Publications by authors named "Mohamed Hussein"

359 Publications

Molecular Identification of Penicillium sp. Isolated from Citrus Fruits.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.

Penicillium is one of the most important postharvest pathogens of citrus fruits worldwide. It induces blue or green mold disease, a decay that can lead to significant economic losses during storage. Based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, seven Penicillium species and one closely related Talaromyces variabilis were identified from 30 rotten samples of citrus fruits marketed in Qena. Penicillium expansum was the most common species, recovered from 16.7% of the samples, followed by P. chrysogenum (10%) and P. polonicum (10%). Sixteen isolates were tested through inoculation on healthy citrus fruits; the data exhibited that 68.7% of isolates were highly virulent. A "Specific Gene Random Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction (SGRP-PCR)" marker technique indicated that the genetic similarity among P. expasum ranged from 49.4 to 85.7%, and a relatively correlation was found between SGRP band profile and species origin. Patulin was detected in 40% of P. expansum isolates. This study provided a useful molecular approach to identify different Penicillium species by sequencing ITS region, focus on the pathogenicity, compare between P. expansum isolates and their ability in patulin production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-021-02463-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Re-opening Sudan: the Balance Between Maintaining Daily Living and Avoiding the Next Peak of COVID-19.

Curr Trop Med Rep 2021 Mar 29:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Sudan Economic and Social Research Bureau, Khartoum, Sudan.

Purpose Of The Review: To describe the intersectionality of healthcare and economy, and potential solutions to prevent the next peak of COVID-19 in Sudan.

Recent Findings: Sudan has recently emerged from a 30-year dictatorship to face the COVID-19 pandemic in the midst of the worst economic crisis. Disease control measures that have been used in developed countries have been difficult to implement in Sudan due to economic, social, and structural challenges. There is a need for integration of data into the disease response plan and for community engagement to help with mitigation efforts. Youth-led community organizations were critical in the success of the Sudanese revolution. Their formal involvement in contact tracing and community awareness campaigns can be beneficial.

Summary: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to the surface many of the challenges facing the healthcare system in Sudan. Culturally tailored interventions are needed to prevent the next peak of COVID-19 in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40475-021-00237-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006878PMC
March 2021

Undermining Your Case to Enhance Your Impact: A Framework for Understanding the Effects of Acts of Receptiveness in Persuasion.

Pers Soc Psychol Rev 2021 Apr 3:10888683211001269. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, CA, USA.

Past research has uncovered actions that would seem to undermine but in fact frequently enhance persuasion. For example, expressing doubt about one's view or presenting arguments against it would seem to weaken one's case, but can sometimes promote it. We propose a framework for understanding these findings. We posit that these actions constitute -behaviors that signal openness to new information and opposing viewpoints. We review four classes of acts of receptiveness: conveying uncertainty, acknowledging mistakes, highlighting drawbacks, and asking questions. We identify conditions under which and mechanisms through which these actions boost persuasion. Acts of receptiveness appear to be more persuasive when they come from expert or high-status sources, rather than non-expert or low-status sources, and to operate through two primary mechanisms: increased involvement and enhanced source perceptions. Following a review of this work, we delineate potentially novel acts of receptiveness and outline directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10888683211001269DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary polyphenols suppress chronic inflammation by modulation of multiple inflammation-associated cell signaling pathways.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Mar 29:108634. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Systems Biology (INBIOSIS), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor.

The high failure rate of the reductionist approach to discover effective and safe drugs to treat chronic inflammatory diseases has led scientists to seek alternative ways. Recently, targeting cell signaling pathways has been utilized as an innovative approach to discover drug leads from natural products. Cell signaling mechanisms have been identified playing key role in diverse diseases by inducing proliferation, cell survival and apoptosis. Phytochemicals are known to be able to modulate the cellular and molecular networks which are associated to chronic diseases including cancer-associated inflammation. In this review, the roles of dietary polyphenols (apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, curcumin, genistein, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol and gallic acid) in modulating multiple inflammation-associated cell signaling networks are deliberated. Scientific databases on suppressive effects of the polyphenols on chronic inflammation via modulation of the pathways especially in the recent five years are gathered and critically analyzed. The polyphenols are able to modulate several inflammation-associated cell signaling pathways, namely nuclear factor-kappa β (NF-κB), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Wnt/β-catenin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) via selective actions on various components of the networks. The suppressive effects of the polyphenols on the multiple cell signaling pathways reveal their potential use in prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. Understanding the mechanistic effects involved in modulation of the signaling pathways by the polyphenols is necessary for lead identification and development of future functional foods for prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108634DOI Listing
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study.

