE3) pLysS); hIGF-1 gene was cloned into pET-15b expression vector and then the recombinant pET-15b/IGF-1 vector was transformed into a chemically prepared competent expression bacterial cells; Rosetta (DE3) pLysS. The rhIGF-1 was expressed as insoluble aggregates called inclusion bodies (IBs) using 2 mM Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) inducer. IBs were solubilized in a denatured form using 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride (GdmCl), followed by in vitro protein refolding using the rapid dilution method. The refolded hIGF-1 was purified using HiTrap-ANX anion exchange column. Western blot and ELISA using rabbit polyvalent anti-hIGF-1 were performed to confirm the protein antigenic identity. Cell proliferation activity of rhIGF-1 was testified on normal human lung cell line (WI-38).

Results: rhIGF-1 was purified from the HiTrap-ANX column at a concentration of 300 µg/ml. Western blot showed a single 7.6 kDa band obtained in the induced Rosetta (DE3) pLYsS. ELISA confirmed the molecular identity of rhIGF-1 epitope, the concentration of purified rhIGF-1 obtained from the ELISA standard curve using rhIGF-1 reference protein as a standard was 300 µg/ml, and activity on WI-38 cells was 2604.17IU/mg.

Conclusion: Biologically active native rhIGF-1 protein was successfully expressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1872208316666220412105822DOI Listing
April 2022

Effect of relative GGBS/fly contents and alkaline solution concentration on compressive strength development of geopolymer mortars subjected to sulfuric acid.

Sci Rep 2022 04 4;12(1):5634. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

College of Engineering, Abu Dhabi University, PO Box 59911, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

The effect of submerging geopolymer mortar samples in highly acidic solution for 7-, 28-, and 90-days on stability of mass and the development of compressive strength development was assessed experimentally. The mortar binder consisted of GGBS or blends of GGBS and fly ash activated using combinations of NaOH and NaSiO solutions, and samples were cured in room temperature. It was found that maintaining mortar samples continuously under sulfuric acid doesn't cause reduction compressive strength or mass from one age to the other, up to 90 days. While decalcification, delaumination, and formation of calcium salts due to sulfate attack may have affected mass and strength, submerging samples under water supported formation of geopolymerization products C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H, and consequently increased the mass and compressive strength of cubic mortar samples with fly ash + GGBS blended binder. The resistance of mortar to sulfuric acid remained consistent when mortars were prepared using GGBS:fly ash ratio of 3:1, equal amounts of GGBS and fly ash, and GGBS as sole binder. When geopolymer mortar samples made with each of the three binders was left exposed to air after casting, compressive strength increased from 7- to 28-days after casting, but at 90-days, all mortar samples experienced decrease in compressive strength relative to the 28-day values. The relatively high content of GGBS (≥ 50%) and absence of curing water in relatively dry conditions caused shrinkage cracking and decrease in compressive strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09682-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8980053PMC
April 2022

Sulforaphane reduces obesity by reversing leptin resistance.

Elife 2022 03 24;11. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, United States.

The ascending prevalence of obesity in recent decades is commonly associated with soaring morbidity and mortality rates, resulting in increased health-care costs and decreased quality of life. A systemic state of stress characterized by low-grade inflammation and pathological formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) usually manifests in obesity. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2) is the master regulator of the redox homeostasis and plays a critical role in the resolution of inflammation. Here, we show that the natural isothiocyanate and potent NRF2 activator sulforaphane reverses diet-induced obesity through a predominantly, but not exclusively, NRF2-dependent mechanism that requires a functional leptin receptor signaling and hyperleptinemia. Sulforaphane does not reduce the body weight or food intake of lean mice but induces an anorectic response when coadministered with exogenous leptin. Leptin-deficient mice and leptin receptor mutant mice display resistance to the weight-reducing effect of sulforaphane, supporting the conclusion that the antiobesity effect of sulforaphane requires functional leptin receptor signaling. Furthermore, our results suggest the skeletal muscle as the most notable site of action of sulforaphane whose peripheral NRF2 action signals to alleviate leptin resistance. Transcriptional profiling of six major metabolically relevant tissues highlights that sulforaphane suppresses fatty acid synthesis while promoting ribosome biogenesis, reducing ROS accumulation, and resolving inflammation, therefore representing a unique transcriptional program that leads to protection from obesity. Our findings argue for clinical evaluation of sulforaphane for weight loss and obesity-associated metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.67368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8947770PMC
March 2022

Protective Effect of Rutin Trihydrate Against Dose-Dependent, Cisplatin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Isolated Perfused Rat's Heart.

