Publications by authors named "Mohamed Mergoum"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterizing the oligogenic architecture of plant growth phenotypes informs genomic selection approaches in a common wheat population.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 31;22(1):402. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 27695, NC, United States.

Background: Genetic variation in growth over the course of the season is a major source of grain yield variation in wheat, and for this reason variants controlling heading date and plant height are among the best-characterized in wheat genetics. While the major variants for these traits have been cloned, the importance of these variants in contributing to genetic variation for plant growth over time is not fully understood. Here we develop a biparental population segregating for major variants for both plant height and flowering time to characterize the genetic architecture of the traits and identify additional novel QTL.

Results: We find that additive genetic variation for both traits is almost entirely associated with major and moderate-effect QTL, including four novel heading date QTL and four novel plant height QTL. FT2 and Vrn-A3 are proposed as candidate genes underlying QTL on chromosomes 3A and 7A, while Rht8 is mapped to chromosome 2D. These mapped QTL also underlie genetic variation in a longitudinal analysis of plant growth over time. The oligogenic architecture of these traits is further demonstrated by the superior trait prediction accuracy of QTL-based prediction models compared to polygenic genomic selection models.

Conclusions: In a population constructed from two modern wheat cultivars adapted to the southeast U.S., almost all additive genetic variation in plant growth traits is associated with known major variants or novel moderate-effect QTL. Major transgressive segregation was observed in this population despite the similar plant height and heading date characters of the parental lines. This segregation is being driven primarily by a small number of mapped QTL, instead of by many small-effect, undetected QTL. As most breeding populations in the southeast U.S. segregate for known QTL for these traits, genetic variation in plant height and heading date in these populations likely emerges from similar combinations of major and moderate effect QTL. We can make more accurate and cost-effective prediction models by targeted genotyping of key SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07574-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166015PMC
May 2021

Analysis of the primary sources of quantitative adult plant resistance to stripe rust in U.S. soft red winter wheat germplasm.

Plant Genome 2021 03 17;14(1):e20082. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

USDA Agricultural Research Service Plant Science Research Unit, Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA.

Stripe rust, or yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritic), is a disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) historically causing significant economic losses in cooler growing regions. Novel isolates of stripe rust with increased tolerance for high temperatures were detected in the United States circa 2000. This increased heat tolerance puts geographic regions, such as the soft red winter wheat (SRWW) growing region of the southeastern United States, at greater risk of stripe rust induced losses. In order to identify sources of stripe rust resistance in contemporary germplasm, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) studies on stripe rust severity measured in two panels. The first consisted of 273 older varieties, landraces, and some modern elite breeding lines and was evaluated in environments in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and the southeastern United States. The second panel consisted of 588 modern, elite SRWW breeding lines and was evaluated in four environments in Arkansas and Georgia. The analyses identified three major resistance loci on chromosomes: 2AS (presumably the 2NS:2AS alien introgression from Aegilops ventricosa Tausch; syn. Ae. caudata L.), 3BS, and 4BL. The 4BL locus explained a greater portion of variance in resistance than either the 2AS or 3BS loci in southeastern environments. However, its effects were unstable across different environments and sets of germplasm, possibly a result of its involvement in epistatic interactions. Relatively few lines carry resistance alleles at all three loci, suggesting that there is a pre-existing reservoir of enhanced stripe rust resistance that may be further exploited by regional breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20082DOI Listing
March 2021

A novel adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr2K38 mapped on wheat chromosome 1AL.

Plant Genome 2020 11 10;13(3):e20061. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.

Soft red winter wheat (SRWW) cultivar AGS 2038 has a high level of seedling and adult plant leaf rust (LR) resistance. To map and characterize LR resistance in AGS 2038, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 225 lines was developed from a cross between AGS 2038 and moderately resistant line UGA 111729. The parents and RIL population were phenotyped for LR response in three field environments at Plains and Griffin, GA, in the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 growing seasons, one greenhouse environment at the adult-plant stage, and at seedling stage. The RIL population was genotyped with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP marker array, and a total of 7667 polymorphic markers representing 1513 unique loci were used to construct a linkage map. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis detected six QTL, QLr.ags-1AL, QLr.ags-2AS, QLr.ags-2BS1, QLr.ags-2BS2, QLr.ags-2BS3, and QLr.ags-2DS, for seedling and adult plant LR resistance. Of these, the major adult plant leaf rust resistance QTL, QLr.ags-1AL, was detected on all field and greenhouse adult plant tests and explained up to 34.45% of the phenotypic variation. QLr.ags-1AL, tightly flanked by IWB20487 and IWA4022 markers, was contributed by AGS 2038. Molecular marker analysis using a diagnostic marker linked to Lr59 showed that QLr.ags-1AL was different from Lr59, the only known LR resistance gene on 1AL. Therefore, the QTL was temporarily designated as Lr2K38. Lr2K38-linked marker IWB20487 was highly polymorphic among 30 SRWW lines and should be useful for selecting the Lr2K38 in wheat breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20061DOI Listing
November 2020

Multi-Trait Genomic Prediction of Yield-Related Traits in US Soft Wheat under Variable Water Regimes.

