Publications by authors named "Mohamed Hamidou"

160 Publications

Venous thrombosis and predictors of relapse in eosinophil-related diseases.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6388. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

National Reference Center for Hypereosinophilic Syndromes, CEREO, France.

Eosinophils have widespread procoagulant effects. Eosinophilic cardiovascular toxicity mostly consists of endomyocardial damage or eosinophilic vasculitis, while reported cases of venous thrombosis (VT) are scarce. We aimed to report on the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with unexplained VT and eosinophilia, and to identify predictors of relapse. This retrospective, multicenter, observational study included patients aged over 15 years with VT, concomitant blood eosinophilia ≥ 1G/L and without any other moderate-to-strong contributing factors for VT. Fifty-four patients were included. VT was the initial manifestation of eosinophil-related disease in 29 (54%) patients and included pulmonary embolism (52%), deep venous thrombosis (37%), hepatic (11%) and portal vein (9%) thromboses. The median [IQR] absolute eosinophil count at VT onset was 3.3G/L [1.6-7.4]. Underlying eosinophil-related diseases included FIP1L1-PDGFRA-associated chronic myeloid neoplasm (n = 4), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (n = 9), lymphocytic (n = 1) and idiopathic (n = 29) variants of hypereosinophilic syndrome. After a median [IQR] follow-up of 24 [10-62] months, 7 (13%) patients had a recurrence of VT. In multivariate analysis, persistent eosinophilia was the sole variable associated with a shorter time to VT relapse (HR 7.48; CI95% [1.94-29.47]; p = 0.015). Long-term normalization of eosinophil count could prevent the recurrence of VT in a subset of patients with unexplained VT and eosinophilia ≥ 1G/L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973521PMC
March 2021

Safety and efficacy of low-dose intravenous arsenic trioxide in systemic lupus erythematosus: an open-label phase IIa trial (Lupsenic).

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 03 3;23(1):70. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

MEDSENIC, SAS, a company with CNRS participation, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Lupus animal model has shown that arsenic trioxide (ATO), a treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia, could be effective in SLE. This is the first clinical study to determine the safety and efficacy of a short course of intravenous ATO in patients with active SLE.

Methods: This phase IIa, open-label, dose-escalating study enrolled 11 adult SLE patients with a non-organ threatening disease, clinically active despite conventional therapy. Patients received 10 IV infusions of ATO within 24 days. The first group received 0.10 mg/kg per injection, with dose-escalating to 0.15 mg/kg in a second group, and to 0.20 mg/kg in a third group. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) and secondary endpoints were the number of SLE Responder Index 4 (SRI-4) responders at week 24 and reduction of corticosteroid dosage. In an exploratory analysis, we collected long-term data for safety and attainment of lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS).

Results: Four serious AEs occurred (grade 3 neutropenia, osteitis, neuropathy), 2 of which were attributable to ATO (neutropenia in the 2 patients treated with mycophenolate). Two patients suffered a severe flare during the last 4 weeks of the trial. At W24, five patients among 10 were SRI-4 responders. Overall, mean corticosteroid dosage decreased from 11.25 mg/day at baseline to 6 mg/day at W24 (P < 0.01). In the long term, 6 patients attained LLDAS at W52, which continued at last follow-up (median LLDAS duration 3 years, range 2-4).

Conclusions: A short course of ATO has an acceptable safety profile in SLE patients and encouraging efficacy.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01738360  registered 30 November 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02454-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927234PMC
March 2021

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis: Study of 795 patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group registry.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 Feb 10;51(2):339-346. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

National Referral Center for Rare Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Université Paris Descartes, Hôpital Cochin, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), 27, rue du faubourg Saint-Jacques, Paris, Cedex 14 75679, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe the characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) from the French Vasculitis Study Group database.

Methods: Patients' clinical and laboratory characteristics, Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS)-assessed disease activity, malignancies, opportunistic infections, and vital status were collected at diagnosis and each visit. Estimated probabilities and predictors of overall (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were analyzed by Cox regression.

Results: We enrolled 795 newly diagnosed patients, followed for a median of 3.5 years. Initial clinical manifestations involved ear, nose & throat (ENT; 80%), lungs (68%) and kidneys (56%). Among the 728 available ELISA results, 75.0% were PR3-ANCA-positive, 16.5% MPO-ANCA-positive and 62 (8.5%) ANCA-negative. Relapses occurred in 394 (50%) patients, involving ≥1 organ(s) affected at onset in 179 (46%), mainly ENT, lungs and kidneys, with mean BVAS 10.2 points below that at diagnosis (p<0.001). Five- and 10-year RFS rates were 37% and 17%, respectively. PR3-ANCA-positivity independently predicted relapse (p = 0.05) and prolonged survival (p = 0.038). OS-but not RFS-improved significantly over time (p<0.001); 10-year OS reached 88.2% (95% CI 83.9 to 92.7) for the 660 patients diagnosed after 2000. Infections were the main causes of death. Malignancy or opportunistic infection each occurred in ≤5% of the patients.

