Publications by authors named "Mohamed Hassan"

557 Publications

Synthesis of Nickel Spinel Ferrites Nanoparticles Coated with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide for EMI Shielding in the Microwave, UV, and NIR Regions.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

The co-precipitation and in situ modified Hummers' method was used to synthesize Nickel Spinal Ferrites (NiFe) nanoparticles and NiFe coated with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide (TRGO) (NiFe-TRGO) nanoparticles, respectively. By using polyvinyl chloride (PVC), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and NiFe-TRGO, the nanocomposite film was synthesized using the solution casting technique with a thickness of 0.12-0.13 mm. Improved electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency was obtained in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency range. The initial assessment was done through XRD for the confirmation of the successful fabrication of nanoparticles and DC conductivity. The microstructure was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. The EMI shielding was observed by incorporating a filler amount varying from 5 wt.% to 40 wt.% in three different frequency regions: microwave region (0.1 to 20 GHz), near-infrared (NIR) (700-2500 nm), and ultraviolet (UV) (200-400 nm). A maximum attenuation of 65 dB was observed with a 40% concentration of NiFe-TRGO in nanocomposite film.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13193316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513002PMC
September 2021

Isolation and Screening of Microorganisms for the Effective Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Agricultural Wastes.

Biomed Res Int 2021 21;2021:5514745. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Colin Ratledge Center for Microbial Lipids, School of Agriculture Engineering and Food Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, Shandong Zibo 255000, China.

Lignocellulosic waste is the most abundant biorenewable biomass on earth, and its hydrolysis releases highly valued reducing sugars. However, the presence of lignin in the biopolymeric structure makes it highly resistant to solubilization thereby hindering the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose. Microorganisms are known for their potential complex enzymes that play a dominant role in lignocellulose conversion. Therefore, the current study was designed to isolate and screen potential microorganisms for their selective delignification ability for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. An extensive isolation and screening procedure yielded 36 desired isolates (22 bacteria, 7 basidiomycete fungi, and 7 filamentous fungi). Submerged cultivation of these desired microorganisms revealed 4 bacteria and 10 fungi with potent lignocellulolytic enzyme activities. The potent isolates were identified as , , , , and spp. confirmed by morphological and molecular identification. The efficiency of these strains was determined through enzyme activities, and the degraded substrates were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Among all isolated microbes, spp. were found to have high laccase activity. The cellulose-decomposing and selective delignification strains were subjected to solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF of field waste corn stalks as a single-carbon source provides spp. better condition for the secretion of ligninolytic enzymes. These isolated ligninolytic enzymes producing microorganisms may be used for the effective pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural wastes for the production of high value-added natural products by fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5514745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481070PMC
September 2021

Choroidal metastasis as initial presentation of aggressive medullary thyroid carcinoma with widespread mediastinal, brain, pituitary, bone, lung, and liver metastasis: Case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Sep 16;87:106419. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

Introduction: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland. MTC can be due to sporadic or hereditary causes due to gain of function germ line mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. MTC presenting as ocular symptoms due to choroidal mass is rare with bad prognosis.

Presentation Of Case: A 38-year-old Sudanese male presented to Hamad General Hospital, complaining of sudden painless decrease of vision of the right eye of 3 weeks duration. After investigations using imaging methods, the patient was discovered to have metastatic MTC that presented as choroidal mass and metastasized to his lung, bone, brain, pituitary, liver and mediastinum.

Discussion: In terms of investigations, serum levels of calcitonin have superior diagnostic accuracy. Our patient undertook diagnostic imaging including ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration and computerized tomography (CT) scan and/or MRI imaging. He undertook total thyroidectomy and left neck dissection followed by stereotactic radiosurgery for the right orbit and pituitary. He then received systemic anti-RET therapy (Selpercatinib). At 5 months follow up there was dramatic drop in CEA from 888 μg/L to 164 μg/L, and calcitonin from >585.2 pmol/L to 354 pmol/L.

Conclusion: Choroidal metastasis as initial presentation of MTC is extremely rare and challenging to diagnose. Surgeons need a high index of suspicion when ocular symptoms accompany a neck mass or thyroid-related symptoms. MTC has a progressive course with involvement of blood vessels and neck lymph nodes. Choroidal metastasis of MTC is challenging to manage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488480PMC
September 2021

Impact of dental plaque control on the survival of ventilated patients severely affected by COVID-19 infection: An overview.

Dent Med Probl 2021 Jul-Sep;58(3):385-395

Center of Restorative Dentistry Studies, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh, Malaysia.

This overview was conducted to highlight the importance of adequate oral hygiene for patients severely affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). These are patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) to receive oxygen through mechanical ventilation due to severe pneumonia as a complication of COVID-19. Various dental plaque removal methods for ventilated patients were discussed with regard to their efficacy. The use of chemical agents was also considered to determine which one might be proposed as the best choice. Also, oral care programs or systems that can be implemented by ICU nurses or staff in the case of these ventilated patients were suggested based on evidence from the literature. These interventions aim to reduce microbial load in dental plaque/biofilm in the oropharynx as well as the aspiration of the contaminated saliva in order to prevent the transmission of the dental plaque bacteria to the lungs or other distant organs, and reduce the mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/dmp/132979DOI Listing
October 2021

The Role of Transvaginal Ultrasound Guided Embryo Transfer to Improve Pregnancy Rate in Obese Patients Undergoing Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

Int J Womens Health 2021 21;13:861-867. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) versus the transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) guided embryo transfer (ET) in obese patients undergoing Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Design: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

Setting: University hospital.