Cureus 2022 Jan 24;14(1):e21572. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, SAU.

Background Cisplatin is a common anticancer drug with potential cardiac and renal toxicities. Rutin, a natural compound present in various medicinal plants, has been shown to protect against chemotherapy-induced toxicities. In this study, we explored the protective effect of rutin against the dose-dependent cardiotoxic effects of cisplatin such as perfusion pressure, histopathologic effect on the myocardium, and oxidative stress in isolated perfused rat hearts. Methodology The cardiotoxic effects of cisplatin were studied at three dosages (1, 7, and 14 mg/L) in isolated perfused rat hearts. The dose-dependent, cisplatin-induced toxic effects on left ventricular pressure (LVP), heart rate (HR), dp/dt (maximum), dp/dt (minimum), perfusion pressure, pressure-time index, contractility index, and duration of diastole were assessed. The effects of cisplatin were measured one minute before perfusion of cisplatin and 60 minutes after perfusion of the isolated rat hearts. Results Cisplatin (1-14 mg/L) caused a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in LVP. The percentage LVP values reduced from 94 ± 9 (control untreated hearts) to 70 ± 6, 69 ± 5, and 65 ± 4 in hearts treated with 1, 7, and 14 mg/L of cisplatin, respectively. Similarly, cisplatin at similar doses caused a marked reduction in the values of dp/dt (maximum), dp/dt (minimum), and pressure-time index in isolated rat hearts. The respective percentage values of these parameters compared to those of untreated hearts were significantly reduced from 101 ± 7 to 72 ± 5, 92 ± 8 to 69 ± 4, and 92 ± 12 to 57 ± 7 in hearts treated with 14 mg/L of cisplatin. Perfusion of hearts with rutin trihydrate (1 µM/L) 10 minutes before administration of cisplatin and throughout the experiment attenuated the detrimental effects of cisplatin on cardiac functions in isolated rat hearts (p < 0.05). In addition, cisplatin-induced degeneration and necrosis of cardiac muscle cells reduced with the concurrent administration of rutin and restored normal heart histology. Moreover, cisplatin-induced reduction in glutathione and increased level of malondialdehyde in the myocardium was reversed by concurrent administration of rutin in isolated rat hearts. Conclusions Cisplatin produced a dose-dependent impairment of several parameters of cardiac function such as LVP, contractility index, and pressure-time index. It caused histopathological alterations in isolated rat hearts. These harmful effects of cisplatin were suppressed by rutin trihydrate, suggesting the potential protective effects of rutin against cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity. Rutin trihydrate also improved the reduced glutathione contents and suppressed the malondialdehyde contents in the cardiac tissue of isolated rat hearts, suggesting that the observed beneficial effects of rutin trihydrate in this study could be related to its antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.21572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8866754PMC
January 2022

Visuospatial orientation: Differential effects of head and body positions.

Neurosci Lett 2022 04 25;775:136548. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, USA. Electronic address: http://vorlab.jhu.edu/.

To orientate in space, the brain must integrate sensory information that encodes the position of the body with the visual cues from the surrounding environment. In this process, the extent of reliance on visual information is known as the visual dependence. Here, we asked whether the relative positions of the head and body can modulate such visual dependence (VD). We used the effect of optokinetic stimulation (30°/s) on subjective visual vertical (SVV) to quantify VD as the average optokinetic-induced SVV bias in clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. The VD bias was measured in eight subjects with a head-on-body tilt (HBT) where only the head was tilted on the body, and also with a whole-body tilt (WBT) where the head and body were tilted together. The VD bias with HBT of 20° was in the same direction of the head tilt position (left tilt VD -1.35 ± 0.1.2°; right VD 1.60 ± 0.9°), whereas the VD bias with WBT of 20° was in a direction away from the body tilt position (left tilt VD 2.5 ± 1.1°; right tilt VD -2.1 ± 0.9°). These findings show differential effects of relative head and body positions on visual cue integration, a process which could facilitate optimal interaction with the surrounding environment for spatial orientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2022.136548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8930610PMC
April 2022

Identification of Antibacterial Metabolites from Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Leaves (Fabaceae), Utilizing Metabolomic and Molecular Docking Techniques.