Conclusion: Survival has improved dramatically over the last decades but the high relapse rate remains a major concern for GPA patients, once again stressing the need for therapeutic strategy optimization to lower it. PR3-ANCA-positivity was associated with increased probability of relapse and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2021.02.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Symptomatic aortitis at giant cell arteritis diagnosis: a prognostic factor of aortic event.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 01 7;23(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, CHU Nantes, 1 place Alexis Ricordeau, 44093, Nantes, France.

Background: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is frequently associated with aortic involvement that is likely to cause life-threatening structural complications (aneurysm, dissection). Few studies have investigated the occurrence of these complications, and no predictive factor has been identified so far. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the risk of aortic complications in a cohort of GCA aortitis.

Methods: Data of all patients managed with aortitis (CT or 18 FDG PET) at the diagnosis of GCA in five hospitals from May 1998 and April 2019 were retrospectively collected. Clinical features were compared according to the presence of aortitis symptoms. The predictive factors of occurrence or aggravation of aortic structural abnormalities were investigated.

Results: One hundred and seventy-one patients with GCA aortitis were included; 55 patients (32%) had symptoms of aortitis (dorsal/lumbar/abdominal pain, aortic insufficiency) at diagnosis. The median follow-up was 38 months. Aortic complications occurred after a median time of 32 months. There were 19 new aortic aneurysms or complications of aneurysm and 5 dissections. Survival without aortic complication was significantly different between the symptomatic and non-symptomatic groups (Log rank, p = 0.0003). In multivariate analysis the presence of aortitis symptoms at diagnosis (HR 6.64 [1.95, 22.6] p = 0.002) and GCA relapse (HR 3.62 [1.2, 10.9] p = 0.02) were factors associated with the occurrence of aortic complications.

Conclusion: In this study, the presence of aortitis symptoms at the diagnosis of GCA aortitis and GCA relapse were independent predictive factors of occurrence of aortic complications during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02396-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792092PMC
January 2021

Rheumatic involvement and bone scan features in Schnitzler syndrome: initial and follow-up data from a single-center cohort of 25 patients.

Arthritis Res Ther 2020 11 18;22(1):272. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Internal Medicine Interne, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France.

Objective: To report on the characteristics and long-term course of rheumatic manifestations in Schnitzler syndrome (SchS).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients with SchS followed between 2000 and 2020. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of SchS (Strasbourg criteria). All available bone scans were reviewed and scored according to the intensity and number of pathological sites. The scintigraphic score was compared with the clinical activity score, CRP level, and treatments.

Results: Twenty-five patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 68 years. Eighty patients (72%) had SchS-related rheumatic pain. Most patients had a long-standing isolated rash before constitutional and/or rheumatic symptoms appeared. The monoclonal component level was usually very low (IgMκ in 22/25). Rheumatic pain predominated around the knees. Bone scans revealed abnormal tracer uptake in 15/18 (85%). The scintigraphic score correlated with clinical activity (r = 0.4, p < 0.02) and CRP level (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). The scintigraphic score was lower in patients receiving corticosteroids or IL1Ra (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist) than in untreated patients (median scores:2, 0, and 13, respectively; p < 0.05). Two patients developed Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Of the 22 surviving patients, median age at follow-up was 76 years. IL1Ra was used in 13 patients, with dramatic efficacy on both symptoms and bone scan features.

Conclusions: Rheumatic manifestations are very prevalent in SchS. However, bone pain can be misleading and contribute to misdiagnosis. Bone scan abnormalities are very prevalent and correlate with disease activity and treatments. IL1-Ra has a dramatic and durable efficacy but may not be required in every patient early on.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02318-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677784PMC
November 2020

Clinical phenotypes of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis: an analysis of a French, multi-ethnic, multicentre cohort.

Eur Respir J 2021 Apr 1;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Service de Médecine Interne 2, Centre National de Référence Maladies Systémiques Rares, Lupus et Syndrome des Anticorps Antiphospholipides, Centre National de Référence Histiocytoses, Sorbonne Université, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Sarcoidosis is a rare disease of unknown cause with wide heterogeneity in clinical features and outcomes. We aimed to explore sarcoidosis phenotypes and their clinical relevance with particular attention to extrapulmonary subgroups.The Epidemiology of Sarcoidosis (EpiSarc) study is a French retrospective multicentre study. Sarcoidosis patients were identified through national hospitalisation records using appropriate codes from 11 hospital centres between 2013 and 2016 according to a standardised protocol. Medical charts were reviewed. The phenotypes of sarcoidosis were defined using a hierarchical cluster analysis.A total of 1237 patients were included (562 men and 675 women). The mean age at sarcoidosis diagnosis was 43.5±13 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct phenotypes according to organ involvement and disease type and symptoms: 1) erythema nodosum, joint involvement and hilar lymph nodes (n=180); 2) eye, neurological, digestive and kidney involvement (n=137); 3) pulmonary involvement with fibrosis and heart involvement (n=630); 4) lupus pernio and a high percentage of severe involvement (n=41); and 5) hepatosplenic, peripheral lymph node and bone involvement (n=249). Phenotype 1 was associated with being European/Caucasian and female and with non-manual work, phenotype 2 with being European/Caucasian, and phenotypes 3 and 5 with being non-European/Caucasian. The labour worker proportion was significantly lower in phenotype 5 than in the other phenotypes.This multicentre study confirms the existence of distinct phenotypes of sarcoidosis, with a non-random distribution of organ involvement. These phenotypes differ according to sex, geographical origin and socioprofessional category.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01160-2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Sustained Remission of Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis After Discontinuation of Glucocorticoids and Immunosuppressant Therapy: Data From the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 04 28;73(4):641-650. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

National Referral Center for Rare Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Université de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Objective: Data on sustained remission of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) after discontinuation of therapy (referred to as GPA with sustained remission off-therapy [SROT]) are scarce. In the present study, SROT among GPA patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry was evaluated to identify factors associated with its occurrence and durability.