Patients: Eight hundred participants with BMI ≥30 received the long agonist protocol. They were randomized into 2 equal groups of 400 patients. Each group had either TAUS guided ET or TVUS guided ET.

Main Outcome Measures: Our primary outcomes were clinical pregnancy rate, degree of patient pain assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes were live birth rate, implantation rate, miscarriage and chemical pregnancy rates, duration of ET.

Results: Our results showed a significant higher chemical and clinical pregnancy rates in the TVUS group in comparison to TAUS group (45.3% vs. 38.3%, p=0.045) and (37.8% vs. 30.8%, p=0.044) respectively. There was tendency for increased live birth rates in the TVUS group however it did not reach statistical significance (50.2% vs. 44.8%). The VAS of the pain was significantly less in TVUS group in comparison to the TAUS group (2.1 ±0.7 vs. 4.5 ±1.3), also abdominal discomfort was significantly less in TVUS group in comparison to the TAUS group (13% vs. 58%) p= value 0.0001.

Conclusions: This study showed superior role of TVUS guided ET over TAUS regarding less pain and better pregnancy and live birth rates in obese participants.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Clinical trial. Gov identifier NCT03473028.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S325557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464338PMC
September 2021

Hyperthermic Intrathoracic Chemotherapy (HITOC) after Cytoreductive Surgery for Pleural Malignancies-A Retrospective, Multicentre Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 12;13(18). Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.

In the context of quality assurance, the objectives were to describe the surgical treatment and postoperative morbidity (particularly renal insufficiency). A retrospective, multicentre study of patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with cisplatin-based HITOC was performed. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation (GZ: RI 2905/3-1)). Patients ( = 350) with malignant pleural mesothelioma ( = 261; 75%) and thymic tumours with pleural spread ( = 58; 17%) or pleural metastases ( = 31; 9%) were analyzed. CRS was accomplished by pleurectomy/decortication (P/D: = 77; 22%), extended P/D (eP/D: = 263; 75%) or extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP: = 10; 3%). Patients received cisplatin alone ( = 212; 61%) or cisplatin plus doxorubicin ( = 138; 39%). Low-dose cisplatin (≤125 mg/m BSA) was given in 67% of patients ( = 234), and high-dose cisplatin (>125 mg/m BSA) was given in 33% of patients ( = 116). Postoperative renal insufficiency appeared in 12% of the patients ( = 41), and 1.4% ( = 5) required temporary dialysis. Surgical revision was necessary in 51 patients (15%). In-hospital mortality was 3.7% ( = 13). Patients receiving high-dose cisplatin were 2.7 times more likely to suffer from renal insufficiency than patients receiving low-dose cisplatin ( = 0.006). The risk for postoperative renal failure is dependent on the intrathoracic cisplatin dosage but was within an acceptable range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470046PMC
September 2021

Handwashing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Students in Eastern Province Schools, Saudi Arabia.

J Environ Public Health 2021 21;2021:6638443. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Environmental Health Dept., College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia.

. Lack of knowledge about appropriate handwashing practices has caused great concerns for human health, especially in the risk of many communicable diseases. The objective of the current study is to determine the level of handwashing knowledge, attitudes, and practices among school students in Eastern Province Schools, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was recruited from November 2019 to March 2020 to assess the level of the students' handwashing knowledge. A reliable questionnaire was prepared (Cronbach's alpha = 0.608) and conducted using a two-stage sampling technique. A total of 271 students participated in the study from primary, middle, and high schools; 80% were boys, most of whom displayed an acceptable level of knowledge on hand hygiene. Nearly 75% and 74% of boys and girls, respectively, gained knowledge about hand hygiene practices from their parents. Only 46% of the students thought that handwashing is a potential protective measure against diseases, whereas 34% thought it only removes dirt. Prevalence of handwashing with soap after using the toilet was recognized among 52% of the students. Additionally, 93% of the students used water and soap to wash their hands ( value < 0.001) and 97% suggested that soap and water are the best methods to wash their hands ( value < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between the mother's education and hand hygiene practices ( value = 0.044). Results collectively indicated that handwashing knowledge and practices among school students in the Eastern Province are acceptable interventions in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Indeed, further improvement conducted through specific health education programs to emphasize the role of handwashing in health hygiene is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6638443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457965PMC
September 2021

DMG26: A Targeted Sequencing Panel for Mutation Profiling to Address Gaps in the Prognostication of Multiple Myeloma.

J Mol Diagn 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada; Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Nova Scotia Health, Halifax, NS, Canada; Beatrice Hunter Cancer Research Institute, Halifax, NS, Canada. Electronic address:

Multiple Myeloma presents with numerous primary genomic lesions that broadly dichotomize cases into hyperdiploidy or IgH translocated. Clinically, these large alterations are assessed by FISH for risk stratification at diagnosis. Secondary focal events, including indels and SNPs, are also reported, however, their clinical correlates are poorly described, and FISH has insufficient resolution to assess many of them. In this study, we examined the exonic sequences of 26 genes reported to be mutated in >1% of myeloma patients using a custom panel. We sequenced these exons to approximately ∼1000x in a cohort of 76 patients from Atlantic Canada with detailed clinical correlates and in four multiple myeloma cell lines. Across the 76 patients, 255 mutations and 33 focal-copy number variations were identified. High-severity mutations and mutations predicted by FATHMM-XF to be pathogenic identified patients with significantly reduced progression free survival. These mutations were mutually exclusive from the Revised-International Staging System high-risk FISH markers and were independent of all biochemical parameters of the Revised-International Staging System. Applying our panel to patients classified by FISH to be standard-risk successfully reclassified patients into high- and standard-risk groups. Furthermore, three patients in our cohort each had two high-risk markers; two of these patients went on to develop plasma cell leukemia, a rare and severe clinical sequela of multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2021.08.011DOI Listing
September 2021

The moral imperative of money: what investments in science say about a nation's priorities and ethical compass.