Genes (Basel) 2020 10 28;11(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

The performance of genomic prediction (GP) on genetically correlated traits can be improved through an interdependence multi-trait model under a multi-environment context. In this study, a panel of 237 soft facultative wheat ( L.) lines was evaluated to compare single- and multi-trait models for predicting grain yield (GY), harvest index (HI), spike fertility (SF), and thousand grain weight (TGW). The panel was phenotyped in two locations and two years in Florida under drought and moderately drought stress conditions, while the genotyping was performed using 27,957 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers. Five predictive models including Multi-environment Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (MGBLUP), Bayesian Multi-trait Multi-environment (BMTME), Bayesian Multi-output Regressor Stacking (BMORS), Single-trait Multi-environment Deep Learning (SMDL), and Multi-trait Multi-environment Deep Learning (MMDL) were compared. Across environments, the multi-trait statistical model (BMTME) was superior to the multi-trait DL model for prediction accuracy in most scenarios, but the DL models were comparable to the statistical models for response to selection. The multi-trait model also showed 5 to 22% more genetic gain compared to the single-trait model across environment reflected by the response to selection. Overall, these results suggest that multi-trait genomic prediction can be an efficient strategy for economically important yield component related traits in soft wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11111270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716228PMC
October 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study of a Worldwide Collection of Wheat Genotypes Reveals Novel Quantitative Trait Loci for Leaf Rust Resistance.

Plant Genome 2019 11;12(3):1-14

Dep. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Univ. of Georgia, Griffin Campus, Griffin, GA, 30223.

Core Ideas: The emergence of new virulent Puccinia triticina races requires a continuous search for novel sources of resistance to combat leaf rust (LR) disease Twenty-two wheat genotypes resistant to four P. triticina races were identified in this study A genome-wide association study detected 11 quantitative trait loci for LR resistance; five of them were detected on genomic regions where no LR resistant genes have been detected. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide is being challenged by several biotic and abiotic factors. Leaf rust (LR), caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major biotic constraint of wheat production worldwide. Genetic resistance is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control LR. Seventy-nine LR resistance genes have been identified to date but the frequent emergence of new virulent P. triticina races every year demands a constant search for new sources of resistance with novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes. The objectives of this study were to identify putative novel sources of effective resistance against the current prevalent races of P. triticina in the southeast United States and to map genomic loci associated with LR resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. Evaluation of 331 diverse wheat genotypes against four prevalent P. triticina races (MFGKG, MBTNB, MCTNB, and TCRKG) revealed that the majority of the genotypes were susceptible and only 22 genotypes (6.6%) were resistant to all four P. triticina races. The GWAS detected 11 QTL on nine chromosomes for LR resistance. Of these, six QTL were identified in the vicinity of known genes or QTL; therefore, more studies are warranted to determine their relationship. Five QTL (QLr.uga-1AL, QLr.uga-4AS, QLu.uga-5AS, QLr.uga-5AL, and QLr.uga-7AS) were identified on genomic regions where no LR resistance genes have been identified in wheat, representing potential novel loci for LR resistance. The highly resistant wheat genotypes and novel QTL reported in this study could be used in breeding programs to improve LR resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2019.05.0033DOI Listing
November 2019

First Report of Fusarium poae Causing Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat in Georgia, USA.

Plant Dis 2020 Sep 20. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

University of Georgia, Plant Pathology, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia, United States, 30223-1797;

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most troublesome fungal diseases challenging US wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production (Savary et al. 2019). Harmful mycotoxin contamination, primarily due to deoxynivalenol (DON) in the Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK), can negatively impact human and livestock health (McMullen et al. 1997). Although Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of FHB, several other species including F. poae could pose a risk by producing dangerous mycotoxins such as nivalenol, DON, HT-2, and T-2 (Stenglein 2009). Severe FHB epidemics on wheat have occurred in recent years along with increased corn acreage across the southeast US specifically in Georgia (Ghimire et al. 2020). Five symptomatic wheat heads displaying bleaching symptoms were randomly collected from 19 different fields across 13 counties of Georgia in late spring of 2018. Infected kernels were dipped in 6% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min and rinsed three times with sterilized water. Blot dried kernels were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated for 7 days at 25°C under 12-h photoperiod. Three isolates (GA18W-2.1.6, GA18W-6.1.4, and GA18W-10.2.3) from Terrell, Peach, and Sumter counties exhibited dense, whitish mycelium colony typical of F. poae (Leslie and Summerell 2006). When grown in carboxymethylcellulose broth, isolates produced globose to piriform microconidia (5.1 to 12.4 µm by 4.4 to 11.2 µm) that were aseptate or had a single septation. The morphological identification was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Single hyphal tip isolates were grown on cellophane overlain on PDA for 10 days. Fungal DNA was extracted using a Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. Genomic DNA was sequenced using TEF1 and TEF2 primer pairs that target the translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) locus (O'Donnell et al. 1998). BLASTn query of the obtained sequences of GA18W-2.1.6 (accession no. MT856907) and GA18W-10.2.3 (accession no. MT856909) were identified as F. poae with a 99% sequence homology with GenBank reference accession MK629641, while GA18W-6.1.4 (accession no. MT856908) displayed 100% similarity with F. poae accession KJ947343. Koch's postulates were performed under greenhouse conditions. Three seeds of the FHB susceptible wheat cultivar 'SS8641' were planted in individual cone-tainers with three replications (two cone-tainers/replicate). Wheat plants were vernalized for six weeks and then moved back to the greenhouse. Each F. poae isolate was spray inoculated (50,000 spores/ml) at the flowering stage onto 18-24 wheat heads. A field isolate of F. graminearum was included as a positive control whereas heads mock-inoculated with water were used as a negative control. Inoculated wheat heads were incubated in black plastic bags for 48 hours. Disease severity and FDK were recorded three weeks post inoculation. Disease severities were 6.7% (GA18W-2.1.6), 8.3% (GA18W-10.2.3), and 15.2% (GA18W-6.1.4) compared to 90.0% in the positive control similar to Arrúa et al (2019). No symptoms were observed in the negative control. FDK was 18% (GA18W-2.1.6), 28% (GA18W-10.2.3) and 44% (GA18W-6.1.4). F. poae was re-isolated from the infected heads and found to be morphologically identical to the isolates used for inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. poae associated with FHB of wheat in the state of Georgia, USA. F. poae isolates from Georgia might produce mycotoxins in addition to reducing grain yield which needs further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-20-1779-PDNDOI Listing
September 2020

Fusarium Head Blight and Rust Diseases in Soft Red Winter Wheat in the Southeast United States: State of the Art, Challenges and Future Perspective for Breeding.