Methods: For inclusion of patients in the study, the diagnosis of GPA had to meet the GPA classification criteria defined by the American College of Rheumatology and/or the revised Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature for vasculitis. SROT was defined as achievement of remission (a Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score of 0) that was sustained for ≥6 consecutive months after having discontinued glucocorticoid (GC) and immunosuppressant treatments. The characteristics of the patients at baseline and treatments received were compared at 3, 5, and 10 years postdiagnosis according to whether or not SROT had been reached and maintained.

Results: Among 795 patients with GPA, 92 GPA patients with SROT at 3 years postdiagnosis were compared to 342 control subjects who had experienced disease relapse and/or were still receiving GCs or immunosuppressants. No baseline differences were found, but patients with SROT at 3 years postdiagnosis had more frequently received intravenous cyclophosphamide as induction therapy compared to control subjects (P = 0.01), with a higher median number of infusions (P = 0.05). At 5 years postdiagnosis, no baseline differences were observed between groups, but patients with SROT at 5 years postdiagnosis had received more cyclophosphamide infusions compared to control subjects (P = 0.03). More patients with SROT had received rituximab as maintenance therapy than control subjects at 3 years and 5 years postdiagnosis (P = 0.09 and P < 0.001, respectively). Of the 74 patients enrolled in the GPA Registry with 10-year follow-up data after having received conventional maintenance therapy, 15 (20%) had reached SROT at 3 years, and 5 (7%) maintained SROT at 10 years postdiagnosis.

Conclusion: After conventional therapies, 7% of GPA patients had reached SROT at 10 years postdiagnosis. No baseline vasculitis characteristics distinguished patients who achieved/maintained SROT from those who experienced disease relapse and/or those who continued to receive GCs or immunosuppressant therapy, but patients with SROT had received more intensive induction therapy and rituximab as maintenance therapy more frequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41551DOI Listing
April 2021

Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia and Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension.

Chest 2020 Dec 10;158(6):2602-2609. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Hematology, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes, France; Clinical Investigation Center CIC14-14, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.07.094DOI Listing
December 2020

Muscle biopsy in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: diagnostic yield depends on anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody type, sex and neutrophil count.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 02;60(2):699-707

Internal Medicine Unit, Service de Médecine Interne, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes France.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the sensitivity of muscle biopsy (MB) in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), identify factors predicting MB positivity and assess the prognostic value of a positive MB.

Methods: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study of AAV with an MB performed at diagnosis. AAV classification [granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA)] followed the European Medicines Agency algorithm. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with MB positivity. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Among 276 AAV patients (1995-2018), 101 had an MB. Seventy-eight patients were included: 33 with GPA, 25 with MPA and 20 with EGPA. MB samples were positive in 45 cases (58%): 17 GPA, 16 MPA and 12 EGPA. Univariate analysis focussed on GPA and MPA, revealed that the MB yield was higher in females [22/31 (71%) vs 11/27 (41%); P = 0.02] and in anti-MPO patients [25/37 (68%) vs 6/19 (32%) for anti-PR3; P = 0.01]. By multivariate analysis, three factors predicted MB positivity: anti-MPO ANCA [odds ratio (OR) 10.67 (CI 2.09, 81.68)], female sex [OR 5.3 (CI 1.16, 32.35)] and neutrophil count [OR 1.33 (CI 1.07, 1.8)]. MB positivity had no impact on relapse, death or end-stage renal disease-free survival.

Conclusions: MB is a safe and efficient diagnostic tool for AAV. Predictors of MB yield include ANCA type, sex and neutrophil count. MB cannot substitute for kidney biopsy when indicated, but should be considered in other cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa233DOI Listing
February 2021

Epidemiology, clinical picture and long-term outcomes of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia: Data from 151 patients.

Am J Hematol 2020 11 19;95(11):1314-1323. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

National Reference Center for Hypereosinophilic syndromes (CEREO), Suresnes, France.

FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia (F/P+ MN-eo) is a rare disease: robust epidemiological data are lacking and reported issues are scarce, of low sample-size and limited follow-up. Imatinib mesylate (IM) is highly efficient but no predictive factor of relapse after discontinuation has yet been identified. One hundred and fifty-one patients with F/P+ MN-eo (143 males; mean age at diagnosis 49 years; mean annual incidence: 0.18 case per million population) were included in this retrospective nationwide study involving all French laboratories who perform the search of F/P fusion gene (study period: 2003-2019). The main organs involved included the spleen (44%), skin (32%), lungs (30%), heart (19%) and central nervous system (9%). Serum vitamin B12 and tryptase levels were elevated in 74/79 (94%) and 45/57 (79%) patients, respectively, and none of the 31 patients initially treated with corticosteroids achieved complete hematologic remission. All 148 (98%) IM-treated patients achieved complete hematologic and molecular (when tested, n = 84) responses. Forty-six patients eventually discontinued IM, among whom 20 (57%) relapsed. In multivariate analysis, time to IM initiation (continuous HR: 1,01 [0.99-1,03]; P = .05) and duration of IM treatment (continuous HR: 0,97 [0,95-0,99]; P = .004) were independent factors of relapse after discontinuation of IM. After a mean follow-up of 80 (56) months, the 1, 5- and 10-year overall survival rates in IM-treated patients were 99%, 95% and 84% respectively. In F/P+ MN-eo, prompt initiation of IM and longer treatment durations may prevent relapses after discontinuation of IM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25945DOI Listing
November 2020

Functional and genetic testing in adults with HLH reveals an inflammatory profile rather than a cytotoxicity defect.

Blood 2020 07;136(5):542-552

Service de Médecine Interne et Immunologie Clinique, CHU de la Conception, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory condition. Primary HLH occurs early in life as a result of monogenic biallelic mutations affecting lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Secondary HLH occurs mostly in adults secondary to infection, lymphoma, or rheumatic disease. In this latter setting, lymphocyte cytotoxicity status is not known. We conducted a systematic evaluation of natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in adult patients with secondary HLH. Adult patients with secondary HLH were prospectively studied ex vivo for total lymphocyte count and subtype, NK cell phenotype, perforin expression and degranulation, and natural or antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, in comparison with patients affected by the same underlying disease without HLH (disease controls [DCs]) and with healthy controls (HCs). Screening for variants of cytotoxity genes was systematically performed. 68 patients were included in the HLH group and 34 each in the DC and HC groups. In HLH patients, severe and transient lymphopenia, activated NK cell phenotype (eg, increased CD69, ICAM-1, HLADR, and CCR5 expression), and decreased capacity of interferon γ production were observed; mean perforin expression was normal; and degranulation tests and NK cell cytotoxicity were not different from those in DCs. A monoallelic variant of uncertain significance affecting a lymphocyte cytotoxicity gene or the perforin variant A91V was observed in almost 50% of the patients. We detected no major intrinsic cytotoxicity dysfunction in secondary HLH patients compared with DCs and no predicted pathogenic gene variant. The activated NK phenotype profile associated with decreased interferon γ production seems similar to those of other hyperinflammatory diseases such as sepsis or systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530375PMC
July 2020

Microscopic polyangiitis: Clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of 378 patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry.

J Autoimmun 2020 08 25;112:102467. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Referral Center for Rare Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), an antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel necrotizing vasculitis.

Methods: MPA patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry satisfying the European Medicines Agency algorithm were analyzed retrospectively. Characteristics at diagnosis, treatments, relapses and deaths were analyzed to identify factors predictive of death or relapse.

Results: Between 1966 and 2017, 378 MPA patients (median age 63.7 years) were diagnosed and followed for a mean of 5.5 years. At diagnosis, the main clinical manifestations included renal involvement (74%), arthralgias (45%), skin (41%), lung (40%) and mononeuritis multiplex (32%), with less frequent alveolar hemorrhage (16%), cardiomyopathy (5%) and severe gastrointestinal signs (4%); mean serum creatinine was 217 μmol/L. ANCA were detected in 298/347 (86%) patients by immunofluorescence and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 293 patients with available ELISA specificities, 272 (92.8%) recognized myeloperoxidase and 13 (4.4%) proteinase-3. During follow-up, 131 (34.7%) patients relapsed and 78 (20.6%) died, mainly from infections. Respective 5-year overall and relapse-free survival rates were 84.2% and 60.4%. Multivariable analyses retained age >65 years, creatinine >130 μmol/L, severe gastrointestinal involvement and mononeuritis multiplex as independent risk factors for death. Renal impairment was associated with a lower risk of relapse.

Conclusion: Non-renal manifestations and several risk factors for death or relapse were frequent in this nationwide cohort. While mortality was low, and mainly due to treatment-related complications, relapses remained frequent, suggesting that MPA management can be further improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102467DOI Listing
August 2020

Long-term efficacy and safety of 2CdA (cladribine) in extra-pulmonary adult-onset Langerhans cell histiocytosis: analysis of 23 cases from the French Histiocytosis Group and systematic literature review.