Biol Futur 2021 Jun 22;72(2):139-154. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), Trieste, Italy.

The era dominated by the liberal world order, dating back to the end of World War II in 1945 and gaining unchallenged dominance with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, is now coming to an end. Yet the universal principles that the era personified in its rhetoric, and in the best of its actions, lives on. The global community has a moral obligation to continue on its journey to build a more equitable, secure and prosperous world for all of its citizens and must devise investment strategies that enable progress to both endure and accelerate. "The Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge," issued at the conclusion of the inaugural World Conference on Science in 1999, contained a broad range of insights and recommendations that remain as significant today as they did 20 years ago. We would be wise to heed the challenges that the declaration conveyed by recognizing that the journey for equity in science, technology and innovation (STI) is by no means over and, in fact, remains as relevant now as it did then-both as an economic and social necessity and as a moral obligation. This paper seeks to explore how patterns of investment in STI have changed over the past 2 decades-and how they have not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42977-020-00048-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Analgesic and hemodynamic effects of intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate versus dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing bilateral inguinal hernial surgeries under spinal anesthesia: a randomized controlled study.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Sep-Oct;71(5):489-497. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Cairo University, Faculty of Medicine, Pain Management and Surgical ICU, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background: Spinal anesthesia is commonly employed during inguinal hernial surgeries. Its short duration may, however, be considered a limitation, especially for bilateral hernial repair. The aim of this research is to investigate the analgesic and hemodynamic effects of intravenous infusion of both MgSO and dexmedetomidine on patients undergoing bilateral inguinal hernia surgeries under spinal anesthesia.

Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled trail. It included 60 male patients who had been scheduled for bilateral elective inguinal hernia surgery under spinal anesthesia at Kasr Al-Aini hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n = 20 each) to receive 50 mL of 0.9% saline intravenous infusion of either dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg.kg. h (Group D) or magnesium sulphate 15 mg.kg. h (Group M) or normal saline (Group S). The primary outcome of this study was set as the total duration of analgesia. Secondary outcomes were set as the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, perioperative hemodynamics, and the total 24-hour postoperative morphine consumption.

Results: Durations of sensory and motor blockades as well as durations of analgesia were all significantly longer among patients in Group D (mean 2.2, 3.5, 5.8 hours respectively) and Group M (mean 2.2, 3.3, 5.2 hours respectively), in comparison to Group S (mean 1.5, 2.7, 3.9 hours respectively). No significant differences were found in systolic or diastolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate oxygen saturation, cardiac output, or stroke volume among the study groups. Seven patients in Group D and four patients in Groups M and S developed hypotension.

Conclusion: Intravenous infusion of either dexmedetomidine or MgSO with spinal anesthesia effectively improves the quality of spinal anesthesia and prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreases the 24-hour postoperative morphine consumption. Results also demonstrated that the use of dexmedetomidine resulted in a slightly longer duration of analgesia, whilst the use of MgSO resulted in slightly better hemodynamic stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2021.02.004DOI Listing
February 2021

Supervise the Physicochemical Quality of Ground Water Using Soft Computing Technique.

Environ Technol 2021 Sep 17:1-18. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Associate Professor Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (KSA), Email ID

Water resources are essential for human being and nowadays polluted water jeopardies the human health. Toxic substances come from houses, industries and farm lands, dust mix with water causes water pollution. This pollution depreciates the quality of water and affects the human life. In this paper our objective is to evaluate and supervise the physicochemical quality of the ground water, for safety of human beings. The sample quality of 15 sites were used for measuring important parameters like pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, Also, NH4+ and NO3-, Fe2+ and HCO3-12 were considered for performance analysis. Soft computing component fuzzy logic system is used to design an intelligent system. The fuzzy logic system-based model measures groundwater quality status along with its sustainability. The results obtained from the model help the authorities, policy makers to plan proper policies for geochemical operation (water treatment process) and a foundation for observing the physicochemical quality of water in the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1983023DOI Listing
September 2021

Direct-acting antiviral regimens in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A real-world single-center experience.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Background And Study Aims: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has always been identified as a major health threat and a potential cause of liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and other associated problems. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has represented a paradigm shift in HCV management. In this study, we aim to observe the rate of sustained virologic response (SVR12) in a large scale of patients at a single center as well as record the post-treatment changes in the hematologic, hepatic, and renal biochemical profiles.