Authors:

Br J Surg 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Background: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling.

Methods: The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty.

Results: NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year.

Conclusion: As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995808PMC
March 2021

A Prospective Multicenter Study for Assessing MusiQoL Validity among Arabic-Speaking MS Patients Treated with Subcutaneous Interferon -1a.

Mult Scler Int 2021 2;2021:6681431. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11481, Saudi Arabia.

Few studies examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Arabic-speaking multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, HRQoL tools such as the Short Form-36 QoL instrument (SF-36) and the Multiple Sclerosis International QoL (MusiQoL) questionnaire have been validated in other languages. The primary objective of this study was to prospectively assess HRQoL using the MusiQoL questionnaire among Arabic-speaking MS patients treated with subcutaneous interferon (sc IFN -1a) over 12 months, as part of a prospective, multinational, multicenter cohort study. Patients' clinical parameters and HRQoL were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Changes in MusiQoL total and subdomain scores were compared using a Friedman test. Correlation between MusiQoL total score and Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) was also evaluated. In total, 439 patients from four Arabic-speaking countries were included. The mean age was 32.44 (±0.34) years, 71.5% were female, and 63.1% had an education level of university or above. The mean MS duration was 4.13 (±0.12) years, mean age at first attack was 27.35 (±0.26) years, and mean baseline EDSS score was 2.05 (±0.04). MusiQoL total score significantly improved at 6 months; however, this diminished at 12 months (65.67 ± 0.8 at baseline vs. 67.21 ± 0.79 at 6 months and 65.75 ± 0.8 at 12 months; = 0.0015). Several aspects of patients' HRQoL including activity of daily living, physical well-being, symptoms, and coping improved. Overall HRQoL measured using SF-36 remained generally unchanged over time ( = 0.215). There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between change in EDSS score over time and change in overall MusiQoL score over time. In summary, findings confirm the utility of using MusiQoL for assessing changes in HRQoL during treatment with sc IFN -1a in Arabic-speaking patients with MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6681431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943271PMC
March 2021

Approach to pulmonary embolism: A clinical care pathway.

J Am Assoc Nurse Pract 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health, Community & Education, Mount Royal University, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Medical Cardiology, Coronary Care Unit, Rockyview General Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Mount Royal University, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition that is often underdiagnosed due to its ambiguous and generalized symptoms. As such, nurse practitioners (NPs) may struggle to respond in a timely and accurate manner to clients presenting with acute PE. Given the complexities of diagnosing and managing PE, we propose a visual clinical care pathway to support NPs in recognizing and stratifying clients' risks of PE. The article provides guidance regarding PE diagnostic testing and offers a summary of effective, evidence-based treatment options for adult clients, including those with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JXX.0000000000000583DOI Listing
March 2021

The Story of a Broken Heart: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

J Emerg Nurs 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Licensed independent practitioners in emergency clinical practice are tasked with differentiating acute cardiac presentations. Despite its similarity in clinical presentation to acute coronary syndrome, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a unique cardiac disorder characterized by a stress-induced ballooning of the myocardium. Also known as the broken heart syndrome, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy most frequently occurs after an overwhelming emotional or physical stressor. The subsequent impaired contractility of the heart places the patient at risk of complications, including acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, thromboembolism, arrhythmias, and left ventricular outflow obstruction. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is similar in presentation to other cardiac disorders; therefore, clinicians in emergency settings must be efficient and effective in their diagnosis of this disorder on the basis of its distinct criteria. The current article uses most recent evidence to describe the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and recommended treatment for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy to support licensed independent practitioners in emergency departments in improving patient outcomes and reducing morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2020.12.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Delirium in Emergency Departments: Is it Recognized?

J Emerg Nurs 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Background: Delirium is a complex neurocognitive manifestation of an underlying medical or surgical abnormality such as substance abuse, infection, sepsis, or organ failure. A recognized risk factor for delirium is advanced age (age >65 years). The projected demographic changes over the next 2 decades suggest that the number of aging adults will grow dramatically, and emergency nurses will see an increasing number of older patients manifesting the wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with delirium.

Method: An examination of 5 commonly used delirium assessment tools was undertaken specific to clinical features, use, scoring, findings, advantages, and disadvantages.

Findings: Numerous factors contribute to the lack of effective delirium recognition. However, emergency nurses, with educational support, can successfully use the delirium assessment tools to recognize delirium.

Conclusion: Emergency nurses face challenges in recognizing delirium. One key challenge for many of these nurses is the appropriate use of assessment tools suitable for the ED setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2021.01.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Sudden hoarseness of voice in COVID-19 patient.