Front Plant Sci 2020 16;11:1080. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, University of Georgia, Griffin Campus, Griffin, GA, United States.

Among the biotic constraints to wheat ( L.) production, fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by , leaf rust (LR), caused by , and stripe rust (SR) caused by are problematic fungal diseases worldwide. Each can significantly reduce grain yield while FHB causes additional food and feed safety concerns due to mycotoxin contamination of grain. Genetic resistance is the most effective and sustainable approach for managing wheat diseases. In the past 20 years, over 500 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring small to moderate effects for the different FHB resistance types have been reported in wheat. Similarly, 79 -genes and more than 200 QTLs and 82 -genes and 140 QTLs have been reported for seedling and adult plant LR and SR resistance, respectively. Most QTLs conferring rust resistance are race-specific generally conforming to a classical gene-for-gene interaction while resistance to FHB exhibits complex polygenic inheritance with several genetic loci contributing to one resistance type. Identification and deployment of additional genes/QTLs associated with FHB and rust resistance can expedite wheat breeding through marker-assisted and/or genomic selection to combine small-effect QTL in the gene pool. LR disease has been present in the southeast United States for decades while SR and FHB have become increasingly problematic in the past 20 years, with FHB arguably due to increased corn acreage in the region. Currently, QTLs on chromosome from Jamestown, , and from W14, Ning7840, Ernie, Bess, Massey, NC-Neuse, and Truman, and ( from Sumai 3 for FHB resistance, , , , , , and genes for LR resistance, and for SR resistance have been extensively deployed in southeast wheat breeding programs. This review aims to disclose the current status of FHB, LR, and SR diseases, summarize the genetics of resistance and breeding efforts for the deployment of FHB and rust resistance QTL on soft red winter wheat cultivars, and present breeding strategies to achieve sustainable management of these diseases in the southeast US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.01080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378807PMC
July 2020

QTL analysis of farinograph and mixograph related traits in spring wheat under heat stress conditions.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Jul 6;47(7):5477-5486. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

College of Food Sciences and Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Farinograph and mixograph-related parameters are key elements in wheat end-products quality. Understanding the genetic control of these traits and the influence of environmental factors such as heat stress, and their interaction are critical for developing cultivars with improved for those traits. To identify QTL for six farinograph and three mixograph traits, two double haploid (DH) populations (Yecora Rojo × Ksu106 and Klasic × Ksu105) were used in experiments conducted at Riyadh and Al Qassim locations under heat stress. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to determine the number of QTLs controlling these parameters. The genetic analysis of farinograph and mixograph-related traits showed considerable variation with transgressive segregation regardless of heat stress conditions in both locations. A total of 108 additive QTLs were detected for the six farinograph and three mixograph traits in the Yecora Rojo × Ksu106 population in both locations under heat treatments. These QTLs were distributed over all 21 wheat chromosomes except 3A. Similarly, in Klassic × Ksu105 population, there were an additional 68 QTLs identified over the two locations and were allocated on all chromosomes except 1D, 2A, 6A, and 6D. In population (Yecora Rojo × Ksu106), the QTL on chromosome 7A (Excalibur_c62415_288) showed significant effects for farinograph and mixograph traits (FDDT, FDST, FBD, M × h8, and M × t) under normal and heat stress condition at both locations. Interestingly, several QTLs that are related to farinograph and mixograph traits, which showed stable expression under both locations, were detected on chromosome 7A in population (Klassic × Ksu105). Results from this study show the quantitative nature of the genetic control of the studied traits and constitute a step toward identifying major QTLs that can be sued molecular-marker assisted breeding to develop new improved quality wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05638-6DOI Listing
July 2020

The translucens group of Xanthomonas translucens: Complicated and important pathogens causing bacterial leaf streak on cereals.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 03 21;21(3):291-302. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA.

Xanthomonas translucens is a group of gram-negative bacteria that can cause important diseases in cereal crops and forage grasses. Different pathovars have been defined according to their host ranges, and molecular and biochemical characteristics. Pathovars have been placed into two major groups: translucens and graminis. The translucens group contains the pathovars causing bacterial leaf streak (BLS) on cereal crops such as wheat, barley, triticale, rye, and oat. In recent years, BLS has re-emerged as a major problem for many wheat- and barley-producing areas worldwide. The biology of the pathogens and the host-pathogen interactions in cereal BLS diseases were poorly understood. However, recent genome sequence data have provided an insight into the bacterial phylogeny and identification and pathogenicity/virulence. Furthermore, identification of sources of resistance to BLS and mapping of the resistance genes have been initiated.

Taxonomy: Kingdom Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species X. translucens; translucens group pathovars: undulosa, translucens, cerealis, hordei, and secalis; graminis group pathovars: arrhenatheri, graminis, poae, phlei; newly established pathovar: pistaciae.