Patients And Methods: In total, 1933 chronic HCV genotype 4 mono-infected non-HCC patients who completed the treatment with six different DAA regimens in the Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Research Institute (MASRI), were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The rate of sustained virologic response after 12 weeks off-therapy (SVR12) was assessed. The baseline characteristics to predict the SVR12 were then analyzed. The post-treatment changes in many profiles were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The overall SVR12 rate was 96.2% (after excluding 84 cases who were lost to follow-up). It was achieved in 346/375 patients (92.3%), 466/477 patients (97.7%), 60/62 patients (96.8%), 11/11 patients (100%), 532/545 patients (97.6%), and 445/463 patients (96.1%) who received sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (SOF/DCV), sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin (SOF/DCV/RBV), sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), sofosbuvir/ledipasvir/ribavirin (SOF/LDV/RBV), sofosbuvir/simeprevir (SOF/SMV), and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r + RBV), respectively. In total, 73 patients (3.8%) failed to achieve SVR12. The baseline aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cirrhotic status, and treatment regimen were determined to have a significant impact on SVR12. In the overall treated population, the levels of serum AST, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, creatinine, bilirubin, and hemoglobin and platelet count improved significantly after treatment. Furthermore, sustained virologic response was strongly related to cirrhosis and its degree.

Conclusion: The interferon-free DAA regimens offered high SVR12 rates in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV infection. They were associated with a significant improvement in the hematologic, hepatic, and renal biochemical profiles. The baseline AST, liver cirrhosis, and treatment regimen might have an impact on achieving SVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2021.06.001DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel -Thiazole Derivatives: Synthesis and Potential Cytotoxic Activity Through Apoptosis With Molecular Docking Approaches.

Front Chem 2021 12;9:694870. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Biotechnology Program, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt.

A series of -thiazoles 5a-g were synthesized from -thiosemicarbazone 3 with hydrazonoyl chlorides 4a-g. Reaction of 3 with two equivalents of α-halocarbonyl compounds 6-8, 10, and 12a-d afforded the corresponding -thiazolidines 9, 11, and 13a-d, respectively. Condensation of -thiazolidin-4-one 9 with different aromatic aldehydes furnished -thiazolidin-4-ones 14a-d. Compounds 5a-g, 9, and 13a,c,d were screened for their cytotoxic activities in a panel of cancer cell lines. Compounds 5a-c, 5f-g, and 9 exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities, especially compound 5c with potent IC value 0.6 nM (against cervical cancer, Hela cell line) and compound 5f with high IC value 6 nM (against ovarian cancer, KF-28 cell line). Compound 5f-induced appreciated apoptotic cell death was measured as 82.76% associated with cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. The apoptotic pathways activated in KF-28 cells treated with 5a, 5b, and 5f were further investigated. The upregulation of some pro-apoptotic genes, bax and puma, and the downregulation of some anti-apoptotic genes including the Bcl-2 gene were observed, indicating activation of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Together with the molecular docking studies of compounds 5a and 5b, our data revealed potential Pim-1 kinase inhibition through their high binding affinities indicated by inhibition of phosphorylated C-myc as a downstream target for Pim-1 kinase. Our study introduces a set of -thiazoles with potent anti-cancer activities,
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.694870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397418PMC
August 2021

Temporal Dynamics of Influenza A(H5N1) Subtype before and after the Emergence of H5N8.

Viruses 2021 Aug 7;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, 12618 Giza, Egypt.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to circulate worldwide, causing numerous outbreaks among bird species and severe public health concerns. H5N1 and H5N8 are the two most fundamental HPAI subtypes detected in birds in the last two decades. The two viruses may compete with each other while sharing the same host population and, thus, suppress the spread of one of the viruses. In this study, we performed a statistical analysis to investigate the temporal correlation of the HPAI H5N1 and HPAI H5N8 subtypes using globally reported data in 2015-2020. This was joined with an in-depth analysis using data generated via our national surveillance program in Egypt. A total of 6412 outbreaks were reported worldwide during this period, with 39% (2529) as H5N1 and 61% (3883) as H5N8. In Egypt, 65% of positive cases were found in backyards, while only 12% were found in farms and 23% in live bird markets. Overall, our findings depict a trade-off between the number of positive H5N1 and H5N8 samples around early 2017, which is suggestive of the potential replacement between the two subtypes. Further research is still required to elucidate the underpinning mechanisms of this competitive dynamic. This, in turn, will implicate the design of effective strategies for disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13081565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412109PMC
August 2021

Productivity and Nutrient Balance of an Intensive Rice-Rice Cropping System Are Influenced by Different Nutrient Management in the Red and Lateritic Belt of West Bengal, India.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Aug 6;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh.

Rice is the lifeline for more than half of the world population, and in India, in view of its huge demand in the country, farmers adopt a rice-rice cropping system where the irrigation facility is available. As rice is a nutrient-exhausting crop, sustainable productivity of rice-rice cropping system greatly depends on appropriate nutrient management in accordance with the inherent soil fertility. The application of an ample dose of fertilizer is the key factor for maintaining sustainable rice yields and nutrient balance of the soil. Considering the above facts, an experiment was conducted on nutrient management in a rice-rice cropping system at the university farm of Visva-Bharati, situated in a sub-tropical climate under the red and lateritic belt of the western part of West Bengal, India, during two consecutive years (2014-2016). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Completely Block Design with 12 treatments and three replications, with different rates of N:P:K:Zn:S application in both of the growing seasons, namely, and . The recommended (ample) dose of nutrients was 80:40:40:25:20 and 120:60:60:25:20 kg ha of N:PO:KO:Zn:S in the and season, respectively. A high yielding variety, named MTU 7029, and a hybrid, Arize 6444 GOLD, were taken in the and seasons, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the application of a recommended dose of nutrients showed its superiority over the control (no fertilizer application) in the expression of growth characters, yield attributes, yields, and nutrient uptake of as well as rice. Out of the all treatments, the best result was found in the treatment where the ample dose of nutrients was applied, resulting in maximum grain yield in both the (5.6 t ha) and (6.6 t ha) season. The corresponding yield attributes for the same treatment in the (panicles m: 247.9; grains panicle: 132.0; spikelets panicle: 149.6; test weight: 23.8 g; and panicle length: 30.6 cm) and (panicles m: 281.6; grains panicle: 142.7; spikelets panicle: 157.2; test weight: 24.8 g; and panicle length: 32.8 cm) season explained the maximum yield in this treatment. Further, a reduction or omission of individual nutrients adversely impacted on the above traits and resulted in a negative balance of the respective nutrients. The study concluded that the application of a recommended dose of nutrients was essential for proper nutrient balance and sustainable yields in the rice-rice cropping system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10081622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399990PMC
August 2021

