Publications by authors named "Mohamed Mahmoud Nabeel"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Plasma cell-free DNA integrity index and hepatocellular carcinoma treated or not with direct-acting antivirals: A case-control study.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2022 Feb 1;23(1):39-44. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Endemic Medicine and Hepato-gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background And Study Aims: The clinical value of the cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) integrity index as a diagnostic biomarker of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was investigated and correlated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

Patients And Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 160 patients with HCV genotype 4-related liver cirrhosis. Group 1 consisted of 80 patients with HCC, including 40 patients naïve to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and 40 patients who received DAAs and achieved sustained virological response. Group 2 comprised 80 patients with cirrhosis without HCC. Plasma cf-DNA integrity index using ALU 115 and ALU 247 sequences was assessed using SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cf-DNA integrity index was calculated as the ratio of Q247/Q115 where Q115 and Q247 are the ALU-qPCR results obtained using ALU 115 and ALU 247, respectively.

Results: Patients with HCC had significantly lower plasma cf-DNA integrity index than those with liver cirrhosis. No significant difference in the cf-DNA integrity index was observed between patients with HCC who received DAAs and those who did not. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.965 and 0.886 for detecting HCC using the cf-DNA integrity index and AFP, respectively. The combination of the cf-DNA integrity index and AFP improved the sensitivity from 81.6% to 94.7%, positive predictive value from 93.4% to 94.7%, negative predictive value from 84.4% to 94.9%, and accuracy from 88.4% to 94.8%.

Conclusion: The cf-DNA integrity index can predict the occurrence of HCV genotype 4-related HCC. No significant difference in the cf-DNA integrity index was observed between patients with HCC who received DAAs and those without previous DAAs. The combination of the cf-DNA integrity index and AFP provides better HCC prediction accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2021.12.006DOI Listing
February 2022

infection and the occurrence, characteristics, and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: an observational study over a decade.

Pathog Glob Health 2022 Mar 8;116(2):119-127. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Endemic Medicine and Hepato-gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

infection (SMI) is suspected to be directly and indirectly involved in hepato-carcinogenesis. This study evaluated the association of a previous SMI with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, patients, tumor characteristics, treatment outcomes, and survival. This observational study included patients with HCC with and without previous SMI who presented to the multidisciplinary HCC clinic, Kasr-Alainy hospital (November 2009 to December 2019). It also included 313 patients with liver cirrhosis without HCC. Clinical and laboratory features of the patients (complete blood count, liver/renal functions , alpha-fetoprotein, and hepatitis B/C status), tumor characteristics (Triphasic CT and/or dynamic MRI), liver stiffness (transient elastography), HCC treatment outcome, and overall survival were studied. This study included 1446 patients with HCC; 688(47.6%) composed group-1, defined by patients having a history of SMI, and 758(52.4%) were in group-2 and without history of SMI. Male sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, splenomegaly, deteriorated performance status, synthetic liver functions, and platelet count were significantly higher in group-1. The groups did not differ with regard to liver stiffness, tumor characteristics, or the occurrence of post-HCC treatment hepatic decompensation or recurrence. HCC treatment response was better in group-2. Group-1 showed lower sustained virological response to hepatitis C direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) compared with group-2 (60% versus 84.3%, respectively, P = 0.027). Prior SMI was associated with HCC (adjusted odds ratio = 1.589, 95% confidence interval = 1.187-2.127), and it was concluded that it increases the risk of HCC. In addition, it significantly affects the performance status, laboratory characteristics, response to DAAs, and overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2021.1975081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8933024PMC
March 2022

Role of circulating microRNA-21 and microRNA-215 in the diagnosis of hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 07 31;15(7):997-1003. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Several micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are deregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Others are linked to clinical pathological features of HCC. The goal of this study was to investigate whether miRNA-21 and miRNA-215 gene expression could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to diagnose HCC.

Methodology: The gene expression of mature miRNA -21 and miRNA -215 in serum was analysed retrospectively using singleplex TaqMan two-step stem-loop quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR in 40 patients with HCC, 40 with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) with cirrhosis and 40 apparently healthy controls.

Results: Expression of miRNA -21 was significantly more down regulated in patients with HCC than in those with non-cirrhotic HCV (P = 0.007; odds ratio = 5; 95% confidence interval 1.6-15.4). The receiver operating curve analysis of the ability of miRNA-21 expression to discriminate between HCC and non-cirrhotic HCV revealed an area under the curve of 0.712 with 70% sensitivity and 68% specificity at a cut-off of ≤ 1.4468. Thus, the expression level of miRNA -21 could discriminate HCC from non-cirrhotic HCV. Significant positive correlation was observed between expression levels of microRNA-21 and miRNA -215 (r = 0.783, p < 0.001), but no association was observed between expression level of miR-215 and HCC or chronic HCV (p = 0.474).