Host Range: X. translucens mainly infects plant species in the Poaceae with the translucens group on cereal crop species and the graminis group on forage grass species. However, some strains have been isolated from, and are able to infect, ornamental asparagus and pistachio trees. Most pathovars have a narrow host range, while a few can infect a broad range of hosts.

Genome: The complete genome sequence is available for two X. translucens pv. undulosa strains and one pv. translucens strain. A draft genome sequence is also available for at least one strain from each pathovar. The X. translucens pv. undulosa strain Xt4699 was the first to have its complete genome sequenced, which consists of 4,561,137 bp with total GC content approximately at 68% and 3,528 predicted genes.

Virulence Mechanisms: Like most xanthomonads, X. translucens utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver a suite of T3SS effectors (T3Es) inside plant cells. Transcription activator-like effectors, a special group of T3Es, have been identified in most of the X. translucens genomes, some of which have been implicated in virulence. Genetic factors determining host range virulence have also been identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036361PMC
March 2020

Understanding the Genetic Basis of Spike Fertility to Improve Grain Number, Harvest Index, and Grain Yield in Wheat Under High Temperature Stress Environments.

Front Plant Sci 2019 29;10:1481. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States.

Moderate heat stress accompanied by short episodes of extreme heat during the post-anthesis stage is common in most US wheat growing areas and causes substantial yield losses. Sink strength (grain number) is a key yield limiting factor in modern wheat varieties. Increasing spike fertility (SF) and improving the partitioning of assimilates can optimize sink strength which is essential to improve wheat yield potential under a hot and humid environment. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) allows identification of novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with SF and other partitioning traits that can assist in marker assisted breeding. In this study, GWAS was performed on a soft wheat association mapping panel (SWAMP) comprised of 236 elite lines using 27,466 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The panel was phenotyped in two heat stress locations over 3 years. GWAS identified 109 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) (p ≤ 9.99 x 10-5) related to eight phenotypic traits including SF (a major component of grain number) and spike harvest index (SHI, a major component of grain weight). MTAs detected on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3B, and 5A were associated with multiple traits and are potentially important targets for selection. More than half of the significant MTAs (60 out of 109) were found in genes encoding different types of proteins related to metabolism, disease, and abiotic stress including heat stress. These MTAs could be potential targets for further validation study and may be used in marker-assisted breeding for improving wheat grain yield under post-anthesis heat stress conditions. This is the first study to identify novel QTLs associated with SF and SHI which represent the major components of grain number and grain weight, respectively, in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6895025PMC
November 2019

Genome wide genetic dissection of wheat quality and yield related traits and their relationship with grain shape and size traits in an elite × non-adapted bread wheat cross.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(9):e0221826. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States of America.

The genetic gain in yield and quality are two major targets of wheat breeding programs around the world. In this study, a high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 SNP markers identified a total of 43 genomic regions associated with three quality traits, three yield traits and two agronomic traits in hard red spring wheat (HRSW). When compared with six grain shape and size traits, the quality traits showed mostly independent genetic control (~18% common loci), while the yield traits showed moderate association (~53% common loci). Association of genomic regions for grain area (GA) and thousand-grain weight (TGW), with yield suggests that targeting an increase in GA may help enhancing wheat yield through an increase in TGW. Flour extraction (FE), although has a weak positive phenotypic association with grain shape and size, they do not share any common genetic loci. A major contributor to plant height was the Rht8 locus and the reduced height allele was associated with significant increase in grains per spike (GPS) and FE, and decrease in number of spikes per square meter and test weight. Stable loci were identified for almost all the traits. However, we could not find any QTL in the region of major known genes like GPC-B1, Ha, Rht-1, and Ppd-1. Epistasis also played an important role in the genetics of majority of the traits. In addition to enhancing our knowledge about the association of wheat quality and yield with grain shape and size, this study provides novel loci, genetic information and pre-breeding material (combining positive alleles from both parents) to enhance the cultivated gene pool in wheat germplasm. These resources are valuable in facilitating molecular breeding for wheat quality and yield improvement.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221826PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750600PMC
March 2020

Genetic Mapping and Prediction Analysis of FHB Resistance in a Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Population.

Front Plant Sci 2019 6;10:1007. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States.

head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive diseases in wheat worldwide. Breeding for FHB resistance is hampered by its complex genetic architecture, large genotype by environment interaction, and high cost of phenotype screening. Genomic selection (GS) is a powerful tool to enhance improvement of complex traits such as FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the genetic architecture of FHB resistance in a North Dakota State University (NDSU) hard red spring wheat breeding population, (2) test if the major QTL and play an important role in this breeding population; and (3) assess the potential of GS to enhance breeding efficiency of FHB resistance. A total of 439 elite spring wheat breeding lines from six breeding cycles were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and 102,147 SNP markers were obtained. Evaluation of FHB severity was conducted in 10 unbalanced field trials across multiple years and locations. One QTL for FHB resistance was identified and located on chromosome arm 1AL, explaining 5.3% of total phenotypic variation. The major type II resistance QTL only explained 3.1% of total phenotypic variation and the QTL was not significantly associated with FHB resistance in this breeding population. Our results suggest that integration of many genes with medium/minor effects in this breeding population should provide stable FHB resistance. Genomic prediction accuracies of 0.22-0.44 were obtained when predicting over breeding cycles in this study, indicating the potential of GS to enhance the improvement of FHB resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691880PMC
August 2019

Deciphering the Genetics of Major End-Use Quality Traits in Wheat.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 05 7;9(5):1405-1427. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797