Molecules 2022 Feb 8;27(3). Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, 33 El-Buhouth Street, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt.

The rapid spread of bacterial infection caused by has become a problem to public health despite the presence of past trials devoted to controlling the infection. Thus, the current study aimed to explore the chemical composition of the extract of endophytic fungus , isolated from leaves, and investigate the antimicrobial activity of isolated metabolites and their probable mode of actions. The chemical investigation of the fungal extract via UPLC/MS/MS led to the identification of at least forty-two metabolites, as well as the isolation and complete characterization of eight reported metabolites. The antibacterial activities of isolated metabolites were assessed against using agar disc diffusion and microplate dilution methods. Compounds ergosterol, helvolic acid and monomethyl sulochrin-4-sulphate showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 15.63, 1.95 and 3.90 µg/mL, respectively, compared to ciprofloxacin. We also report the inhibitory activity of the fungal extract on DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which led us to perform molecular docking using the three most active compounds isolated from the extract against both enzymes. These active compounds had the required structural features for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibition, evidenced via molecular docking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8839868PMC
February 2022

Fresh Properties and Sulfuric Acid Resistance of Sustainable Mortar Using Alkali-Activated GGBS/Fly Ash Binder.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Feb 1;14(3). Epub 2022 Feb 1.

College of Engineering, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 59911, United Arab Emirates.

In this study, sorptivity, setting time, resistance to sulfuric acid, and compressive strength of mortars that use alkali-activated GGBS and fly ash as binders, were evaluated experimentally. The activation of binders, was achieved at room temperature of 22 ± 2 °C using combinations of sodium silicates (NaSiO) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions in ratios of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. The parameters considered in terms of their effects on fresh and hardened properties include: NaOH molarity, activator ratio NaSiO/NaOH, mortar sample age, and relative amount of GGBS/fly ash in binder combination. Sorptivity, change in mass, and compressive strength were determined for mortar samples that were submerged in 10% sulfuric acid solution for 7 days, 28 days, and 90 days. The binder for mortar samples tested at each of the specified ages consisted of 100% GGBS (G100), 75%GGBS+25% fly ash (G75F25), or 50% GGBS + 50% fly ash (G50F50). The binder was activated using NaSiO solution, combined with 10 M, 12 M, 14 M, or 16 M NaOH solution. It was found that sorptivity decreases with increase in curing age, for all activator ratios, concentrations, and relative amounts of GGBS/fly ash. Binder consisting of 75%GGBS + 25% fly ash with NaOH concentration of 12 M had the lowest sorptivity. Exposure of alkali-activated GGBS/fly ash mortar samples to sulfate attack did not cause loss in mass nor visible signs of damage/deterioration. All binder combinations experienced increase in compressive strength after curing in 10%sufluric acid solution, with the optimum G75F25 mix achieving a 28-day strength of 80.53 MPa when NaOH molarity is 10 M, which increased to 91.06 MPa after 90 days. Variation in concentration of NaOH didn't cause significant change in the magnitudes of 28-day or 90-day compressive strengths of G50F50. However, despite slow dissolution of fly ash and immersion in 10% sulfuric acid solution, G50F50 developed 28-day compressive strength of 56.23 MPa and 90-day compressive of 86.73 MPa, which qualifies G50F50 as high strength mortar for practical purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14030591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8840511PMC
February 2022

Varicocelectomy versus antioxidants in infertile men with isolated teratozoospermia: A retrospective analysis.

Turk J Urol 2021 Jul;47(4):279-284

Department of Urology, Sohag University, Sohag University Hospital, Qena, Egypt.

Objective: To compare the outcome of microscopic subinguinal varicocelectomy versus oral antioxidants for the management of male infertility due to isolated teratozoospermia.

Material And Methods: Clinical patients' database of a tertiary infertility referral center was retrospectively reviewed to collect data on male infertility due to isolated teratozoospermia from July 2014 to January 2019. Seventy-two patients who underwentmicroscopic subinguinal varicocelectomy for their clinically palpable varicoceles were considered as a study group, while 60 patients who were treated with antioxidants (L-carnitine, vitamin C, and vitamin E) were included as controls. The improvement in the sperm morphology, sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), and the achievement of natural pregnancy were compared between the two groups.