Conclusions: MiRNA-21 may be a useful, non-invasive tool for diagnosing HCC. Non-cirrhotic HCV patients have five times the risk of developing HCC when the miRNA -21 level ≤ 1.4468.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12230DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of a gene signature for predicting cirrhosis risk score of chronic liver disease associated with HCV infection in Egyptians.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 18;153:104805. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering Division, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth Street Dokki, Giza, 12622, Egypt.

Background: Complex diseases such as fibrosis are likely polygenic. Lately, cirrhosis risk score (CRS) clearly discriminated Chronic HCV patients with high-risk versus those with low-risk for cirrhosis better than clinical factors.

Methods: Herein, the CRS was assessed via genotyping by allelic discrimination assays in 243 HCV Egyptian patients categorized into 164 patients didn't develop HCC (93 mild, 71 advanced fibrosis); and 79 patients developed HCC. APRI and FIB-4 scores were calculated, compared with CRS and correlated with degree of fibrosis progression.

Results: Median of the three CRS, APRI and FIB-4 scores were significantly elevated in late fibrotic and HCC patients (p < 0.001); however CRS displayed proper discrimination (mild fibrosis (0.59; 0.4-0.75), advanced fibrosis (0.75; 0.7-0.86) and HCC (0.73; 0.57-0.77); (p < 0.001)). The ROC analysis of CRS score displayed modest accuracy to discriminate between mild and advanced fibrotic patient; AUC was 0.73; p < 0.0001), while AUC was only 0.57 (p = 0.05) for the discrimination between HCC and no HCC. Moreover, the combination of CRS, APRI and FIB4 lessened the power of correlation (AUC, 0.63 (p < 0.0001)) in fibrosis prognosis. In HCC prognosis, the combination of CRS, APRI and FIB4 in HCC patients showed modest accuracy with AUC, 0.59 (p = 0.0001).

Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of FIB-4 for predicting liver fibrosis was nearly identical to that of CRS, however the strength of CRS score stemmed from that it is built on 7 SNPs host genetic factor. Our study validates non invasive algorithms for fibrosis prognosis purposes which may aid in decision making for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104805DOI Listing
April 2021

P53 is a risk factor of de-novo hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma treated with direct-acting antivirals: a case-control study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 02;34(2):220-226

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: The mechanisms underlying de-novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is still under investigation. This work aims to study P53 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as possible diagnostics of de-novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following DAAs in comparison to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

Method: This case-control study included 166 patients with liver cirrhosis divided into group-1: patients without HCC (n = 50), group-2: patients with de-novo HCC following DAAs, and achieved sustained virological response (n = 50), and group-3: patients with HCC without DAAs (n = 66). P53 antibody and HGF were determined using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique (Cusabio Co, Houston, USA).

Results: Patients with HCC showed significantly higher HGF. Patients with de-novo HCC following DAAs had significantly higher P53 than HCC without DAAs (P < 0.0001). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the P53 levels were significantly associated with susceptibility to de-novo HCC (P value = 0.004). The best overall formula was constructed for HCC diagnosis by entering significant markers into the regression model. A three markers model was developed = (1.22 + AFP X 0.002 + HGF X 0.001 + P53 X 0.001). The medians (percentiles) of combined three markers were 1.8 (1.0-2.1) in liver cirrhosis and 2.2 (2.0-2.9) in all HCC (P < 0.00001). The AUC of combined markers was greater than a single marker. The AUC was 0.87 to differentiate HCC from liver cirrhosis; AUC 0.91 to differentiate de-novo HCC after DAAs from liver cirrhosis.

Conclusion: P53 may serve as a diagnostic marker for de-novo HCC after DAAs therapy. HGF may serve as a diagnostic marker for HCC but not specific for de-novo HCC after DAAs therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001962DOI Listing
February 2022

Machine Learning Prediction Models for Diagnosing Hepatocellular Carcinoma with HCV-related Chronic Liver Disease.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2020 Nov 23;196:105551. Epub 2020 May 23.

Endemic Hepatogastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Considered as one of the most recurrent types of liver malignancy, Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) needs to be assessed in a non-invasive way. The objective of the current study is to develop prediction models for Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC)-related HCC using machine learning techniques.