Br J Haematol 2020 06 19;189(5):869-878. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Service de Pneumologie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Centre National de Référence des Histiocytoses, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare protean disease that usually affects children. Few data are available for management of adult-onset cases. A complete picture of the efficacy and safety of 2CdA (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, cladribine) is lacking. We report a retrospective multicentre study of 23 adult LCH (a-LCH) patients who received single-agent 2CdA and a systematic literature review. All had previously received systemic therapy (vinblastine, n = 19). Response to 2CdA was evaluable in 22 cases. Overall response rate (ORR) was 91%. Complete response (CR) occurred in 11 cases (50%). Nine patients (39%) developed grade 3-4 neutropenia and/or severe infection. A literature review yielded 48 additional cases. A pooled analysis confirmed our findings (ORR: 88%, CR: 49%). CRs were rare with cumulative dose <50 mg/m . Disease progression rates were 20% and 30% at two and five years, respectively. Partial response (PR) to 2CdA was predictive of disease progression. Among eight re-treated patients, five went into CR, two in PR, and one died. Single-agent 2CdA is effective in reactivated a-LCH, including at intermediate doses. Toxicity, significant but acceptable, warrants infectious prophylaxis. Complete responders may enter prolonged remission. Further studies are needed to determine 2CdA sequencing with other agents (vinblastine, cytarabine).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16449DOI Listing
June 2020

Reducing the initial number of rituximab maintenance-therapy infusions for ANCA-associated vasculitides: randomized-trial post-hoc analysis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2020 10;59(10):2970-2975

Centre de Référence Maladies Systémiques et Auto-Immunes Rares, Université Paris Descartes, APHP, Hôpital Cochin, Paris.

Objective: The randomized, controlled MAINRITSAN2 trial was designed to compare the capacity of an individually tailored therapy [randomization day 0 (D0)], with reinfusion only when CD19+ lymphocytes or ANCA had reappeared, or if the latter's titre rose markedly, with that of five fixed-schedule 500-mg rituximab infusions [D0 + D14, then months (M) 6, 12 and 18] to maintain ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) remissions. Relapse rates did not differ at M28. This ancillary study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of omitting the D14 rituximab infusion on AAV relapse rates at M12.

Methods: MAINRITSAN2 trial data were subjected to post-hoc analyses of M3, M6, M9 and M12 relapse-free survival rates in each arm as primary end points. Exploratory subgroup analyses were run according to CYC or rituximab induction and newly diagnosed or relapsing AAV.

Results: At M3, M6, M9 and M12, respectively, among the 161 patients included, 79/80 (98.8%), 76/80 (95%), 74/80 (92.5%) and 73/80 (91.3%) from D0, and 80/81 (98.8%), 78/81 (96.3%), 76/81 (93.8%) and 76/81 (93.8%) from D0+D14 groups were alive and relapse-free. No between-group differences were observed. Results were not affected by CYC or rituximab induction, or newly diagnosed or relapsing AAV.

Conclusions: We were not able to detect a difference between the relapse-free survival rates for up to M12 for the D0 and D0+D14 rituximab-infusion groups, which could suggest that omitting the D14 rituximab remission-maintenance dose did not modify the short-term relapse-free rate. Nevertheless, results at M12 may also have been influenced by the rituximab-infusion strategies for both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kez621DOI Listing
October 2020

Severe Late-Onset Kawasaki Disease Successfully Treated With Anakinra.

J Clin Rheumatol 2020 Mar;26(2):e42-e43

Service de Médecine Interne, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France Service de Pédiatrie, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France Service de Radiologie, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France Service de Médecine Interne, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France Service des Urgences, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France Service de Médecine Interne, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France Service de Pédiatrie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42100 Saint-Etienne, France Service de Médecine Interne, CHU de Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000000814DOI Listing
March 2020

"Idiopathic Eosinophilic Vasculitis": Another Side of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome? A Comprehensive Analysis of 117 Cases in Asthma-Free Patients.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 04 18;8(4):1329-1340.e3. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Centre de Référence National des Syndromes Hyperéosinophiliques (CEREO), Lille, France; Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Service de Médecine Interne, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

Background: The absence of asthma may rule out a diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and features of vasculitis.

Objective: To describe eosinophilic vasculitis (EoV) as a possible manifestation of HES in asthma-free patients.

Methods: We screened our hospital database and the literature for patients with HES who met the following 4 criteria: (1) histopathological or clinical features of EoV (biopsy-proven vasculitis with predominant eosinophilic infiltration of the vessel wall and/or features of vasculitis with tissue and/or blood hypereosinophilia [absolute eosinophil count >1.5 G/L]); (2) no other obvious causes of reactive eosinophilia, organ damage, and vasculitis; (3) the absence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; and (4) the absence of current asthma.

Results: Ten of our 83 (12%) asthma-free patients with HES and 107 additional cases in the literature met the criteria for EoV. After a critical analysis of the patients' clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes, we identified 41 cases of single-organ EoV (coronary arteritis, n = 29; temporal arteritis, n = 8; cerebral vasculitis, n = 4). Of the remaining 76 patients with EoV, the most frequent manifestations (>10%) were cutaneous vasculitis (56%), peripheral neuropathy (24%), thromboangiitis obliterans-like disease (16%), fever (13%), central nervous system involvement (13%), deep venous thrombosis (12%), and nonasthma lung manifestations (12%). Blood hypereosinophilia more than 1.5 G/L was observed in 79% of patients, and necrotizing vasculitis was observed in 44%.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that idiopathic EoV (HES-associated vasculitis) can be classified as an eosinophilic-rich, necrotizing, systemic form of vasculitis that affects vessels of various sizes in asthma-free patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.12.011DOI Listing
April 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Interferon Alpha 2A and Pegylated Interferon Alpha 2A in Inflammatory Macular Edema.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 10;28(2):329-336. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France.