Results: In the varicocelectomy group, all sperm parameters and SDF statistically improved 6months after the operation (P-value <.001). In the control group, the percentage of sperm morphology and SDF statistically improved 6months after the treatment (P-value <.05). The improvement in sperm parameters, SDF, and the pregnancy rate was statistically higher in the varicocelectomy group compared to the control group. Within the range of follow-up (12-18 months), 30.5% of patients' partners achieved natural pregnancy in the varicocelectomy groups compared to 16.7% in the control group.

Conclusion: We believe that varicocelectomy has a positive effect on the sperm morphology, SDF, and pregnancy rate in male infertility caused by isolated teratozoospermia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tju.2021.21013DOI Listing
July 2021

Dairy Intake and Parkinson's Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Mov Disord 2022 04 8;37(4):857-864. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, University of Thessaly, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece.

Background: Previous prospective studies highlighted dairy intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in men. It is unclear whether this association is causal or explained by reverse causation or confounding.

Objective: The aim is to examine the association between genetically predicted dairy intake and PD using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: We genotyped a well-established instrumental variable for dairy intake located in the lactase gene (rs4988235) within the Courage-PD consortium (23 studies; 9823 patients and 8376 controls of European ancestry).

Results: Based on a dominant model, there was an association between genetic predisposition toward higher dairy intake and PD (odds ratio [OR] per one serving per day = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-2.60, P = 0.013) that was restricted to men (OR = 2.50 [1.37-4.56], P = 0.003; P-difference with women = 0.029).

Conclusions: Using MR, our findings provide further support for a causal relationship between dairy intake and higher PD risk, not biased by confounding or reverse causation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2022 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28902DOI Listing
April 2022

Discovery and biosynthesis of cyclic plant peptides via autocatalytic cyclases.

Nat Chem Biol 2022 01 22;18(1):18-28. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Many bioactive plant cyclic peptides form side-chain-derived macrocycles. Lyciumins, cyclic plant peptides with tryptophan macrocyclizations, are ribosomal peptides (RiPPs) originating from repetitive core peptide motifs in precursor peptides with plant-specific BURP (BNM2, USP, RD22 and PG1beta) domains, but the biosynthetic mechanism for their formation has remained unknown. Here, we characterize precursor-peptide BURP domains as copper-dependent autocatalytic peptide cyclases and use a combination of tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and plant genomics to systematically discover five BURP-domain-derived plant RiPP classes, with mono- and bicyclic structures formed via tryptophans and tyrosines, from botanical collections. As BURP-domain cyclases are scaffold-generating enzymes in plant specialized metabolism that are physically connected to their substrates in the same polypeptide, we introduce a bioinformatic method to mine plant genomes for precursor-peptide-encoding genes by detection of repetitive substrate domains and known core peptide features. Our study sets the stage for chemical, biosynthetic and biological exploration of plant RiPP natural products from BURP-domain cyclases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-021-00892-6DOI Listing
January 2022

Three Needles Approach-A New Technique of Genicular Nerves Radiofrequency Ablation for Pain Relief in Advanced Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Trial.

Pain Physician 2021 11;24(7):E1067-E1074

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut University, Egypt.

Background: Ablation of the genicular nerves (GN) has emerged as a useful alternative therapeutic modality in chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA) specially for high-risk patients. However, in some cases due to the presence of other articular branches or anatomical variability, it may have a poor impact in relieving pain. Ablation of other or additional articular branches might have different outcomes.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of using 3 needles as a new technique in ablation of GN and compare it to the classic single-needle approach.

Study Design: A prospective parallel single-blind randomized study.

Setting: Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt, and Pain Management Unit, Assiut University Hospital, Egypt.  METHODS: Fifty patients with advanced knee OA were involved in this clinical study to be treated with radiofrequency ablation of GN using either: the single-needle technique (SN group [n = 25]) or the 3-needle technique (TN group [no = 25]) and assessed for: pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS); knee function and disability with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC); and patient satisfaction using global-perceived effect throughout 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure.

Results: Significantly longer and better improvement in perceived pain (VAS), function and disability (WOMAC) with more patients' satisfaction were recorded in the TN group than the SN group at all follow-up time points without untoward events.

Limitations: Short follow-up time; longer period could permit recognition of long-term outcome.

Conclusions: Compared to the conventional single-needle GN ablation technique, the 3-needle  approach appears to be a promising, safe, and more effective ablation technique for patients with chronic knee OA.
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November 2021

The effect of zinc deficiency and iron overload on endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function in children with transfusion-dependent thalassemia: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 10 22;21(1):468. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Pediatric Department, Children's University hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, El-Minya, Egypt.