Methods: A dataset, for 4423 CHC patients, was investigated to identify the significant parameters for predicting HCC presence. In this study, several machine learning techniques (Classification and regression tree, alternating decision tree, reduce pruning error tree and linear regression algorithm) were used to build HCC classification models for prediction of HCC presence.

Results: Age, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alkaline phosphate (ALP), albumin, and total bilirubin attributes were statistically found to be associated with HCC presence. Several HCC classification models were constructed using several machine learning algorithms. The proposed HCC classification models provide adequate area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and high accuracy of HCC diagnosis. AUROC ranges between 95.5% and 99%, plus overall accuracy between 93.2% and 95.6%.

Conclusion: Models with simplistic factors have the power to predict the existence of HCC with outstanding performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105551DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictors of recurrence and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma: A prospective study including transient elastography and cancer stem cell markers.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 18;21(2):95-101. Epub 2020 May 18.

Endemic Medicine and Hepato-gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Study Aims: To investigate whether the measurement of liver stiffness (LSM) using fibroscan and the serum Cancer Stem Cells (CSC): Ep-CAM and cytokeratin-19, could predict the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their impact on clinical outcome and overall survival.

Patients And Methods: This is a prospective study, including 179 HCV-related HCC patients. All patients were treated following the BCLC guidelines. All HCC patients had transient elastography, measurements of Ep-CAM and cytokeratin-19 before and six months post-treatment. We looked for predictors of recurrence and performed a survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier estimates.

Results: TACE was the most common procedure (77.1%), followed by microwave ablation (15.6%). Complete ablation was achieved in 97 patients; 55 of them developed HCC recurrence. After treatment, LSM increased significantly with a significant reduction in CSCs levels in complete and partial response groups. The median time to observe any recurrence was 14 months. LSM increased significantly post-treatment in patients with recurrence versus no recurrence. Higher levels of CSCs were recorded at baseline and post-treatment in patients with recurrence but without statistical significance. We used univariate analysis to predict the time of recurrence by determining baseline CK-19 and platelet levels as the key factors, while the multivariate analysis determined platelet count as a single factor. The univariate analysis for prediction of overall survival included several factors, LSM and EpCAM (baseline and post-ablation) among them, while multivariate analysis included factors such as Child score B and incomplete ablation.

Conclusion: Dynamic changes were observed in LSM and CSCs levels in response to HCC treatment and tumour recurrence. Child score and complete ablation are factors that significantly affect survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2020.04.002DOI Listing
June 2020

Genetic variations in death receptor domain 4 gene and the susceptibility to hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Med Virol 2019 08 25;91(8):1537-1544. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Dpartment of Clinical Pathology Hematology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, particularly in Egypt. The role of apoptosis in tumorigenesis has been well-documented and resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Several studies discussed the association between death receptor 4 (DR4) genetic variants and HCC risk.

Aim: To study the possible link between DR4 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to HCC.

Methods: Genotyping of DR4-C626G, -A683C, and DR4-A1322G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) was determined by polymerase chain reaction assay for 100 de novo HCV-related HCC patients, 100 chronic hepatitis C-related liver cirrhosis patients, and 150 healthy controls.

Results: DR4-A1322G polymorphic genotypes (AG and GG) were significantly higher in HCC and cirrhotic patients than controls. The AG genotype conferred two-fold increased risk of HCC (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-3.51) and the risk increased to three-fold for the GG genotype (OR, 3.51; 95%CI, 2.33-5.28). The frequency of DR4-C626G and -A683C SNPs in HCC and cirrhotic patients were not significantly different from the controls. Combined genotype analysis showed that coinheritance of the polymorphic genotypes of DR4-C626G and -A1322G conferred nine-fold increased risk of HCC (OR, 9.34; 95%CI, 3.76-23.12). The risk increased to be 12-fold when DR4-A683C and -A1322G variants were coinherited (OR, 11.9; 95%CI, 4.82-29.39). Coexistence of the variant genotypes of the three SNPs conferred almost 10-fold increased risk of HCC (OR, 9.75; 95%CI, 1.86-51.19).