: The aim of this study was to further explore the efficacy and safety of interferon-α in refractory non-infectious inflammatory macular edema and to compare interferon-α2a and pegylated interferon-α2b.: 34 patients with refractory non-infectious uveitic macular edemaunder interferon-α were retrospectively reviewed.: Mean baseline best-corrected visual acuityimproved from 0.55 logMar to 0.37 logMAR (P < 0.001) at month (M) 1 and 0.40 logMAR (P < 0.001) at M6. The mean baseline CMT decreased from 554 µm to 367 µm (P < 0.001) at M1 and 394 µm (P < 0.001) at M6. Clinical adverse effects (AEs) were observed in a third of patients, leading to treatment discontinuation because of frequent mild AEs and few severe AE. No statistically significant difference was found between both molecules.: Anatomically and functionally, interferon-α was rapidly effective despite a low dosage regimen and no difference in efficacy and tolerance was observed between interferon-α2a and pegylated interferon-α2b.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2019.1604001DOI Listing
January 2021

Spectrum and Prognosis of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis-related Bronchiectasis: Data from 61 Patients.

J Rheumatol 2020 10 1;47(10):1522-1531. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

P.Y. Brillet, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny, France.

Objective: To report on a large series of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and bronchiectasis, with a specific focus on the timeline of occurrence of both features.

Methods: Retrospective nationwide multicenter study of patients diagnosed with both AAV and bronchiectasis.

Results: Sixty-one patients were included, among whom 27 (44.25%) had microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), 27 (44.25%) had granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and 7 (11.5%) had eosinophilic GPA. Thirty-nine (64%) had myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and 13 (21%) had proteinase 3-ANCA. The diagnosis of bronchiectasis either preceded (n = 25; median time between both diagnoses: 16 yrs, IQR 4-54 yrs), was concomitant to (n = 12), or followed (n = 24; median time between both diagnoses: 1, IQR 0-6 yrs) that of AAV. Patients in whom bronchiectasis precedes the onset of AAV (B-AAV group) have more frequent mononeuritis multiplex, MPA, MPO-ANCA, and a 5-fold increase of death. The occurrence of an AAV relapse tended to be protective against bronchiectasis worsening (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.99, = 0.049), while a diagnosis of bronchiectasis before AAV (HR 5.8, 95% CI 1.2-28.7, = 0.03) or MPA (HR 18.1, 95% CI 2.2-146.3, = 0.01) were associated with shorter survival during AAV follow-up.

Conclusion: The association of bronchiectasis with AAV is likely not accidental and is mostly associated with MPO-ANCA. Patients in whom bronchiectasis precedes the onset of AAV tend to have distinct clinical and biological features and could carry a worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.190313DOI Listing
October 2020

Predictive factors of severe infections in patients with systemic necrotizing vasculitides: data from 733 patients enrolled in five randomized controlled trials of the French Vasculitis Study Group.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2020 09;59(9):2250-2257

Department of Internal Medicine.

Objectives: Infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic necrotizing vasculitides (SNV). We aimed to identify factors predicting severe infections (SI) in SNV.

Methods: Data from five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling 733 patients were pooled. The primary end point was the occurrence of SI, defined by the need of a hospitalization and/or intravenous anti-infectious treatment and/or leading to death.

Results: After a median follow-up of 5.2 (interquartile range 3-9.7) years, 148 (20.2%) patients experienced 189 SI, and 98 (66.2%) presented their first SI within the first 2 years. Median interval from inclusion to SI was 14.9 (4.3-51.7) months. Age ≥65 years (hazard ratio (HR) 1.49 [1.07-2.07]; P=0.019), pulmonary involvement (HR 1.82 [1.26-2.62]; P=0.001) and Five Factor Score ≥1 (HR 1.21 [1.03-1.43]; P=0.019) were independent predictive factors of SI. Regarding induction therapy, the occurrence of SI was associated with the combination of GCs and CYC (HR 1.51 [1.03-2.22]; P = 0.036), while patients receiving only GCs were less likely to present SI (HR 0.69 [0.44-1.07]; P = 0.096). Finally, occurrence of SI had a significant negative impact on survival (P<0.001).

Conclusion: SI in SNV are frequent and impact mortality. Age, pulmonary involvement and Five Factor Score are baseline independent predictors of SI. No therapeutic regimen was significantly associated with SI but patients receiving glucocorticoids and CYC as induction tended to have more SI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kez575DOI Listing
September 2020

Inflammatory optic neuropathy in granulomatosis with polyangiitis can mimick isolated idiopathic optic neuritis.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan 19;31(1):245-251. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, CHU Hôtel-Dieu, Nantes, France.

Objective: We describe a clinico-radiological presentation of inflammatory optic neuropathy that mimicked optic neuritis.

Methods: Retrospective single-center case series and literature review of optic neuropathy without orbital pseudotumor.