Background: Children with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) suffer from secondary hemosiderosis and the delirious effects this iron overload has on their different body organs, including the pancreas. They are also more prone to develop zinc deficiency than the general pediatric population. This study aimed to determine the effect of zinc deficiency and iron overload on the endocrine and exocrine pancreas in TDT children.

Methods: Eighty children, already diagnosed with TDT, were included in this study. We assessed the following in the participant children: serum ferritin, serum zinc, endocrine pancreatic function (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting insulin level and from them, HOMA-IR was calculated), and exocrine pancreatic function (serum lipase and serum amylase).

Results: Forty-four TDT children had a subnormal zinc level, while 36 of them had a normal serum zinc level. TDT children with low serum zinc had significantly more impaired endocrine pancreatic function and an abnormally high serum lipase than children with normal serum zinc, p < 0.05 in all. Serum zinc was significantly lower in TDT children with serum ferritin above the ferritin threshold (≥2500 ng/ml) than those below (59.1 ± 20.2 vs. 77.5 ± 28.13), p = 0.02. TDT children, having a serum ferritin ≥2500 ng/ml, had significantly more frequently impaired endocrine pancreatic function and abnormally high serum lipase than TDT children below the ferritin threshold, p < 0.05 in all.

Conclusion: In children with transfusion-dependent thalassemia, zinc deficiency aggravates iron-induced pancreatic exocrine and endocrine dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02940-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532363PMC
October 2021

Mendelian Randomisation Study of Smoking, Alcohol, and Coffee Drinking in Relation to Parkinson's Disease.

J Parkinsons Dis 2022 ;12(1):267-282

Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, University of Thessaly, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece.

Background: Previous studies showed that lifestyle behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee) are inversely associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). The prodromal phase of PD raises the possibility that these associations may be explained by reverse causation.

Objective: To examine associations of lifestyle behaviors with PD using two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) and the potential for survival and incidence-prevalence biases.

Methods: We used summary statistics from publicly available studies to estimate the association of genetic polymorphisms with lifestyle behaviors, and from Courage-PD (7,369 cases, 7,018 controls; European ancestry) to estimate the association of these variants with PD. We used the inverse-variance weighted method to compute odds ratios (ORIVW) of PD and 95%confidence intervals (CI). Significance was determined using a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold (p = 0.017).

Results: We found a significant inverse association between smoking initiation and PD (ORIVW per 1-SD increase in the prevalence of ever smoking = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.60-0.93, p = 0.009) without significant directional pleiotropy. Associations in participants ≤67 years old and cases with disease duration ≤7 years were of a similar size. No significant associations were observed for alcohol and coffee drinking. In reverse MR, genetic liability toward PD was not associated with smoking or coffee drinking but was positively associated with alcohol drinking.

Conclusion: Our findings are in favor of an inverse association between smoking and PD that is not explained by reverse causation, confounding, and survival or incidence-prevalence biases. Genetic liability toward PD was positively associated with alcohol drinking. Conclusions on the association of alcohol and coffee drinking with PD are hampered by insufficient statistical power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-212851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9211765PMC
April 2022

Optimizing the intensity and purity of a Zeeman-decelerated beam.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Sep;92(9):093201

Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE, United Kingdom.

A pure, state-selected beam of gas-phase radicals is an important tool for the precise study of radical reactions that are astrochemically and atmospherically relevant. Generating such a beam has proven to be an ongoing challenge for the scientific community. Using evolutionary algorithms to optimize the variable experimental parameters, the passage of state- and velocity-selected hydrogen atoms can be optimized as they travel through a 12-stage Zeeman decelerator and a magnetic guide. Only H atoms traveling at the target velocity are present in the beam that reaches the detection region, from a source containing a mixture of different species. All other species-including seed gases, precursor molecules, other dissociation products, and H atoms traveling outside the target velocity-are removed from the beam. The fully optimized parameters yield a pure H-atom beam containing twice as many target particles and a narrower velocity distribution compared to beams produced when only the Zeeman decelerator is optimized. These significant improvements highlight the importance of considering the passage of all target particles in the beam as they pass through all elements of the experimental apparatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0061379DOI Listing
September 2021

Management of COVID-19 infection in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 6;38:13. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Aix-Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Marseille, France.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic affecting the world's population, is particularly threatening to dialysis patients. The purpose of this study was to propose recommendations for prevention and containment of COVID-19 in hemodialysis center situated in a regional hospital in Mauritania. Both COVID-19-infected (n = 11) and -uninfected (n = 16) dialysis patients were hospitalized up to three weeks to improve patient management. All COVID-19-infected patients were cured. Patient care and hygiene in a safe environment are the key factors for a favorable outcome, even in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2021.38.13.27151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444117PMC
October 2021

COVID-19 in the Gulf Cooperation Council Member States: An Evidence of Effective Response.