Conclusions: The G allele of DR4 -A1322G could be considered as a novel independent molecular predictor for HCV-related HCC in the Egyptian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25476DOI Listing
August 2019

Spur-of-the-Moment Modification in National Treatment Policies Leads to a Surprising HCV Viral Suppression in All Treated Patients: Real-Life Egyptian Experience.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2018 02 22;38(2):81-85. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

2 Endemic Medicine and Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University , Cairo, Egypt .

The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the outcome of an unscheduled change in national Egyptian policies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), which was transpired as a result of a reduction in interferon supplies, and to manage patients who already started interferon-based therapy. After completing a priming 4-weeks course of sofosbuvir/pegylated interferon/ribavirin (SOF/PEG IFN/RBV), a 12-weeks course of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (SOF/DCV) combination was initiated. We evaluated the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12) for 2 groups of patients; Group 1, which included patients who had the previous regimen with IFN priming, and group 2, which included the first consecutive group of patients who received SOF/DCV for 12 weeks from the start without IFN priming. All group 1 patients (1,214 patients) achieved SVR12 (100%) and this was statistically significant when compared with the overall SVR12 in group 2 [8,869 patients with sustained virologic response [SVR] of 98.9%] (P value <0.001). No serious adverse events were reported in both groups. In this real-life treatment experience, interferon-based directly acting antiviral treatment with SOF/PEG IFN/RBV as a priming for 4 weeks, followed by SOF/DCV combination for 12 weeks, led to HCV viral suppression in all treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2017.0121DOI Listing
February 2018

Transarterial Chemoembolization Combined with Either Radiofrequency or Microwave Ablation in Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 01 1;18(1):189-194. Epub 2017 Jan 1.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatogastroenterology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Email:

Introduction: Local ablative therapy and trans arterial chemoembolization (TACE) are applied to ablate non resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Combination of both techniques has proven to be more effective. We aimed to study combined ablation techniques and assess survival benefit comparing TACE with radiofrequency (RFA) versus TACE with microwave (MWA) techniques. Methods: We retrospectively studied 22 patients who were ablated using TACE-RFA and 45 with TACE-MWA. All were classified as Child A-B and lesions did not exceed 5 cm in diameter. TACE was followed within two weeks by either RFA or MWA. We recorded total and partial ablation rates and complication rates. Survival analysis was then performed. Results: TACE-MWA showed a higher tendency to provide complete response rates than TACE-RFA (P 0.06). This was particularly evident with lesions sized 3-5 cm (P 0.01). Rates of complications showed no significant difference between the groups. Overall median survival was 27 months. The overall actuarial probability of survival was 80.1% at 1 year, 55% at 2 years, and 36.3% at 3 years. The recurrence free survival at 1 year, 2years and 3 years for the TACE-RFA group was 70%, 42% and 14% respectively and for TACE-MWA group 81.2%, 65.1% and 65.1% without any significant difference (P 0.1). In relation to the size of focal lesions, no statistically significant difference in the survival rates was detected between the groups. Conclusion: TACE-MWA led to better response rates than TACE-RFA with tumors 3-5 cm, with no difference in survival rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.1.189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563099PMC
January 2017

Portal Vein Thrombosis in Unresectable Hcc Cases: a Single Center Study of Prognostic Factors and Management in 140 Patients

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 01 1;18(1):183-188. Epub 2017 Jan 1.

Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. Email: [email protected] yahoo.com

Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis is considered a relative contraindication for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic factors and management in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Methods: Between February 2011 and February 2015, 140 patients presented to our specialized multidisciplinary HCC clinic. All were assessed by imaging at regular intervals for tumor response and the data compared with baseline laboratory and imaging characteristics obtained before treatment. Results: At the end of the follow up in February 2015, 78 (55.7%) of the 140 patients had died, 33.1% in the 1st year and 20.7% in the 2nd year. The overall median survival was 10 months from the date of diagnosis. Clinical progression was noted in 45 (32.1%). Univariate analysis revealed that, the Child-Pugh score, the performance states (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group “ECOG” 0-1) and the presence of ascites exerted non-significant affects on survival. Similarly, the serum albumen level and AFP >400 ng/ml were without influence. However, patients with =>2 tumors, abdominal lymphadenopathy and serum bilirubin >2mg/dl had a significantly worse prognosis. Specific treatment significantly increased survival compared to patients left untreated (P value = 0.027). Conclusion: Application of specific treatments (curative or palliative) significantly increased survival in HCC patients with PVT. TACE can be considered as a promising procedure for unresectable PVT-associated HCCs. The main predictors of survival in our study were the serum bilirubin level and specific treatment application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.1.183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563098PMC
January 2017

Aggressive Treatment of Performance Status 1 and 2 HCC Patients Significantly Improves Survival - an Egyptian Retrospective Cohort Study of 524 Cases.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(5):2539-43

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatogastroenterology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt E-mail :

Background: In the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system, only sorafenib is suggested for HCC patients having performance status (PS) 1 or 2 even if they have treatable lesions. In the current study, we aimed to explore the outcome of using aggressive treatment for HCC patients with PS 1 and 2.