Optimization of a Patient-Specific External Fixation Device for Lower Limb Injuries.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 10;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

The use of external fixation devices is considered a valuable approach for the treatment of bone fractures, providing proper alignment to fractured fragments and maintaining fracture stability during the healing process. The need for external fixation devices has increased due to an aging population and increased trauma incidents. The design and fabrication of external fixations are major challenges since the shape and size of the defect vary, as well as the geometry of the human limb. This requires fully personalized external fixators to improve its fit and functionality. This paper presents a methodology to design personalized lightweight external fixator devices for additive manufacturing. This methodology comprises data acquisition, Computer tomography (CT) imaging analysis and processing, Computer Aided Design (CAD) modelling and two methods (imposed predefined patterns and topology optimization) to reduce the weight of the device. Finite element analysis with full factorial design of experiments were used to determine the optimal combination of designs (topology optimization and predefined patterns), materials (polylactic acid, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, and polyamide) and thickness (3, 4, 5 and 6 mm) to maximize the strength and stiffness of the fixator, while minimizing its weight. The optimal parameters were found to correspond to an external fixator device optimized by topology optimization, made in polylactic acid with 4 mm thickness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13162661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400870PMC
August 2021

Water clear cell ectopic non-iatrogenic giant parathyroid adenoma in sternohyoid muscle with thyroid nodule and asymptomatic hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism: Case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Sep 10;86:106295. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Ectopic parathyroid gland is not uncommon, and is associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. Giant parathyroid adenoma (PA) and concurrent presence of enlarged thyroid nodule increases the probability of ectopic location. The combination of a giant PA that is ectopic (within the strap muscle) in the neck is very rare, especially in cases with no previous surgery. The rare histopathological findings of the current case, water clear cell parathyroid adenoma (WCCPA), could explain the patient's presentation, since it has low endocrine function.

Case Presentation: A 56-year-old Qatari female on routine visit to primary health care physician for hypertension, was incidentally discovered to be hypercalcemic and was referred to the emergency department of our institution. Neck ultrasound showed a thyroid nodule on the left side, but Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy identified a left PA. FNAC of the thyroid nodule showed that it was a colloid nodule. She underwent left hemithyroidectomy and excision of left PA. Intraoperatively, the PA was giant and in the sternohyoid muscle. Intraoperative monitoring of intact PTH (IOiPTH) confirmed successful excision.

Discussion: Ectopic giant parathyroid adenoma is rare especially with the intramuscular location in sternohyoid muscle in the neck without previous neck surgeries. The presence of thyroid nodule could be a precipitating factor for migration of the PA. Preoperative assessment with the radiological image is crucial for diagnosis but sometimes fail to localized the PA.

Conclusion: Giant asymptomatic PA with long standing low function before hyperfunctioning should raise the suspicion of WCCPA. If diagnosis is confirmed, metastasis from a clear cell renal cell carcinoma should be ruled out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397889PMC
September 2021

The Response of Lentil ( Medik.) to Soil Moisture and Heat Stress Under Different Dates of Sowing and Foliar Application of Micronutrients.

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:679469. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Soil moisture and air temperature stress are the two major abiotic factors limiting lentil ( Medik.) growth and productivity in the humid tropics. Field experiments were conducted during winter seasons (November to March) of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 on clay loam soil (AericHaplaquept) of Eastern India to cultivate rainfed lentil, with residual moisture. The objective was to study the effect of different time of sowing and foliar spray of micronutrients in ameliorating the effect of heat and moisture stress lentil crop experience in its reproductive stage. The study was conducted with two different dates of sowing, November and December, as main plot treatment and micronutrients foliar spray of boron, iron, and zinc either alone or in combination as subplot treatment. No foliar spray treatment was considered as a control. The soil moisture content is depleted from 38 to 18% (sowing to harvest) during November sowing; however, in December sowing, the depletion is from 30 to 15%. The foliar spray of micronutrients helped to have a better canopy cover and thus reduced soil evaporation during the later stages of crop growth when the temperature was beyond the threshold temperature of the crop. Crop growth rate (CGR) and biomass were significantly higher ( ≤ 0.05) for November sown crop and with foliar spray of boron and iron (FSB + FE) micronutrients. In the later stages of the crop when the soil moisture started depleting with no precipitation, the canopy temperature increased compared with air temperature, leading to positive values of Stress Degree Days (SDD) index. Delay in sowing reduced the duration by 11.4 days (113.5 vs. 102.1 days), resulting in varied accumulated Growing Degree Days (GDD). FSB + FE resulted in the highest yield in both years (1,436 and 1,439 kg ha). The results of the study concluded that the optimum time of sowing and foliar spray of micronutrients may be helpful to alleviate the soil moisture and heat stress for the sustainability of lentil production in the subtropical region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.679469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342000PMC
July 2021