Oman Med J 2021 Sep 14;36(5):e300. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Objectives: The World Health Organization (WHO) published a global strategic response plan in February 2020 aiming to mitigate the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. It identified immediate activities required for global preparedness and response to the outbreak and set eight priority areas (pillars) essential for scaling up countries' operational readiness and response. Despite a semi-annual progress report on implementing the Global Strategic Plan in June 2020, there is limited granular information available on the extent of the national plan's content and implementation, particularly in the Member States of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Therefore, we sought to review the preparedness and responsiveness towards the COVID-19 outbreak in the GCC in the first phase of the pandemic and to document lessons learned for improving the ongoing response efforts and preparedness for future pandemics.

Methods: A rapid appraisal was conducted in June 2020 according to the WHO Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan and the accompanying Operational Planning Guidelines. The survey was administered to public health professionals or/and infectious disease experts in the states. The findings were cross-triangulated with secondary data that was publicly available for each country.

Results: The preparedness and response efforts of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE were fully compliant with all 11 (100%) pillars of the modified strategic response measures. Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar complied with eight of the pillars. The component on conducting COVID-19 related research was the lowest-performing across all the six states.

Conclusions: All GCC states demonstrated an effective response to the pandemic, enhanced existing infrastructures, and accelerated reforms that would have otherwise taken longer. The lessons learned through the early phase of the pandemic continue to steer the states in realigning their strategies and resetting their goals of controlling the outbreak, particularly in the current context of vaccine introduction and increasing preparedness capacities for future pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2021.115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441050PMC
September 2021

Evaluating the protective role of Deglycyrrhizinated licorice root supplement on bleomycin induced pulmonary oxidative damage.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2022 Mar 22;32(3):180-193. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

The goal of this study was to investigate the protective effect of licorice supplements in a rat model of Bleomycin-induced lung oxidative damage over a duration of one month. The rats were randomly divided into six groups ( = 10 per group). Control group; Bleomycin group (B): rats were IP injected with bleomycin 5 mg/kg twice weekly. Licorice group (L): rats received orally 300 mg/kg licorice extract. Bleomycin and a low dose of Licorice group (BLLG): rats received orally 75 mg/kg licorice daily and injected as the B group. Bleomycin and a middle dose of Licorice group (BMLG): rats received orally 150 mg/kg licorice daily and injected as the Bleomycin group. Bleomycin and a high dose of Licorice group (BHLG): rats received orally 300 mg/kg licorice daily and injected as the Bleomycin group. Treatment with Bleomycin induced inflammation and oxidative damage to the lungs expressed in the disturbance of the measured parameters in the blood serum, the lung tissue, and the broncholavage fluid. In addition to the decreased expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and catalase (CAT) in the lung tissues. Bleomycin caused deformative changes in the histopathological and cellular examination of the lungs especially in the alveolar cells and the interstitial space. On the other hand, treated the bleomycin group with different doses of licorice supplement activates the antioxidant defense mechanism and attenuates the oxidative damage and damage induced to the lung. In conclusion, Deglycyrrhizinated licorice root supplement provided strong antioxidant and protective effects on Bleomycin-induced lung damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2021.1977881DOI Listing
March 2022

Identification of a New Antimicrobial, Desertomycin H, Utilizing a Modified Crowded Plate Technique.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jul 27;19(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Natural Products Discovery Core, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