Lung India 2021 Mar;38(Supplement):S116-S118

Department of Chest, Assiut University Hospitals, Assiut, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_863_20DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy of metal oxide nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug and multi-virulent Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail raw chicken meat and giblets.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Apr 24;344:109116. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt; Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common zoonotic pathogens originating from animals consumed as food, especially raw chicken meat (RCM). As far as we know, this might be the first report that explores the efficacy of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs), such as zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO-NPs) against multidrug resistant (MDR) and/or pandrug resistant (PDR) S. aureus strains with a strong biofilm-producing ability isolated from RCM and giblets. The overall prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci was 21%, with a contamination level range between 10 and 10 CFU/g. The incidence of virulence genes See (21/36), pvl (16/36), clfA (15/36), sec (12/36), tst (12/36), and sea (11/36) among S. aureus strains were relatively higher those of seb, sed, fnbA, and fnbB. For antimicrobial resistance gene distribution, most strains harbored the blaZ gene (25/36), aacA-aphD gene (24/36), mecA gene (22/36), vanA gene (20/36), and apmA gene (20/36) confirmed the prevalence of MDR among S. aureus of RCM products. However, cfr (11/36), spc (9/36), and aadE (7/36) showed a relatively lower existence. The data of antibiogram resistance profiles was noticeably heterogeneous (25 patterns) with 32 MDR and four PDR S. aureus strains. All tested strains had a very high MAR index value (>0.2) except the P11 pattern (GEN, MXF, PMB), which showed a MAR index of 0.19. Among the strong biofilm-producing ability (BPA), 14 (70%) strains were isolated from wet markets, while only six strong BPA strains were isolated from supermarkets. The mean values of BPA ranged from 2.613 ± 0.04 to 11.013 ± 0.05. Clearly, ZnO-NPs show significant inhibitory activity against S. aureus strains compared with those produced by the action of ZnO-NPs and TiO-NPs. The results of anti-inflammatory activity suggest ZnO-NPs as a lead compound for designing an alternative antimicrobial agent against drug-resistant and strong biofilm-producing S. aureus isolates from retail RCM and giblets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109116DOI Listing
April 2021

Emergence of Nosocomial Pneumonia Caused by Colistin-Resistant in Patients Admitted to Chest Intensive Care Unit.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Feb 24;10(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt.

(1) Background: Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic used in treating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. The growing emergence of colistin resistance in represents a serious health threat, particularly to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. (2) Methods: In this work, we investigated the emergence of colistin resistance in 140 nosocomial isolated from patients with pneumonia and admitted to the chest ICU over 36 months. Virulence and resistance-related genes and pathotypes in colistin-resistant and colistin-sensitive isolates were determined. (3) Results: Colistin resistance was observed in 21/140 (15%) of the nosocomial isolates. The MIC of the resistant strains was 4 mg/L, while MIC was 16 mg/L. Colistin-resistant isolates were also co-resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. The mechanism of colistin resistance was represented by the presence of in all resistant strains. Respectively, 42.9% and 36.1% of colistin-resistant and colistin-sensitive groups were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, while 23.8% and 21% were metallo β-lactamase (MBL) producers. was the most frequently detected ESBL gene, while was the most common MBL in both groups. Importantly, most resistant strains showed a significantly high prevalence of (76.2%), (76.2%), and (52.4%) virulence-related genes. Enteroaggregative (76%) was the most frequently detected genotype among the colistin-resistant strains. (4) Conclusion: The high colistin resistance rate observed in strains isolated from patients with nosocomial pneumonia in our university hospital is worrisome. These isolates carry different drug resistance and virulence-related genes. Our results indicate the need for careful monitoring of colistin resistance in our university hospital. Furthermore, infection control policies restricting the unnecessary use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996192PMC
February 2021

Surveillance Study of Acute Neurological Manifestations among 439 Egyptian Patients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Feb 25:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Assiut University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan, Egypt.

Background: COVID-19 can be accompanied by acute neurological complications of both central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). In this study, we estimate the frequency of such complications among hospital inpatients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan university hospitals.

Materials And Methods: We screened all patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted from 1 June to 10 August 2020 to the university hospitals of Assiut and Aswan in Upper Egypt. Clinical and laboratory tests, CT/MRI of the chest and brain, and neurophysiology study were performed for each patient if indicated.