Improving the end-use quality traits is one of the primary objectives in wheat breeding programs. In the current study, a population of 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Glenn (PI-639273) and Traverse (PI-642780) was developed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 16 end-use quality traits in wheat. The phenotyping of these 16 traits was performed in nine environments in North Dakota, USA. The genotyping for the RIL population was conducted using the wheat Illumina iSelect 90K SNP assay. A high-density genetic linkage map consisting of 7,963 SNP markers identified a total of 76 additive QTL (A-QTL) and 73 digenic epistatic QTL (DE-QTL) associated with these traits. Overall, 12 stable major A-QTL and three stable DE-QTL were identified for these traits, suggesting that both A-QTL and DE-QTL played an important role in controlling end-use quality traits in wheat. The most significant A-QTL () was detected on chromosome 1B for mixograph middle line peak time. The A-QTL was located very close to the position of the Glu-B1 gene encoding for a subunit of high molecular weight glutenin and explained up to 24.43% of phenotypic variation for mixograph MID line peak time. A total of 23 co-localized QTL loci were detected, suggesting the possibility of the simultaneous improvement of the end-use quality traits through selection procedures in wheat breeding programs. Overall, the information provided in this study could be used in marker-assisted selection to increase selection efficiency and to improve the end-use quality in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505165PMC
May 2019

Training population selection and use of fixed effects to optimize genomic predictions in a historical USA winter wheat panel.

Theor Appl Genet 2019 Apr 24;132(4):1247-1261. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Key Message: The optimization of training populations and the use of diagnostic markers as fixed effects increase the predictive ability of genomic prediction models in a cooperative wheat breeding panel. Plant breeding programs often have access to a large amount of historical data that is highly unbalanced, particularly across years. This study examined approaches to utilize these data sets as training populations to integrate genomic selection into existing pipelines. We used cross-validation to evaluate predictive ability in an unbalanced data set of 467 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes evaluated in the Gulf Atlantic Wheat Nursery from 2008 to 2016. We evaluated the impact of different training population sizes and training population selection methods (Random, Clustering, PEVmean and PEVmean1) on predictive ability. We also evaluated inclusion of markers associated with major genes as fixed effects in prediction models for heading date, plant height, and resistance to powdery mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici). Increases in predictive ability as the size of the training population increased were more evident for Random and Clustering training population selection methods than for PEVmean and PEVmean1. The selection methods based on minimization of the prediction error variance (PEV) outperformed the Random and Clustering methods across all the population sizes. Major genes added as fixed effects always improved model predictive ability, with the greatest gains coming from combinations of multiple genes. Maximum predictabilities among all prediction methods were 0.64 for grain yield, 0.56 for test weight, 0.71 for heading date, 0.73 for plant height, and 0.60 for powdery mildew resistance. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining unbalanced phenotypic records with genome-wide SNP marker data for predicting the performance of untested genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03276-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449317PMC
April 2019

Molecular Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in the Spring Wheat Line ND2710.

Phytopathology 2018 08 29;108(8):972-979. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

First, third, fifth, and eighth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo 58108; second, fourth, and sixth authors: Monsanto Company, St. Louis 63104; and seventh author: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin 30223.

ND2710 is a hard red spring wheat line with a very high level of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was selected from the progeny of a cross between ND2603 (an advanced breeding line derived from the Sumai 3/Wheaton cross) and Grandin (a spring wheat cultivar). The FHB resistance of ND2710 is presumably derived from Sumai 3 because the other parents (Grandin and Wheaton) are very susceptible to FHB. To identify and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in ND2710, we developed a mapping population consisting of 233 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross between ND2710 and the spring wheat cultivar Bobwhite. These RILs along with their parents and checks were evaluated for reactions to FHB in three greenhouse experiments and one field experiment during 2013 to 2014. The population was also genotyped with the wheat 90K iSelect single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay, and a genetic linkage map was developed with 1,373 non-cosegregating SNP markers, which were distributed on all 21 wheat chromosomes spanning 914.98 centimorgans of genetic distance. Genetic analyses using both phenotypic and genotypic data identified one major QTL (Qfhb.ndwp-3B) on the short arm of chromosome 3B, and three minor QTL (Qfhb.ndwp-6B, Qfhb.ndwp-2A, and Qfhb.ndwp-6A) on 6B, 2A, and 6A, respectively. The major QTL on 3B was detected in all experiments and explained 5 to 20% of the phenotypic variation, while the three minor QTL on 6B, 2A, and 6A explained 5 to 12% phenotypic variation in at least two experiments, except for Qfhb.ndwp-2A, which was only detected in the field experiment. Qfhb.ndwp-3B and Qfhb.ndwp-6B were mapped to the genomic regions containing Fhb1 and Fhb2, respectively, confirming that they originated from Sumai 3. The additive effect of the major and minor QTL may contribute to the high level of FHB resistance in ND2710. The SNP markers closely linked to the FHB resistance QTL will be useful for marker-assisted selection of FHB resistance in wheat breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-12-17-0392-RDOI Listing
August 2018

Fast-forward genetics by radiation hybrids to saturate the locus regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in Triticum.

Plant Biotechnol J 2016 08 24;14(8):1716-26. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA.