Materials And Methods: Five hundred and twenty four patients with HCC were enrolled in this study and divided into 2 groups: 404 PS 1 and 120 PS 2. Of the included 524 patients, 136 recceived non-aggressive supportive treatment and sorafenib, while 388 patients were offered aggressive treatment in the form of surgical resection, transplantation, percutaneous ablation, trans-arterial chemoembolization and/or chemoperfusion. All the patients were followed up for a period of 2 years to determine their survival.

Results: Most HCC patients were CHILD A and B grades (89.4% versus 85.0%, for PS1 and PS2, respectively). Patients with PS1 were significantly younger. Out of the enrolled 524 patients, 388 were offered aggressive treatment, 253 (65.2%) having their lesions fully ablated, 94 (24.2%) undergoing partial ablation and 41 patients with no ablation (10.6%). The median survival of the patients with PS 1 who were offered aggressive treatment was 20 months versus 9 months only for those who were offered supportive treatment and sorafenib (<0.001). Regarding HCC patients with PS 2, the median survivals were similarly 19.7 months versus 8.7 months only (<0.001).

Conclusions: Aggressive treatment of HCC patients with PS 1 and 2 significantly improves their survival. Revising the BCLC guidelines regarding such patients is recommended.
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January 2017

Microwave ablation versus transarterial chemoembolization in large hepatocellular carcinoma: prospective analysis.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2015 Apr 16;50(4):479-84. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatogastroenterology Department, Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Objective: Limited therapies are offered for large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It carries dismal prognosis and efforts tried changing its management from a palliative to a curative mode. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a palliative procedure that may have survival benefit if compared to non-management of large lesions. Microwave ablation (MWA) has emerged as a relatively new technique with promise of larger and faster ablation. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous MWA versus TACE for large tumors (5-7 cm) and to assess their effects on local tumor progression and survival.

Patients And Methods: Sixty-four patients with large lesions are managed in our multidisciplinary HCC clinic and were divided into two groups treated either by MWA or TACE. Complete response rate, local recurrence, de novo lesions, and overall survival analysis are compared between both procedures.

Results: Both groups were comparable as regards the demographic and ultrasonographic features. MWA showed higher rates of complete ablation (75%) with fewer sessions, lower incidence of tumor recurrence (p = 0.02), development of de novo lesions (p = 0.03), occurrence of post-treatment ascites (p = 0.003), and higher survival rates (p = 0.04). The mean survival of the microwave group was 21.7 months with actuarial probability of survival at 12 and 18 months 78.2% and 68.4%, respectively. The mean survival of the TACE group was 13.7 months with actuarial probability of survival at 12 and 18 months being 52.4% and 28.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: MWA showed better results than TACE in the management of large HCC lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2014.1003397DOI Listing
April 2015

Survival and prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: an Egyptian multidisciplinary clinic experience.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(9):3915-20

Department Endemic Hepatogastroenterology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt E-mail :

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dismal tumor with a high incidence, prevalence and poor prognosis and survival. Management of HCC necessitates multidisciplinary clinics due to the wide heterogeneity in its presentation, different therapeutic options, variable biologic behavior and background presence of chronic liver disease. We studied the different prognostic factors that affected survival of our patients to improve future HCC management and patient survival.

Materials And Methods: This study is performed in a specialized multidisciplinary clinic for HCC in Kasr El Eini Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt. We retrospectively analyzed the different patient and tumor characteristics and the primary mode of management applied to our patients. Further analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate statistics.

Results: During the period February 2009 till February 2013, 290 HCC patients presented to our multidisciplinary clinic. They were predominantly males and the mean age was 56.5 ± 7.7 years. All cases developed HCC on top of cirrhosis that was mainly due to HCV (71%). Most of our patients were Child-Pugh A (50%) or B (36.9%) and commonly presented with small single lesions. Transarterial chemoembolization was the most common line of treatment used (32.4%). The overall survival was 79.9% at 6 months, 54.5% at 1 year and 22.4% at 2 years. Serum bilirubin, site of the tumor and type of treatment were the significant independent prognostic factors for survival.

Conclusions: Our main prognostic variables are the bilirubin level, the bilobar hepatic affection and the application of specific treatment (either curative or palliative). Multidisciplinary clinics enhance better HCC management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.9.3915DOI Listing
March 2016
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