The antibiotic-resistant bacteria-associated infections are a major global healthcare threat. New classes of antimicrobial compounds are urgently needed as the frequency of infections caused by multidrug-resistant microbes continues to rise. Recent metagenomic data have demonstrated that there is still biosynthetic potential encoded in but transcriptionally silent in cultivatable bacterial genomes. However, the culture conditions required to identify and express silent biosynthetic gene clusters that yield natural products with antimicrobial activity are largely unknown. Here, we describe a new antibiotic discovery scheme, dubbed the modified crowded plate technique (mCPT), that utilizes complex microbial interactions to elicit antimicrobial production from otherwise silent biosynthetic gene clusters. Using the mCPT as part of the antibiotic crowdsourcing educational program Tiny Earth, we isolated over 1400 antibiotic-producing microbes, including 62 showing activity against multidrug-resistant pathogens. The natural product extracts generated from six microbial isolates showed potent activity against vancomycin-intermediate resistant . We utilized a targeted approach that coupled mass spectrometry data with bioactivity, yielding a new macrolactone class of metabolite, desertomycin H. In this study, we successfully demonstrate a concept that significantly increased our ability to quickly and efficiently identify microbes capable of the silent antibiotic production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19080424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400312PMC
July 2021

Economic Evaluation of Cladribine Tablets in Patients With High Disease Activity-Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Sep 20;25:189-195. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Cladribine tablets are the first short-course oral treatment approved for high disease activity relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (HDA-RRMS) across various countries. This analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of introducing cladribine tablets as a treatment option for patients with high disease activity compared with other HDA-RRMS therapies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Methods: The cost-effectiveness model was adapted from the KSA payer's perspective. Data for the model's adaptation were retrieved from the literature and validated by key opinion leaders. The comparators considered in the model were alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, interferon beta-1a (subcutaneous and intramuscular) and beta-1b, natalizumab, and teriflunomide. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to assess the robustness of the analysis.

Results: The cost-effectiveness results showed cladribine tablets as the dominant strategy (ie, less costly and more effective) versus all the comparators. The incremental cost and quality-adjusted life-years gained were largely driven by drug acquisition cost and delayed expanded disability status scale progression, respectively. Cladribine tablets showed an 81% to 100% probability of being cost-effective at a threshold of Saudi Riyal 225 326 per quality-adjusted life-years gained against different comparators.

Conclusions: Cladribine tablets are a dominant treatment option for patients with HDA-RRMS from the payer perspective in the KSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vhri.2021.03.007DOI Listing
September 2021

Intensive care unit hospitalisation costs associated with road traffic crashes at a central hospital in KwaZulu-Natal for the 2017/18 financial year.

S Afr J Surg 2021 Jun;59(2):47-51

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, Howard College, South Africa.

Background: The financial and physical impacts of road traffic crashes are borne by the individual, the extended family, society, the health sector and the economy of the country. The main contributors to these costs are the loss of productivity and the accrual of ongoing healthcare costs over a long-term period. There is limited information available on the cost of admitting seriously injured patients post accidents to a central hospital intensive care unit.

Methods: Cost data was obtained from the electronic database for all patients admitted for more than 24 hours to the trauma intensive care unit at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital. A mixed costing approach was used. Data was collected on surgical procedures, imaging, laboratory tests, trauma receiving fees, pharmaceuticals, goods and services and compensation of employees.

Results: The total cost of treating road traffic crash patients for the 2017/18 financial year equated to R21 140 475.49. The three main cost drivers comprised the compensation of employees (R12 135 848.41; 57.4%), goods and services (R5 083 182.12; 24%) and surgery costs (R1 429 321.00; 6.8%). The average cost per admission was R163 879.65, with the average cost per inpatient day equating to R12 727.56. Male patients admitted from motorcycle crashes had the highest cost per admission, followed by motor vehicle crashes and pedestrian vehicle crashes.

Conclusion: The cost and burden associated with road traffic crashes is reflective of national and international trends and will require a comprehensive strategy to reduce accidents as well as better management at the scene and at lower levels of care.
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June 2021

Relationship between work-related ocular events, facial injuries and associated factors amongst dental professionals during COVID-19.

Work 2021 ;69(3):759-766

Department of Prosthetic Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: In dental settings, COVID-19 can be transmitted directly from patients to dentists through small droplets, saliva splashes, blood, and other body fluids liberated as a result of dental procedures.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of ocular and facial injuries in dental professionals and to investigate factors in dental practice contributing to ocular injuries.

Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was performed in public and private sector universities. The study had 301 participants including final year undergraduate students, interns, postgraduate trainees, general practitioners, and dental specialists. Data were gathered online using Google forms. Information on sociodemographic, practice details, history of ocular and facial encounters during the clinical experience, and protective measures adopted by the dentists were collected. Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables whereas frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. A Chi-square test was applied for association between variables.