Conditional Loss of BAF (mSWI/SNF) Scaffolding Subunits Affects Specification and Proliferation of Oligodendrocyte Precursors in Developing Mouse Forebrain.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:619538. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute for Neuroanatomy, University Medical Center, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Oligodendrocytes are responsible for axon myelination in the brain and spinal cord. Generation of oligodendrocytes entails highly regulated multistage neurodevelopmental events, including proliferation, differentiation and maturation. The chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complex is a notable regulator of neural development. In our previous studies, we determined the indispensability of the BAF complex scaffolding subunits BAF155 and BAF170 for neurogenesis, whereas their role in gliogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that the expression of BAF155 and BAF170 is essential for the genesis of oligodendrocytes during brain development. We report that the ablation of BAF155 and BAF170 in the dorsal telencephalic (dTel) neural progenitors or in oligodendrocyte-producing progenitors in the ventral telencephalon (vTel) in double-conditional knockout (dcKO) mouse mutants, perturbed the process of oligodendrogenesis. Molecular marker and cell cycle analyses revealed impairment of oligodendrocyte precursor specification and proliferation, as well as overt depletion of oligodendrocytes pool in dcKO mutants. Our findings unveil a central role of BAF155 and BAF170 in oligodendrogenesis, and thus substantiate the involvement of the BAF complex in the production of oligodendrocytes in the forebrain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.619538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320002PMC
July 2021

Effect of magnesium sulfate with ketamine infusions on intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in cancer breast surgeries: a randomized double-blind trial.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Cairo University, National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Opioids are the cornerstone in managing postoperative pain; however, they have many side effects. Ketamine and Magnesium (Mg) are NMDA receptor antagonists used as adjuvant analgesics to decrease postoperative opioid consumption.

Objective: We assumed that adding Mg to ketamine infusion can improve the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic efficacy of ketamine infusion alone in cancer breast surgeries.

Methods: Ninety patients aged between 18 and 65 years and undergoing elective cancer breast surgery were included in this prospective randomized, double-blind study. Group K received ketamine 0.5 mg.kg bolus then 0.12 mg.kg.h infusion for the first 24 hours postoperatively. Group KM: received ketamine 0.5 mg.kg and Mg sulfate 50 mg.kg, then ketamine 0.12 mg.kg.h and Mg sulfate 8 mg.kg.h infusions for the first 24 hours postoperative. The primary outcome was the morphine consumption in the first 24 hours postoperative, while the secondary outcomes were: intraoperative fentanyl consumption, NRS, side effects, and chronic postoperative pain.

Results: Group KM had less postoperative opioid consumption (14.12 ± 5.11 mg) than Group K (19.43 ± 6.8 mg). Also, Group KM had less intraoperative fentanyl consumption. Both groups were similar in postoperative NRS scores, the incidence of side effects related to opioids, and chronic neuropathic pain.

Conclusion: Adding Mg to ketamine infusion can safely improve intraoperative and postoperative analgesia with opioid-sparing effect in cancer breast surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2021.07.015DOI Listing
July 2021

Admission SpO and ROX index predict outcome in patients with COVID-19.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jul 27;50:106-110. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation (SpO) on room air, determined at hospital admission, as a predictor for the need for mechanical ventilatory support in patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: In this retrospective observational study, demographic and clinical details of the patients were obtained during ICU admission. SpO and respiratory rate (RR) on room air were determined within the first 6 h of hospital admission. As all measurements were obtained on room air, we calculated the simplified respiratory rate‑oxygenation (ROX) index by dividing the SpO by the RR. Based on the use of any assistance of mechanical ventilator (invasive or noninvasive), patients were divided into mechanical ventilation (MV) group and oxygen therapy group. The accuracy of the SpO, CT score, and ROX index to predict the need to MV were determined using the Area under receiver operating curve (AUC).

Results: We included 72 critically ill patients who tested COVID-19-positive. SpO on the room air could predict any MV requirement (AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.9 [0.8-0.96], sensitivity: 70%, specificity 100%, cut-off value ≤78%, P < 0.001). Within the MV group, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was successful in 37 (74%) patients, whereas 13 patients (26%) required endotracheal intubation. The cut-off ROX value for predicting early NIV failure was ≤1.4, with a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 86%, and an AUC of 0.86 (95% confidence interval of 0.73-0.94, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: A baseline SpO ≤78% is an excellent predictor of MV requirement with a positive predictive value of 100%. Moreover, the ROX index measured within the first 6 h of hospital admission is a good indicator of early NIV failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.07.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313790PMC
July 2021

Identification of the prognostic value of elevated ANGPTL4 expression in gallbladder cancer-associated fibroblasts.

Cancer Med 2021 Sep 31;10(17):6035-6047. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200065, P.R. China.

Background: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) with different gene profiles from normal fibroblasts (NFs) have been implicated in tumor progression. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been shown to regulate tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, and predict poor prognosis. However, the ANGPTL4 expression in CAFs, especially in gallbladder CAFs (GCAFs) and its relationship with patient prognosis is unclear.

Methods: Affymetrix gene profile chip analysis in vitro was performed to detect the different gene expression profiles between GCAFs and NFs. RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were performed to investigate the different expression levels of ANGPTL4 in GCAFs/NFs in vitro and in an in vivo nude mouse model of xenograft tumors. Finally, the ANGPTL4 expression was investigated in the stroma of different lesion tissues of the human gallbladder by immunohistochemistry, especially the expression in GCAFs in vivo by co-immunofluorescence, and their prognostic significance in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) was assessed.