Results: 439 patients had confirmed/probable COVID-19; neurological manifestations occurred in 222. Of these, 117 had acute neurological disease and the remainder had nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and depression. The CNS was affected in 75 patients: 55 had stroke and the others had convulsions (5), encephalitis (6), hypoxic encephalopathy (4), cord myelopathy (2), relapse of multiple sclerosis (2), and meningoencephalitis (1). The PNS was affected in 42 patients: the majority had anosmia and ageusia (31) and the others had Guillain-Barré syndrome (4), peripheral neuropathy (3), myasthenia gravis (MG, 2), or myositis (2). Fever, respiratory symptoms, and headache were the most common general symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities in patients with CNS affection.

Conclusion: In COVID-19, both the CNS and PNS are affected. Stroke was the most common complication for CNS, and anosmia and/or ageusia were common for PNS diseases. However, there were 6 cases of encephalitis, 2 cases of spinal cord myelopathy, 2 cases of MG, and 2 cases of myositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018217PMC
February 2021

ADAP is a possible negative regulator of glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana based on clustering and gene expression analyses.

J Plant Res 2021 Mar 8;134(2):327-339. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Centre for Bioinformatics Research, Institute of Systems Biology (INBIOSIS), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are plant secondary metabolites consisting of sulfur and nitrogen, commonly found in Brassicaceae crops, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. These compounds are known for their roles in plant defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens. 'Guilt-by-association' (GBA) approach predicts genes encoding proteins with similar function tend to share gene expression pattern generated from high throughput sequencing data. Recent studies have successfully identified GSL genes using GBA approach, followed by targeted verification of gene expression and metabolite data. Therefore, a GSL co-expression network was constructed using known GSL genes obtained from our in-house database, SuCComBase. DPClusO was used to identify subnetworks of the GSL co-expression network followed by Fisher's exact test leading to the discovery of a potential gene that encodes the ARIA-interacting double AP2-domain protein (ADAP) transcription factor (TF). Further functional analysis was performed using an effective gene silencing system known as CRES-T. By applying CRES-T, ADAP TF gene was fused to a plant-specific EAR-motif repressor domain (SRDX), which suppresses the expression of ADAP target genes. In this study, ADAP was proposed as a negative regulator in aliphatic GSL biosynthesis due to the over-expression of downstream aliphatic GSL genes (UGT74C1 and IPMI1) in ADAP-SRDX line. The significant over-expression of ADAP gene in the ADAP-SRDX line also suggests the behavior of the TF that negatively affects the expression of UGT74C1 and IPMI1 via a feedback mechanism in A. thaliana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01257-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Cardiac Preconditioning Effect of Ketamine-Dexmedetomidine versus Fentanyl-Propofol during Arrested Heart Revascularization.

Anesth Essays Res 2020 Apr-Jun;14(2):312-320. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Background: Myocardial damage due to ischemia and reperfusion is still unavoidable during coronary surgery. Anesthetic agents have myocardial preconditioning effect. Ketamine has sympathomimetic effect, while dexmedetomidine has a sympatholytic effect in addition to anesthetic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties of both the drugs. This study was carried out to compare ketamine-dexmedetomidine (KD) combination with fentanyl-propofol (FP) combination on the release of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and outcome after coronary artery bypass graft.

Patients And Methods: Ninety adult patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were assigned to receive either KD base anesthesia (KD group) or FP anesthesia (FP group). Trends of high-sensitive cTnT, CK-MB, and serum cortisol were followed in the first postoperative 24 h. Other outcomes were vital signs, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, tracheal extubation time, and echocardiographic findings.

Results: There was a significant lower release of cTnT in KD group than FP group during its peak values at 6 h after aortic unclamping (92.01 ± 7.332 in KD versus 96.73 ± 12.532 ng.L = 0.032). significant lower levels of serum cortisol levels were noted KD group than in FP group at 6 and 12 h after aortic unclamping < 0.001. As regard tracheal extubation time, patients assigned to KD group extubated earlier than whom in FP group 202.22 ± 28.674 versus 304.67 ± 40.598 min respectively < 0.001.

Conclusion: The use of KD during on-pump CABG confers better myocardial protective and anti-inflammatory effect than fentanyl propofol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aer.AER_55_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819405PMC
October 2020

Boosting the antibacterial activity of chitosan-gold nanoparticles against antibiotic-resistant bacteria by Punicagranatum L. extract.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Mar 14;256:117498. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Clinic of Dermatology, University Hospital of Aachen, Aachen 52074, Germany. Electronic address:

The present work describes the synthesis of a new series of chitosan-gold hybrid nanoparticles (CS-AuNPs) for the delivery of Punicagranatum L. extract (PE). It proposes CS and PE as reducing agents for gold ions in aqueous solution. The effect of PE on the physicochemical properties of the CS-AuNPs was investigated with UV spectroscopy, DLS, DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDX and TEM. Interestingly, about 50 % reduction in size was observed with using PE alone for gold reduction. The ζ-potential of CS-AuNPs was shifted from +53.1 ± 6.7 mV to 31.0 ± 6.0 mV upon conjugation of the negatively-charged PE polyphenols. The developed PE-conjugated CS-AuNPs exhibited higher stability at different pH values. About 87 % of the loaded PE was released from the NPs over 24 h. The antibacterial activity of CS-PE-AuNPs displayed a synergetic affect against methicillin-resistant S. aureus with MIC and MBC values of 15.6 and 62.5 μg/mL, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117498DOI Listing
March 2021

Combination and tricombination therapy to destabilize the structural integrity of COVID-19 by some bioactive compounds with antiviral drugs: insights from molecular docking study.

Struct Chem 2021 Jan 8:1-16. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (RIMAP), Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef City, Egypt.

Recently, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic virus has been spreading throughout the world. Until now, no certified drugs have been discovered to efficiently inhibit the virus. The scientists are struggling to find new safe bioactive inhibitors of this deadly virus. In this study, we aim to find antagonists that may inhibit the activity of the three major viral targets: SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (6LU7), SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (6VYB), and a host target human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor (1R42), which is the entry point for the viral encounter, were studied with the prospects of identifying significant drug candidate(s) against COVID-19 infection. Then, the protein stability produced score of less than 0.6 for all residues of all studied receptors. This confirmed that these receptors are extremely stable proteins, so it is very difficult to unstable the stability of these proteins through utilizing individual drugs. Hence, we studied the combination and tricombination therapy between bioactive compounds which have the best binding affinity and some antiviral drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, simeprevir, baloxavir, lopinavir, and favipiravir to show the effect of combination and tricombination therapy to disrupt the stability of the three major viral targets that are mentioned previously. Also, ADMET study suggested that most of all studied bioactive compounds are safe and nontoxic compounds. All results confirmed that caulerpin can be utilized as a combination and tricombination therapy along with the studied antiviral drugs for disrupting the stability of the three major viral receptors (6LU7, 6VYB, and 1R42).

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-020-01723-5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11224-020-01723-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791912PMC
January 2021

Improved Survival of Periviable Infants after Alteration of the Threshold of Viability by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program 2015.

Children (Basel) 2021 Jan 4;8(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70457, Taiwan.

Periviable infants (PIs) born at 22-25 weeks gestational age (wGA) have a variable survival rate (49.7-86.2%) among hospitals. One factor involved in this difference may be the definition of the threshold of viability. The American Academy of Pediatrics revised the neonatal resuscitation program in late 2015 (NRP 2015) and altered the threshold of viability from 23 to 22 wGA. The impact on the survival of PIs after the guideline alteration has seldom been discussed. Since 2016, the unit of this study has implemented the renewed guideline for PIs. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the survival and clinical variables of PIs before and after implementation of the guideline, which included a 10-year cohort in a single center in Taiwan. There were 168 PIs enrolled between 2010 and 2019 (Epoch-I, 2010-2015; Epoch-II, 2016-2019), after excluding those with congenital anomalies and parent-decided comfort care. Compared to those in Epoch-I, the PIs in Epoch-II had significantly higher odds ratios (2.602) (95% confidence interval: 1.170-5.789; = 0.019) for survival. Younger gestational age, small size for gestational age, cesarean delivery, low blood pH at birth, and surfactant therapeutic treatment were found to be significant risk factors associated with the survival of PIs ( < 0.05 for each). The altered threshold of viability by NRP 2015 may impact the survival of PIs. However, long-term follow-up for surviving PI is required in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8010023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824697PMC
January 2021

Chemoembolization Versus Radioembolization for Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: A Meta-analysis Comparing Clinical Outcomes.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 3;28(4):1950-1958. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Studies have shown intra-arterial therapies to be effective in controlling neuroendocrine liver metastases (NELMs), but the evidence supporting the selection of specific methods is limited. This meta-analysis is the first to compare survival outcomes between transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and transarterial radioembolization (TARE) in the treatment of NELM.

Methods: A systematic search according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in PubMed and Embase databases was conducted in February 2020 for published studies comparing survival outcomes between TACE and TARE in the treatment of NELM.