Results: Five local patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Clinical presentation revealed rapidly progressive severe unilateral visual loss, retrobulbar pain (n = 4), and paralytic strabismus (simultaneous = 2, protracted = 2) without proptosis. Optic nerve abnormality was not appreciated on initial scan review. Patients did not have any general activity of the granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Upon follow-up magnetic resonance imaging and initial imaging review, all patients revealed orbital apex anomalies. Visual acuity improved in three patients who received high-dose intravenous glucocorticosteroids immediately. Relapse was frequent and visual outcome was poor (final vision > 20/40 in two patients only). Literature review identified 16 well-documented cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis-related isolated optic neuropathies. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed no abnormality (n = 6), optic nerve and/or sheath involvement (n = 9), apex infiltration (n = 3), and/or pachymeningitis (n = 7).

Conclusion: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare yet potentially blinding cause of inflammatory optic neuropathy. Optic neuropathy in granulomatosis with polyangiitis may occur in the absence of systemic symptoms of disease activity and is challenging to distinguish from other inflammatory and non-inflammatory disorders affecting visual acuity. Several clinical and imaging clues suggest that optic neuropathy results from the development of an extravascular granulomatous process within the optic nerve sheath in the orbital apex, a place that is difficult to image. In a granulomatosis with polyangiitis patient with unexplained visual loss and a seemingly normal workup (fundoscopy, biology, and imaging), clinician should keep a high index of suspicion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672119889008DOI Listing
January 2021

Immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in older patients: prognosis and long-term survival.

Blood 2019 12;134(24):2209-2217

Service d'Hématologie, AP-HP.6, Paris, France; and.

Older age is associated with increased mortality in immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP). Yet, data are scarce regarding iTTP occurring among older patients. To assess clinical features and long-term impact of iTTP on mortality in older patients (>60 years old), characteristics and prognoses of adult iTTP patients enrolled in the French Reference Center for Thrombotic Microangiopathies registry between 2000 and 2016 were described according to age (<60 years old or ≥60 years old). Long-term mortality of iTTP older survivors was compared with that of non-iTTP geriatric subjects. Comparing, respectively, older iTTP patients (N = 71) with younger patients (N = 340), time from hospital admission to diagnosis was longer (P < .0001); at diagnosis, delirium (P = .034), behavior impairment (P = .045), renal involvement (P < .0001), and elevated troponin level (P = .025) were more important whereas cytopenias were less profound (platelet count, 22 × 103/mm3 [9-57] vs 13 × 103/mm3 [9-21], respectively [P = .002]; hemoglobin level, 9 g/dL [8-11] vs 8 g/dL [7-10], respectively [P = .0007]). Short- and mid-term mortalities were higher (P < .0001) and increased for every 10 years of age range. Age ≥60 years, cardiac involvement, increased plasma creatinine level, and total plasma exchange volume were independently associated with 1-month mortality. Compared with a non-iTTP geriatric population, older survivors showed an increased long-term mortality (hazard ratio = 3.44; P < .001). In conclusion, older iTTP patients have atypical neurological presentation delaying the diagnosis. Age negatively impacts short-term but also long-term mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000748DOI Listing
December 2019

A 1-Year Prospective French Nationwide Study of Emergency Hospital Admissions in Children and Adults with Primary Immunodeficiency.

Authors:
Hélène Coignard-Biehler Nizar Mahlaoui Benoit Pilmis Vincent Barlogis Pauline Brosselin Nathalie De Vergnes Marianne Debré Marion Malphettes Pierre Frange Emilie Catherinot Isabelle Pellier Isabelle Durieu Antoinette Perlat Bruno Royer Alain Le Quellec Eric Jeziorski Alain Fischer Olivier Lortholary Laurent Aaron Daniel Adoue Claire Aguilar Nathalie Aladjidi Alexandre Alcais Zahir Amoura Philippe Arlet Corinne Armari-Alla Brigitte Bader-Meunier Sophie Bayart Yves Bertrand Boris Bienvenu Stéphane Blanche Damien Bodet Bernard Bonnotte Raphaël Borie Patrick Boutard Claire Briandet Jean-Paul Brion Jacques Brouard Sarah Cohen-Beaussant Laurence Costes Louis-Jean Couderc Pierre Cougoul Virginie Courteille Geneviève de Saint Basile Catherine Devoldere Anne Deville Jean Donadieu Eric Dore Fabienne Dulieu Christine Edan Natacha Entz-Werle Claire Fieschi Amandine Forestier Fanny Fouyssac Vincent Gajdos Lionel Galicier Virginie Gandemer Martine Gardembas Catherine Gaud Gaelle Guillerm Eric Hachulla Mohamed Hamidou Olivier Hermine Cyrille Hoarau Sébastien Humbert Arnaud Jaccard Serge Jacquot Jean-Philippe Jais Roland Jaussaud Pierre-Yves Jeandel Kamila Kebaili Anne-Sophie Korganow Olivier Lambotte Fanny Lanternier Claire Larroche Anne-Sophie Lascaux Emmanuelle Le Moigne Vincent Le Moing Yvon Lebranchu Marc Lecuit Guillaume Lefevre Richard Lemal Valérie Li Thiao Te Aude Marie-Cardine Nicolas Martin Silva Agathe Masseau Christian Massot Françoise Mazingue Etienne Merlin Gérard Michel Frédéric Millot Béatrice Monlibert Fabrice Monpoux Despina Moshous Luc Mouthon Martine Munzer Bénédicte Neven Raphaëlle Nove-Josserand Eric Oksenhendler Marie Ouachée-Chardin Caroline Oudot Anne Pagnier Jean-Louis Pasquali Marlène Pasquet Yves Perel Capucine Picard Christophe Piguet Dominique Plantaz Johan Provot Pierre Quartier Frédéric Rieux-Laucat Pascal Roblot Pierre-Marie Roger Pierre-Simon Rohrlich Hervé Rubie Valéry Salle Françoise Sarrot-Reynauld Amélie Servettaz Jean-Louis Stephan Nicolas Schleinitz Felipe Suarez Laure Swiader Sophie Taque Caroline Thomas Olivier Tournilhac Caroline Thumerelle François Tron Jean-Pierre Vannier Jean-François Viallard