Results: ANGPTL4 was upregulated in both GCAFs in vitro and in the xenograft stroma of nude mice in vivo, and its expression was also significantly upregulated in human GBC stroma co-localized with the interstitial markers fibroblast secreted protein-1 and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, the elevated ANGPTL4 expression in GCAFs was correlated with tumor differentiation, liver metastasis, venous invasion and Nevin staging, and GBC patients with an elevated ANGPTL4 expression in GACFs were found to have a lower survival rate.

Conclusions: Increased ANGPTL4 expression in GCAFs correlates with poor patient prognosis, which indicates a potential therapeutic target for human GBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419759PMC
September 2021

Best practices and opportunities for integrating nutrition specific into nutrition sensitive interventions in fragile contexts: a systematic review.

BMC Nutr 2021 Jul 29;7(1):46. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN), Office of Prime Minister, Mogadishu, Somalia.

Background: Annually, undernutrition contributes globally to 45% (3.1 million) of preventable deaths in children under 5. Effect following undernutrition i.e. physical growth & cognitive development etc. can be prevented during the first 1000 days also called window of opportunity. There is substantial evidence of positive nutrition outcomes resulting from integrating nutrition-specific interventions into nutrition specific program. However, there is paucity of knowledge on establishing and sustaining effective integration of nutrition intervention in fragile context. The objective of this review is to map and review the integration of nutrition-specific intervention to nutrition sensitive program and its impacts on nutrition outcomes.

Methods: In the study, we systematically searched the literature on integrated nutrition intervention into multi-sectoral programme in PUBMED, Google's Scholar, the Cochrane Library, World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Bank and trial registers from their inception until Oct 30, 2020 for up-to-date published and grey resources. We screened records, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicates. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020209730).

Result: Forty-four studies were included in this review, outlining the integration of nutrition-specific interventions among children 0-59 months with various existing programme. Most common integration platform in the study included integrated community case management and Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, Child Health Days, immunization, early child development, and cash transfers. Limited quantitative data were suggestive of some positive impact on nutrition and non-nutrition outcomes with a number of model of integration which varies according to the context and demands of the particular setting in which integration occurs.

Conclusion: Overall, existing evidence for nutrition sensitive and specific interventions is not robust and remains limited. It's worthwhile to note, for future studies/interventions should be based on the context key criteria like relevance, political support, effectiveness, feasibility, expected contribution to health system strengthening, local capacities, ease of integration and targeting for sustainability, cost effectiveness and financial availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-021-00443-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320180PMC
July 2021

Recent Advances in Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Glucose Sensing.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 8;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

The detection of glucose is crucial in the management of diabetes and other medical conditions but also crucial in a wide range of industries such as food and beverages. The development of glucose sensors in the past century has allowed diabetic patients to effectively manage their disease and has saved lives. First-generation glucose sensors have considerable limitations in sensitivity and selectivity which has spurred the development of more advanced approaches for both the medical and industrial sectors. The wide range of application areas has resulted in a range of materials and fabrication techniques to produce novel glucose sensors that have higher sensitivity and selectivity, lower cost, and are simpler to use. A major focus has been on the development of enzymatic electrochemical sensors, typically using glucose oxidase. However, non-enzymatic approaches using direct electrochemistry of glucose on noble metals are now a viable approach in glucose biosensor design. This review discusses the mechanisms of electrochemical glucose sensing with a focus on the different generations of enzymatic-based sensors, their recent advances, and provides an overview of the next generation of non-enzymatic sensors. Advancements in manufacturing techniques and materials are key in propelling the field of glucose sensing, however, significant limitations remain which are highlighted in this review and requires addressing to obtain a more stable, sensitive, selective, cost efficient, and real-time glucose sensor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309655PMC
July 2021

The potential economic benefits of controlling trypanosomiasis using waterbuck repellent blend in sub-Saharan Africa.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(7):e0254558. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Country Coordinators of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis (T&T) Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) for Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia, respectively.

Trypanosomiasis is a significant productivity-limiting livestock disease in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to poverty and food insecurity. In this paper, we estimate the potential economic gains from adopting Waterbuck Repellent Blend (WRB). The WRB is a new technology that pushes trypanosomiasis-transmitting tsetse fly away from animals, improving animals' health and increasing meat and milk productivity. We estimate the benefits of WRB on the production of meat and milk using the economic surplus approach. We obtained data from an expert elicitation survey, secondary and experimental sources. Our findings show that the adoption of WRB in 5 to 50% of the animal population would generate an economic surplus of US$ 78-869 million per annum for African 18 countries. The estimated benefit-cost ratio (9:1) further justifies an investment in WRB. The technology's potential benefits are likely to be underestimated since our estimates did not include the indirect benefits of the technology adoption, such as the increase in the quantity and quality of animals' draught power services and human and environmental health effects. These benefits suggest that investing in WRB can contribute to nutrition security and sustainable development goals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254558PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291668PMC
July 2021

First case of huge classic papillary thyroid cancer rupturing spontaneously leading to ischemic necrosis, perforation and inflammation of overlying skin: Case report and review of the literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Aug 29;85:106136. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the commonest form of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma. It is categorized into indolent and aggressive, where the indolent subtypes (classic, follicular) rarely demonstrate aggressive behavior. We present a classic PTC presenting with a rapidly growing huge anterior neck mass that subsequently spontaneously ruptured subcutaneously resulting in ischemia, necrosis, and perforation of overlying skin leading to inflammation.