Results: Six eligible cohort studies with a total of 643 patients were identified. The TACE and TARE groups were similar in terms of age, sex, hepatic tumor burden, tumor grade, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score. The patients treated with TACE had significantly better overall survival (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.22, p = 0.014) than those treated with TARE. Overall survival ranged from 16.8 to 81.9 months with TACE and from 14.5 to 66.8 months with TARE. No significant differences in hepatic progression-free survival (OR, 1.01; 95% CI 0.75-1.35; p = 0.96) or tumor response were observed within the first 3 months (OR, 2.87; 95% CI 0.81-10.21; p = 0.10) or thereafter (OR, 0.98; 95% CI 0.12-7.86; p = 0.99). The complication rates were similar between the two groups, with 6.9% of the TACE patients versus 8.5% of TARE patients reporting major complications (OR, 1.16; 95% CI 0.54-2.48; p = 0.71) and respectively 44.6% and 58.8% of the TACE and TARE patients reporting minor adverse events (OR, 1.08; 95% CI 0.39-2.99; p = 0.88).

Conclusions: Despite similar tumor responses, an overall survival benefit was associated with TACE treatment of NELM compared with TARE treatment. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm this finding and clarify whether certain subpopulations benefit from different transarterial methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09469-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Syncope in the Emergency Department: A Guide for Clinicians.

J Emerg Nurs 2021 Mar 13;47(2):342-351. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Syncope is a common presenting symptom to emergency departments, but its evaluation and initial management can be challenging for ED practitioners and particularly urgent in the presence of high-risk features that increase the likelihood of cardiac etiology. Even after thorough clinical evaluation, syncope may remain unexplained. In such instances, practitioners' clinical judgment and risk assessments are critical to guide further management. In this article, evidence-informed strategies are outlined to approach the diagnosis of syncope and provide an overview of syncope clinical decision rules and shared decision-making. By incorporating risk stratification and shared decision-making into syncope care, practitioners can more confidently engage patients and families in disposition decisions to organize appropriate outpatient and follow-up care, observation, or admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2020.11.002DOI Listing
March 2021

Somatic Focal Copy Number Gains of Noncoding Regions of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Genes in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Jan;80(2):160-168

From the Department of Pathology.

Epilepsy is a heterogenous group of disorders defined by recurrent seizure activity due to abnormal synchronized activity of neurons. A growing number of epilepsy cases are believed to be caused by genetic factors and copy number variants (CNV) contribute to up to 5% of epilepsy cases. However, CNVs in epilepsy are usually large deletions or duplications involving multiple neurodevelopmental genes. In patients who underwent seizure focus resection for treatment-resistant epilepsy, whole genome DNA methylation profiling identified 3 main clusters of which one showed strong association with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes. We identified focal copy number gains involving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and PDGFRA loci. The dysplastic neurons of cases with amplifications showed marked overexpression of EGFR and PDGFRA, while glial and endothelial cells were negative. Targeted sequencing of regulatory regions and DNA methylation analysis revealed that only enhancer regions of EGFR and gene promoter of PDGFRA were amplified, while coding regions did not show copy number abnormalities or somatic mutations. Somatic focal copy number gains of noncoding regulatory represent a previously unrecognized genetic driver in epilepsy and a mechanism of abnormal activation of RTK genes. Upregulated RTKs provide a potential avenue for therapy in seizure disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa137DOI Listing
January 2021

Dissipation of pyridaphenthion by cyanobacteria: Insights into cellular degradation, detoxification and metabolic regulation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 2;402:123787. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Excessive use of organophosphorus pesticides such as pyridaphenthion (PY) to constrain insects induced crop loss, results in soil and water sources contamination. Cyanobacteria are sensitive biological indicators and promising tools for bioremediation of soil and water pollutants. To understand PY toxicity, detoxification and degradation in cyanobacteria, we performed a comparative study in the two diazotrophic cyanobacteria; Anabaena laxa and Nostoc muscorum. They were exposed to mild (5 mg/L) and high (10 mg/L) concentrations of PY for 7 days. Compared to A. laxa, N. muscorum efficiently showed high PY accumulation and degradation to a safe environmentally product; 6-hydroxy-2-phenylpyridazin-3(2 H)-one. PY inhibited cell growth and reduced Chl a content and photosynthesis related enzymes (PEPC and RuBisCo) activities in both species, but to less extend in N. muscorum. It also induced oxidative damage, particularly in A. laxa, as indicated by high HO, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels and increased NADPH oxidase enzyme activity. N. muscorum invested more in antioxidants induction, i.e., induced ascorbate and glutathione cycle, however, these antioxidants increments in A. laxa were less pronounced. Overall, this study provides more in-deep insights into the PY toxicity and the role of N. muscorum as a promising PY remediator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123787DOI Listing
January 2021

Construction of Protein Expression Network.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2189:119-132

Institute of Systems Biology (INBIOSIS), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

In this post-genomic era, protein network can be used as a complementary way to shed light on the growing amount of data generated from current high-throughput technologies. Protein network is a powerful approach to describe the molecular mechanisms of the biological events through protein-protein interactions. Here, we describe the computational methods used to construct the protein network using expression data. We provide a list of available tools and databases that can be used in constructing the network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0822-7_10DOI Listing
March 2021

Obesity and the prevention of thyroid cancer: Impact of body mass index and weight change on developing thyroid cancer - Pooled results of 24 million cohorts.