The nuclear-encoded species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes control nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat (genus Triticum). Alloplasmic cells, which have nucleus and cytoplasm derived from different species, produce vigorous and vital organisms only when the correct version of scs is present in their nucleus. In this study, bulks of in vivo radiation hybrids segregating for the scs phenotype have been genotyped by sequencing with over 1.9 million markers. The high marker saturation obtained for a critical region of chromosome 1D allowed identification of 3318 reads that mapped in close proximity of the scs. A novel in silico approach was deployed to extend these short reads to sequences of up to 70 Kb in length and identify candidate open reading frames (ORFs). Markers were developed to anchor the short contigs containing ORFs to a radiation hybrid map of 650 individuals with resolution of 288 Kb. The region containing the scs locus was narrowed to a single Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) contig of Aegilops tauschii. Its sequencing and assembly by nano-mapping allowed rapid identification of a rhomboid gene as the only ORF existing within the refined scs locus. Resequencing of this gene from multiple germplasm sources identified a single nucleotide mutation, which gives rise to a functional amino acid change. Gene expression characterization revealed that an active copy of this rhomboid exists on all homoeologous chromosomes of wheat, and depending on the specific cytoplasm each copy is preferentially expressed. Therefore, a new methodology was applied to unique genetic stocks to rapidly identify a strong candidate gene for the control of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5067624PMC
August 2016

Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants.

Funct Integr Genomics 2016 Mar 9;16(2):171-82. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversity. The magnitude and essence of intergenomic interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes remain unknown due to the direction of many crosses. This study was conducted to address the role of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions as a source of variation upon hybridization. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) alloplasmic lines carrying the cytoplasm of Aegilops mutica along with an integrated approach utilizing comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) and epigenome analysis were used to dissect this interaction. The results indicate that cytoplasmic genomes can modify the magnitude of QTL controlling certain physiological traits such as dry matter weight. Furthermore, methylation profiling analysis detected eight polymorphic regions affected by the cytoplasm type. In general, these results indicate that novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions can potentially trigger an epigenetic modification cascade in nuclear genes which eventually change the genetic network controlling physiological traits. These modified genetic networks can serve as new sources of variation to accelerate the evolutionary process. Furthermore, this variation can synthetically be produced by breeders in their programs to develop epigenomic-segregating lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-016-0475-2DOI Listing
March 2016

Genetic relationships between race-nonspecific and race-specific interactions in the wheat-Pyrenophora tritici-repentis pathosystem.

Theor Appl Genet 2016 May 21;129(5):897-908. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 58108, USA.

Key Message: We identified a major QTL conferring race-nonspecific resistance and revealed its relationships with race-specific interactions in the wheat- Pyrenophora tritici-repentis pathosystem. Tan spot, caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr), is a destructive disease of wheat worldwide. The disease system is known to include inverse gene-for-gene, race-specific interactions involving the recognition of fungal-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) by corresponding host sensitivity genes. However, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring race-nonspecific resistance have also been identified. In this work, we identified a major race-nonspecific resistance QTL and characterized its genetic relationships with the NE-host gene interactions Ptr ToxA-Tsn1 and Ptr ToxC-Tsc1 in a recombinant inbred wheat population derived from the cross between 'Louise' and 'Penawawa.' Both parental lines were sensitive to Ptr ToxA, but Penawawa and Louise were highly resistant and susceptible, respectively, to conidial inoculations of all races. Resistance was predominantly governed by a major race-nonspecific QTL on chromosome arm 3BL for resistance to all races. Another significant QTL was detected at the distal end of chromosome arm 1AS for resistance to the Ptr ToxC-producing isolates, which corresponded to the known location of the Tsc1 locus. The effects of the 3B and 1A QTLs were largely additive, and the 3B resistance QTL was epistatic to the Ptr ToxA-Tsn1 interaction. Resistance to race 2 in F1 plants was completely dominant; however, race 3-inoculated F1 plants were only moderately resistant because they developed chlorosis presumably due to the Ptr ToxC-Tsc1 interaction. This work provides further understanding of genetic resistance in the wheat-tan spot system as well as important guidance for tan spot resistance breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-016-2670-xDOI Listing
May 2016

Radiation hybrid maps of the D-genome of Aegilops tauschii and their application in sequence assembly of large and complex plant genomes.

BMC Genomics 2015 Oct 16;16:800. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 58102, USA.

Background: The large and complex genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., ~17 Gb) requires high resolution genome maps with saturated marker scaffolds to anchor and orient BAC contigs/ sequence scaffolds for whole genome assembly. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be an excellent tool for the development of such maps for it offers much higher and more uniform marker resolution across the length of the chromosome compared to genetic mapping and does not require marker polymorphism per se, as it is based on presence (retention) vs. absence (deletion) marker assay.

Methods: In this study, a 178 line RH panel was genotyped with SSRs and DArT markers to develop the first high resolution RH maps of the entire D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. To confirm map order accuracy, the AL8/78-RH maps were compared with:1) a DArT consensus genetic map constructed using more than 100 bi-parental populations, 2) a RH map of the D-genome of reference hexaploid wheat 'Chinese Spring', and 3) two SNP-based genetic maps, one with anchored D-genome BAC contigs and another with anchored D-genome sequence scaffolds. Using marker sequences, the RH maps were also anchored with a BAC contig based physical map and draft sequence of the D-genome of Ae. tauschii.