Presentation Of Case: A 37-year-old female with no comorbidities presented to our emergency department with a neck swelling of 2 years duration that rapidly enlarged one week prior to presentation. Though the mass initially appeared of inflammatory nature, the tumor was a PTC, and she underwent total thyroidectomy with selective right side neck dissection and debridement of necrotic skin. The gross specimen revealed a fragmented non-intact right thyroid lobe mass causing pressure ischemia, necrosis and perforation of the skin. Histopathology showed a 9 × 9 × 5 cm classic PTC staged as pT3b N1b. Postoperative course was uneventful, she was discharged by the eighth postoperative day, and then she received a high dose of radioactive iodine ablation (RAI).

Discussion: Classic PTC is usually of a smaller size and a relatively benign course compared to other PTC subtypes and thyroid cancers. It is indolent with favorable prognosis. Although it is associated with increased risk of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, it is slow growing with high survival rates approaching 95%.

Conclusion: Despite that classic PTC progresses slowly, it should still be suspected in neck swellings presenting with rapid and aggressive behavior. Prompt and systematic assessment is required with surgical intervention and radioactive iodine ablation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313845PMC
August 2021

Antibacterial and cytotoxic potency of thermophilic Streptomyces werraensis MI-S.24-3 isolated from an Egyptian extreme environment.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Oct 14;203(8):4961-4972. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Colin Ratledge Center for Microbial Lipids, School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255000, China.

The need for novel and active antibiotics specially from actinomycetes is essential due to new and drug-resistant pathogens. In this study, 87 actinomycetes were isolated, and 18 strains among them characterized as thermophilic actinomycetes. Further fractionation and preliminary antibacterial activities indicated that one strain, coded as MI-S.24-3, showed good antibacterial activity. Based on the phenotypic, genomic, phylogenetic, and biochemical analyses, MI-S.24-3 was identified as Streptomyces werraensis. Results demonstrated that the ethyl acetate active fraction showed maximum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC (12.7 ± 0.1 and 18.3 ± 0.2 mg/mL), and MBC (96.5 ± 1.4 and 91.5 ± 0.7 mg/mL), respectively, with determination of time kill kinetics assay. The active fraction showed moderate-to-weak cytotoxic effects against human lung carcinoma (A549 cells), breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), and human cervical carcinoma (HELA cells) with a IC of (23.8 ± 1.2, 54 ± 1.8, 96.4 ± 3.2 μg/mL, respectively). Active components were characterised by different chemically volatile, ester, and lactone compounds, determined by GC-MS coupled with daughter ions of (GC-MS/MS). Notably, erucic acid and reynosin identified compounds are rare metabolites produced by Streptomyces werraensis. Our findings demonstrated that the MI-S.24-3 strain could be a potential source for active compounds of biomedical and pharmaceutical interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02487-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Empagliflozin and neohesperidin protect against methotrexate-induced renal toxicity via suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation in male rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Sep 10;155:112406. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, 71524, Egypt; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, Minya, 61519, Egypt.

Kidney injury from chemotherapy is one of the worsening problems associated with methotrexate (MTX) use. This work aims to examine the nephroprotective effects of empagliflozin (EMPA) and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHD) provoked by MTX. A rat model was implemented by a single administration of MTX (20 mg/kg, i.p.). EMPA and NHD were administered in two doses (10 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) and (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively for 14 consecutive days, using N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard. Pretreatment with EMPA and NHD showed significant attenuation in the renal function biomarkers, histopathological abrasions, and renal oxidative parameters. Also, EMPA and NHD pretreatment produced marked reductions in the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α level as proinflammatory biomarkers. Furthermore, EMPA and NHD pretreatment revealed marked decreases in the expression level of NF-ĸB, Keap1, HSP70, and caspase-3 and notable increases in Nrf2, PPARγ and HO-1 expression levels. EMPA and NHD can constrain oxidative stress liberation, inflammatory mediators proliferation, and apoptotic reactions in the renal tissue, which may be promising for further clinical applications to protect against MTX-induced renal injury or at least to reduce its adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112406DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolates Associated with Urinary Tract Infections.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 15;2021:6612058. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Colin Ratledge Center for Microbial Lipids, School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China.

is an organism commonly found in the environment and one of the most common causes of human urinary tract infections in developed and developing countries. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of five medicinal plant extracts on the isolated drug-resistant clinical isolates. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from Nagaa Hammadi and Qena General Hospitals and private medical analysis laboratories in Qena governorate, Upper Egypt. Samples were screened for the prevalence of UTI pathogens by biochemical tests, antibiotics sensitivity, detection of virulence, and antibiotic-resistant genes by using multiplex PCR. is by far the subdominant causative agent with a percentage of 14%. Clinical isolates were multidrug-resistant, containing , , , , , and resistant and virulence genes. Based on bioactivity, the ethanolic extract of clove () was the most active extract among tested medicinal plants and had the maximum zone of inhibition sized 23 mm against tested bacteria. The results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) showed a high decrease of inhibition within a concentration range of (10 to 121.25 mg/mL and 20 to 30 mg/mL, respectively). Further, major compounds of oleic acid (27.22%), guanosine (8.91%), indole (6.83%), 1-eicosene (6.30%), and cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (5.37%) were determined among 12 bioactive compounds in the ethanolic extract of using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These results indicated that the ethanolic extract of is a promising antibacterial agent for further studies aiming to control bacterial infections including MDR bacteria and develop novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of UTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6612058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221855PMC
June 2021
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