Oral Oncol 2021 Jan 7;112:105085. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Surgery, Tulane University, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Body weight may be a modifiable risk factor predisposing to different cancers. To establish a potential impact of weight change on thyroid cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) and weight change over time as a risk of developing thyroid cancer (TC).

Methods: A systematic search was performed up to February 25, 2020. Pooled relative risk (RR) were estimated using fixed and random models. Heterogeneity between articles was examined using Q-test and I index. Evaluation of publication bias was conducted with Egger's regression test.

Results: A total of 31 studies including 24,489,477 cohorts were eligible. Pooled analysis revealed that normal and underweight cohorts were associated with a decreased risk of TC (RR = 0.68, 95%CI = 0.65-0.71, p < 0.001) and (RR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.91-0.93, p < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, overweight and obese cohorts were more likely to develop TC (RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.24-1.28, p < 0.001 and RR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.45-1.55, p < 0.001, respectively). Obesity was associated with higher risk of developing TC among women (RR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.14-1.46, p < 0.001), but not men (RR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.97-1.62, p = 0.08). Furthermore, weight gain increased the risk of developing TC (RR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.14-1.22, p < 0.001), while weight loss decreased the risk (RR = 0.89, 95%CI = 0.85-0.93, p < 0.001). Results showed similar trends of weight change effect in both males and females.

Conclusions: Obesity is associated with higher risk of developing TC in women. However, maintaining a healthy weight is associated with reduced risk of TC in both women and men. Shifting our practice to include weight control strategies will help lead to cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.105085DOI Listing
January 2021

Ustekinumab dose escalation improves clinical responses in refractory Crohn's disease.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020 13;13:1756284820959245. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Digestive Disease and Nutrition, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Clinicians often utilize off-label dose escalation of ustekinumab (UST) in Crohn's disease (CD) patients with disease refractory to standard dosing. Previous studies report mixed results with dose escalation of UST.

Methods: A retrospective observational study of 143 adult patients with CD receiving UST over a 33-month time period was conducted. Patients receiving UST at standard dosage for a minimum of 16 weeks were included in the analysis. Primary outcomes collected were clinical response [Physician Global Assessment Score (PGA) by >1] and remission (PGA = 0). Changes in clinical parameters were calculated for dose-escalated patients beginning with the time of dose switch (~42 weeks) and compared with a group of patients who were classified as "failing" standard dosing at 42 weeks who were not dose escalated.

Results: Dose escalation improved PGA by 0.47 ± 0.19 compared with patients remaining on every 8 weeks dosing (Q8 week), who worsened by 0.23 ± 0.23 ( < 0.05). Dose escalation decreased CRP 0.33 ± 0.19 mg/L and increased serum albumin 0.23 ± 0.06 g/dL ( < 0.05). Surprisingly, disease duration and prior CD surgeries inversely correlated with the need for dose escalation.

Conclusion: Our results support UST Q4 week dose escalation for selected CD patients who fail to achieve remission on standard Q8 week dosing. Dose escalation improves clinical outcomes, prevents worsening disease severity, and positively impacts CRP and albumin levels. Together these data indicate that clinicians should attempt Q4 week UST dosing in refractory CD patients before switching to an alternative class of biologic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756284820959245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576911PMC
October 2020

Role of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of oesophageal neoplasia: 2020 an endoscopic odyssey.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct;26(38):5784-5796

Department of GI Services, University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU, United Kingdom.

The past decade has seen significant advances in endoscopic imaging and optical enhancements to aid early diagnosis. There is still a treatment gap due to the underdiagnosis of lesions of the oesophagus. Computer aided diagnosis may play an important role in the coming years in providing an adjunct to endoscopists in the early detection and diagnosis of early oesophageal cancers, therefore curative endoscopic therapy can be offered. Research in this area of artificial intelligence is expanding and the future looks promising. In this review article we will review current advances in artificial intelligence in the oesophagus and future directions for development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i38.5784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579761PMC
October 2020

Characteristics of silicon nanowire solar cells with a crescent nanohole.