Results: Ocular events and facial injuries occurred more in females 204 (67.8%) than in males 97(32.2%). Final year students reported more incidence of ocular encounters than specialists (40.9%, 3.3%). Dentists working in the government sector underwent more ocular encounters than those in private sectors 185(61.4%) and 96 (31.8%). Majority of participants reported that scaling was the procedure in which dentists experienced an ocular event. A significant association was found between ocular events, qualification, years of experience in clinical practice, number of patients treated per day, improper posture, and proper armamentarium (p < 0.05). However, no association was found between ocular events, gender, working sector, and dental procedures.

Conclusion: Occurrence of ocular injuries were high compared to facial injuries and these outcomes were dependent on dental expertise and experiences. Appropriate measures should be adopted to minimize the risk of disease transmission and COVID-19 through the eyes among practicing dentists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-205101DOI Listing
July 2021

Discovery of Surfactins as Inhibitors of MicroRNA Processing Using Cat-ELCCA.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Jun 2;12(6):878-886. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Due to their important activity in the fine-tuning of protein translation, abnormal expression of miRNAs has been linked to many human diseases, making the targeting of miRNAs attractive as a novel therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, researchers have been heavily engaged in the discovery of small molecule modulators of miRNAs. With an interest in the identification of new chemical space for targeting miRNAs, we developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) technology, catalytic enzyme-linked click chemistry assay (cat-ELCCA), aimed at the discovery of small molecule ligands for pre-miR-21, a miRNA that is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. From our HTS campaign, we found that natural products, a source of many impactful human medicines, may be a promising source of potential pre-miR-21-selective maturation inhibitors. Herein we describe our first efforts in natural product inhibitor discovery leading to the identification of a depsipeptide class of natural products as RNA-binding inhibitors of Dicer-mediated miRNA processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.1c00046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201508PMC
June 2021

1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor attenuates high fat diet-induced cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in rats.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 01;25(10):3835-3847

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Obesity was induced in rats by feeding on a high fat diet (HFD), 60% w/w cholesterol, 20% w/w carbohydrates, and 20% w/w proteins for two months.

Materials And Methods: Animals were fed on a HFD and treated concurrently with a single daily dose of vehicle or TPPU (2 mg/kg p.o) for two months. Body weights, blood pressure, and biochemical investigations of all animals were registered at 0, 1, and 2 months of the experimental period.

Results: Vehicle-treated rats fed on a HFD had a considerable increase in body weight compared to age-matched control animals fed on a regular diet (regular diet; 311.40 ±9.60 vs. HFD; 446 ± 12.67). The body weight of rats fed on a HFD and concurrently treated with 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4yl) urea (TPPU; 2 mg/kg p.o) daily for two months was significantly decreased (p<0.01). A significant (p<0.01) increase in the systolic blood pressure of animals and vascular dysfunction with blunted relaxant response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was evident in vehicle-treated animals fed on a HFD compared to control rats fed on a regular diet. These HFD-induced disorders were markedly attenuated in animals fed on a HFD and treated concurrently with a single daily dose of TPPU (2 mg/kg p.o). HFD diet-induced deleterious metabolic changes were prevented with concurrent administration of TPPU (2 mg/kg p.o). TPPU treatment decreased the HDF-induced increase in plasma creatinine levels (p<0.001) in rats. The adiponectin levels were decreased (p<0.001) in vehicle-treated rats fed on HFD for two months compared to control rats fed on a normal diet (p<0.001). Adiponectin levels were significantly (p<0.001) increased in rats fed on HFD and treated concurrently with TPPU (2 mg/kg p.o). HFD diet caused a marked increase in plasma leptin levels of animals which were significantly decreased in animals fed on a HFD and treated concurrently with TPPU for two months. Obese animals exhibited increased levels of plasma insulin compared to control animals fed on a regular diet which were significantly suppressed (p<0.001) by TPPU treatment. In the current investigation, TPPU treatment had a favorable impact on the levels of other metabolic parameters such as plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high density lipoproteins (HDL). HFD caused a profound increase in the serum liver enzymes, the effect was reversed by treatment of animals with TPPU (2 mg/kg p.o).

Conclusions: The findings of our current study indicate the promising therapeutic potential of TPPU as a new drug candidate to manage obesity-induced cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors such as TPPU could prevent HFD-induced obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202101_25951DOI Listing
January 2021
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