Results: A total of 609 markers were mapped to 503 unique positions on the seven D-genome chromosomes, with a total map length of 14,706.7 cR. The average distance between any two marker loci was 29.2 cR which corresponds to 2.1 cM or 9.8 Mb. The average mapping resolution across the D-genome was estimated to be 0.34 Mb (Mb/cR) or 0.07 cM (cM/cR). The RH maps showed almost perfect agreement with several published maps with regard to chromosome assignments of markers. The mean rank correlations between the position of markers on AL8/78 maps and the four published maps, ranged from 0.75 to 0.92, suggesting a good agreement in marker order. With 609 mapped markers, a total of 2481 deletions for the whole D-genome were detected with an average deletion size of 42.0 Mb. A total of 520 markers were anchored to 216 Ae. tauschii sequence scaffolds, 116 of which were not anchored earlier to the D-genome.

Conclusion: This study reports the development of first high resolution RH maps for the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78, which were then used for the anchoring of unassigned sequence scaffolds. This study demonstrates how RH mapping, which offered high and uniform resolution across the length of the chromosome, can facilitate the complete sequence assembly of the large and complex plant genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-2030-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609151PMC
October 2015

Genome-Wide Mapping of Spike-Related and Agronomic Traits in a Common Wheat Population Derived from a Supernumerary Spikelet Parent and an Elite Parent.

Plant Genome 2015 Jul;8(2):eplantgenome2014.12.0089

Dep. of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State Univ., P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND, 58108-6050.

In wheat, exotic genotypes harbor a broad range of spike-related traits, and can be used as a source of new genes for germplasm enhancement in wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines was derived from a cross between an elite line (WCB414) and an exotic line (WCB617) with branched spike (supernumerary spikelet; SS) head morphology. The population was evaluated over four to six environments to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nine spike-related traits and 10 agronomic traits. A genetic map consisting of 939 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers was constructed. Composite interval mapping identified a total of 143 QTL located on 17 different wheat chromosomes and included 33 consistent and definitive QTL. The amount of phenotype variation explained (PVE) by individual QTL ranged from 0.61 to 91.8%. One major QTL for glume pubescence was located in a QTL-rich region on the short arm of chromosome 1A, where loci for other traits such as for kernels per spike (KS) and spike length (SL) were also identified. Similarly, a cluster of QTL associated with yield-related, agronomic and spike-related traits contributing up to 40.3% of PVE was found on the short arm of chromosome 2D, in the vicinity of a major QTL for SS-related traits. Consistent and major QTL identified in the present study may be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs to facilitate transfer of desirable alleles into other germplasm. Desirable QTL alleles were also contributed by the exotic line, suggesting the possibility of enriching the breeding germplasm with alleles from SS genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2014.12.0089DOI Listing
July 2015

Radiation Hybrid Map of Barley Chromosome 3H.

Plant Genome 2015 Jul;8(2):eplantgenome2015.02.0005

USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease Lab., Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108.

Assembly of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb) and proportion of repetitive elements (84%). This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps, however, do not provide accurate information on the physical position of a large portion of the genome located in recombination-poor regions. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is an alternative approach, which is based on radiation-induced deletions along the length of chromosomes. In this study, the first RH map for barley chromosome 3H was developed. In total, 373 in vivo RH lines were generated by irradiating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-barley chromosome 3H addition lines and crossing them to a normal wheat cultivar. Each RH informative line (containing deletions) had, on average, three deletions. The induced deletion size varied from 36.58 Kb to 576.00 Mb, with an average length of 52.42 Mb. This initial chromosome 3H radiation hybrid (3H-RH) map had a 9.53× higher resolution than an analogous genetic map, reaching a maximum of >262.40× resolution in regions around the centromere. The final RH map was 3066.1 cR in length, with a 0.76 Mb resolution. It was estimated that the map resolution can be improved to an average of 30.34 Kb by saturating the 3H-RH map with molecular markers. The generated RH panel enabled alignment of BAC and sequenced contigs as small as 1.50 Kb in size. The high resolution and the coverage of poor-recombination regions make RH maps an ideal resource for barley genome assembly, as well as other genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2015.02.0005DOI Listing
July 2015

New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary × non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes.

Theor Appl Genet 2015 May 5;128(5):893-912. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND, USA.

Key Message: A population developed from an exotic line with supernumerary spikelets was genetically dissected for eight quality traits, discovering new genes/alleles with potential use in wheat breeding programs. Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, an RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and new alleles for eight quality traits. Composite interval mapping for 1,000 kernels weight (TKW), kernel volume weight (KVW), grain protein content (GPC), percent of flour extraction (FE) and four mixograph-related traits identified a total of 69 QTLs including 19 stable QTLs. These QTLs were located on 18 different chromosomes (except 4D, 5D, and 6D). Thirteen of these QTLs explained more than 15% of phenotypic variation (PV) and were considered as major QTLs. In this study, we identified 11 QTLs for TKW (R (2) = 7.2-17.1 %), 10 for KVW (R (2) = 6.7-22.5%), 11 for GPC (R (2) = 4.7-16.9%), 6 for FE (R (2) = 4.8-19%) and 31 for mixograph-related traits (R (2) = 3.2-41.2%). In this population, several previously identified QTLs for SS, nine spike-related and ten agronomic traits were co-located with the quality QTLs, suggesting pleiotropic effects or close linkage among loci. The traits GPC and mixogram-related traits were positively correlated with SS. Indeed, several loci for quality traits were co-located with QTL for SS. The exotic parent contributed positive alleles that increased PV of the traits at 56% of loci demonstrating the suitability of germplasm with SS to improve quality traits in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-015-2478-0DOI Listing
May 2015

Analysis of ATP6 sequence diversity in the Triticum-Aegilops species group reveals the crucial role of rearrangement in mitochondrial genome evolution.

Genome 2014 May 30;57(5):279-88. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

a Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA.