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(21):31020-31033

In recent years, newly emerging photovoltaic (PV) devices based on silicon nanowire solar cells (SiNW-SCs) have attracted considerable research attention. This is due to their efficient light-trapping capability and large carrier transportation and collection with compact size. However, there is a strong desire to find effective strategies to provide high and wideband optical absorption. In this paper, a modified circular nanowire (NW) with a nanocrescent hole is newly introduced and analyzed for solar cell applications. The crescent hole can strongly improve the light absorption through the NW due to the excitation of numbers of modes that can be coupled with the incident light. The material index, volume, and position of the nanohole are studied to significantly increase the optical absorption efficiency and hence the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The absorption performance can be further preserved by using a silicon substrate due to the coupling between the supported modes by the NW, and that of the substrate. The optical and electrical characteristics of the suggested design are investigated using finite difference time domain and finite element methods via Lumerical software packages. The reported asymmetric design offers higher optical and electrical efficiencies compared to the conventional NW counterpart. The proposed NW offers a short circuit current density (J) of 33.85 (34.35) mA/cm and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.78 (17.05) % with an enhancement of 16.3 (16.8) % and 17.3 (18.4) % for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations, respectively, compared to the conventional cylindrical counterpart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.397051DOI Listing
October 2020

Critical factors for successful implementation of just-in-time concept in modular integrated construction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clean Prod 2021 Feb 19;284:124716. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Modular integrated construction (MiC) is a revolutionary construction method. However, the logistics management of MiC has always been a major barrier to the wider adoption of MiC. Nonetheless, this challenge can be tackled by the application of lean techniques, namely, just-in-time (JIT). Numerous studies have identified and evaluated the critical factors (CFs) required to implement JIT; however, there is no consensus among the previous studies on these CFs and their level of importance. Therefore, this research, for the first time, provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of these CFs. The systematic review identifies 42 CFs. To further provide a synthesis analysis of previous studies, a meta-analysis approach is used. This analysis is conducted on the identified CFs to evaluate their importance level and hence rank them. The results indicate that all the 42 CFs are important for applying JIT, of which seven are highly significant for successfully implementing JIT in MiC. Although the ranking obtained by meta-analysis is much more reliable than that provided in the individual studies, however, there is still a high heterogeneity in the results, which depicts the uncertain nature of the construction field. Therefore, sub-group analysis is conducted to investigate this heterogeneity and uncover the hidden patterns in the literature. This is achieved by studying the influence of predictive factors (moderators) on the importance level of CFs. This analysis shows that the economy of a country and the type of project executed are influential factors. The results further indicate that developing economies, in contrast to advanced economies, should pay more attention to three CFs. Also, the results show that seven CFs are much more important in MiC projects than the other project types. This research work is highly beneficial for theory development and for practitioners by identification of significant CFs that warrant management dedication to best apply JIT. Researchers, in particular, can consider the recommendations given here for implementing future meta-analysis studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571479PMC
February 2021

Multicenter experience: early outcome of mitral valve repair in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2021 Feb 25;29(2):84-90. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Minia University, Minia Egypt.

Background: Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with poor outcomes. The optimal surgical strategy for management of ischemic mitral regurgitation is still debated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early mortality and morbidity of mitral valve repair in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, observational, cohort study on prospectively collected data on 136 consecutive coronary artery bypass graft patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation undergoing mitral valve repair between January 2016 and January 2020. Perioperative echocardiogram findings, operative procedures, and outcomes were analyzed.

Results: The overall mortality rate was 4.4%. Mitral valve repair with a low ejection fraction had a 4-fold increase in the risk of death compared to mitral valve repair with preserved ejection fraction > 30%. However, after adjusting for preoperative risk factors, the number of grafts was not an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.03-2.81,  = 0.84). Multivariable analysis showed that preoperative ejection fraction (odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.82-4.86,  < 0.01), preoperative left ventricular end-systolic dimension (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.65-3.51,  < 0.01) and preoperative left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-3.28,  = 0.04) were independent risk factors for mortality.

Conclusions: Mitral valve repair can be performed safely concomitantly with coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with moderate, moderately severe, and severe ischemic mitral regurgitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492320970018DOI Listing
February 2021

Mnemonic to assist in the treatment of NSTE-ACS.

Nurse Pract 2020 11;45(11):48-55

Acute care NPs are in an ideal position to diagnose and manage non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE)-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by implementing guideline-driven medical interventions. Utilizing mnemonics improves efficiency of clinicians in practice. This article introduces a mnemonic to assist NPs in their response to patients with NSTE-ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NPR.0000718512.98673.72DOI Listing
November 2020