Mutation and chromosomal rearrangements are the two main forces of increasing genetic diversity for natural selection to act upon, and ultimately drive the evolutionary process. Although genome evolution is a function of both forces, simultaneously, the ratio of each can be varied among different genomes and genomic regions. It is believed that in plant mitochondrial genome, rearrangements play a more important role than point mutations, but relatively few studies have directly addressed this phenomenon. To address this issue, we isolated and sequenced the ATP6-1 and ATP6-2 genes from 46 different euplasmic and alloplasmic wheat lines. Four different ATP6-1 orthologs were detected, two of them reported for the first time. Expression analysis revealed that all four orthologs are transcriptionally active. Results also indicated that both point mutation and genomic rearrangement are involved in the evolution of ATP6. However, rearrangement is the predominant force that triggers drastic variation. Data also indicated that speciation of domesticated wheat cultivars were simultaneous with the duplication of this gene. These results directly support the notion that rearrangement plays a significant role in driving plant mitochondrial genome evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2014-0024DOI Listing
May 2014

Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat.

Foods 2014 Apr 8;3(2):194-207. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Department #7670, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA.

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat ( L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods3020194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302366PMC
April 2014

Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical changes of proteins in wheat.

J Sci Food Agric 2014 Jan 27;94(2):205-12. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 58108-6050, USA.

Background: High moisture before harvest can cause sprouting of the wheat kernel, which is termed pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). The aim of this study was to examine the variation in physicochemical properties of proteins in PHS-damaged (sprouted) hard red and white spring wheat genotypes. Specifically, protein content, enzyme activity and degradation of proteins were evaluated in sound and PHS-damaged wheat.

Results: Protein contents of sprouted wheat samples were lower than that of non-sprouted samples; however, their differences were not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated with sprouting score. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer extractable proteins (EXP) and unextractable proteins (UNP) were analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography. PHS damage elevated endoprotease activity and consequently increased the degradation of polymeric UNP and free asparagine concentration in wheat samples. Free asparagine is known to be a precursor for formation of carcinogenic acrylamide during high heat treatment, such as baking bread. Free asparagine content had significant correlations (P < 0.01) with sprouting score, endoprotease activity and protein degradation.

Conclusions: Genotypes with higher endoprotease activity tend to exhibit a larger degree of degradation of UNP and higher free asparagine concentration in sprouted wheat samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6229DOI Listing
January 2014

Mixed model association mapping for fusarium head blight resistance in tunisian-derived durum wheat populations.

G3 (Bethesda) 2011 Aug 1;1(3):209-18. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

Sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat are mostly restricted to Chinese hexaploid genotypes. The effort to incorporate the resistance from hexaploid wheat or wild relatives to cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) have not been successful in providing resistance to the level of the donor parents. In this study, we used 171 BC(1)F(6) and 169 BC(1)F(7) lines derived from crossing of four Tunisian tetraploid sources of resistance (Tun7, Tun18, Tun34, Tun36) with durum cultivars 'Ben,' 'Maier,' 'Lebsock,' and 'Mountrail' for association studies. The Tun18 and Tun7 FHB resistances were found to be comparable to the best hexaploid wheat sources. A new significant QTL for FHB resistance was identified on the long arm of chromosome 5B (Qfhs.ndsu-5BL) with both association and classical QTL mapping analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks extending up to 40 cM were evident in these populations. The linear mixed model considering the structure (Q or P) and the kinship matrix (K(T)) estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was identified as the best for association studies in a mixture of wheat populations from a breeding program. The results of association mapping analysis also demonstrated a region on the short arm of chromosome 3B as potentially linked to FHB resistance. This region is in proximity of major FHB resistance gene fhb1 reported in hexaploid wheat. A possibility of having susceptibility or suppressor of resistance gene(s) on durum wheat chromosome 2A was further confirmed in this material, explaining the problem in developing resistant genotypes without counter selection against this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.111.000489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276138PMC
August 2011

Molecular mapping of kernel shattering and its association with Fusarium head blight resistance in a Sumai3 derived population.

Theor Appl Genet 2007 Oct 24;115(6):757-66. Epub 2007 Jul 24.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA.

Kernel shattering (KS) can cause severe grain yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The introduction of genotypes with Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance has elevated the KS importance. 'Sumai3,' the most commonly used FHB-resistant germplasm worldwide, is reported to be KS susceptible. The objectives of this study were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for KS and to determine the relationship between KS and FHB. A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Sumai3 and 'Stoa' was evaluated for KS in five environments and FHB in two field trials, separately. Four genomic regions on chromosomes 2B, 3B, and 7A were associated with KS. Of them, two major KS QTLs were detected consistently over three environments and each located proximal to the centromere on chromosomes 3B and 7A. The resistant alleles at these two QTLs together can reduce KS by 66.1% relative to the reciprocal alleles and by 41.1% compared to the population mean. The field FHB data revealed four QTLs on chromosomes 2B, 3B, and 7A. Three of these FHB QTLs coincided with and/or linked to the KS QTLs with opposite allele effects in the corresponding genomic regions, which may explain the negative correlation (r = -0.29 and P < 0.01) between the KS and FHB infection found in this study. The results in this study indicate that KS and FHB in Sumai3 are, in part, inherited dependently. However, the correlation between KS and FHB is not strong, and the major FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 3BS was not linked to any KS QTL. Our results showed that pyramiding of the two major KS-resistant alleles and the unlinked major FHB-resistant allele could produce lines with both low values of KS and FHB infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-007-0606-1DOI Listing
October 2007