J Clin Immunol 2019 10 10;39(7):702-712. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker Pasteur, Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Purpose: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles.

Methods: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included.

Results: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00658-9DOI Listing
October 2019

Clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of IgG4-related pachymeningitis: From a national case registry and literature review.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2019 12 15;49(3):430-437. Epub 2019 May 15.

Aix-Marseille Univ, APHM, Médecine Interne, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Pachymeningitis is rare, either idiopathic or secondary to inflammatory disorders, after tumoral, surgical or infectious causes have been excluded. The fibroinflammatory IgG4-related disease is one of the etiologies of pachymeningitis with only few cases reported yet. From a single referral regional center, we evaluated the frequency of IgG4-related disease as the cause of inflammatory pachymeningitis in 10% of cases. From a National case registry of IgG4-related disease the pachymeningitis frequency was 4.1%. We report eight new cases with cranial, spinal or both involvements and a literature review of 46 pathological proven cases. We observed that IgG4-related pachymeningitis is in most cases not associated to extra-neurological manifestations of the disease. Only 27% of spinal and 40% of cranial IgG4-related pachymeningitis are associated with other disease localizations. First line treatment strategies included surgery and steroids. The use of immunosuppressants or rituximab was necessary in 18% of spinal and 54% of cranial localizations. Some patients remained with sequellae and clinical and/or radiological improvement can be difficult to obtain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2019.05.003DOI Listing
December 2019

Neuroinflammatory disorders and mastocytosis: A possible association?

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Nov - Dec;7(8):2878-2881.e1. Epub 2019 May 8.

Centre de référence des mastocytoses (CEREMAST), Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne, Paris Cité, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Imagine Foundation, Paris, France; INSERM U1163 and CNRS ERL 8254, Laboratory of Physiopathology and Treatment of Hematological Disorders, Paris, France; Adults Haematology Unit, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne, Paris Cité, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Imagine Foundation, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.04.033DOI Listing
October 2020

The factor VIII:C/VWF:Ag ratio as a useful tool to predict relapse in patients with acquired haemophilia A: A retrospective cohort study.

Haemophilia 2019 May 2;25(3):527-534. Epub 2019 May 2.

Laboratoire d'Hématologie, CHU de Toulouse, France.

Introduction: Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune bleeding disorder caused by the presence of autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). The mortality rate remains high. International recommendations define complete remission as undetectable inhibitor (<0.6 Bethesda Units [BU]) and normal FVIII activity (FVIII:C) that persists after immunosuppressive therapy stopped. For patients achieving remission, the risk of relapse reaches 20%. The risk factors for this relapse are not well known.

Aim: In this study, we examined the accuracy of the FVIII/W ratio (FVIII:C/von Willebrand Factor Antigen (VWF:Ag) ratio) to predict relapse in 64 consecutive patients with AHA.

Results: In this cohort, all patients had a very low FVIII/W ratio at the time of diagnosis, and this value progressively increased in the first weeks of immunosuppressive treatment. In our study, 9/55 (14%) did not achieve complete remission. Twenty-seven patients were followed long enough (more than a year) to show that in the 22 patients who did not relapse, the FVIII/W ratio remained durably normalized. By contrast, in the five patients who relapsed during follow-up, we noted either no normalization of the FVIII/W ratio, or a secondary decrease to an abnormal value of <0.7 after initial normalization. In all patients who relapsed, the ratio was the first abnormal biological result to be observed, always preceding changes in the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), FVIII:C and anti-FVIII reappearance.

Conclusion: These data suggest that the FVIII/W ratio could be considered a sensitive biological marker to predict recovery and/or relapse in AHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13752DOI Listing
May 2019

Neurological Involvement in Childhood Evans Syndrome.

J Clin Immunol 2019 02 22;39(2):171-181. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Centre de Référence National des Cytopénies Autoimmunes de l'Enfant (CEREVANCE), University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients.

Methods: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed.

Results: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2).

Conclusion: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-0594-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Dampening of CD8+ T Cell Response by B Cell Depletion Therapy in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 04 8;71(4):641-650. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

INSERM UMR1064, Université de Nantes and CHU Nantes, Nantes, France.

Objective: To compare the effects of rituximab (RTX) and conventional immunosuppressants (CIs) on CD4+ T cells, Treg cells, and CD8+ T cells in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: A thorough immunophenotype analysis of CD4+, Treg, and CD8+ cells from 51 patients with AAV was performed. The production of cytokines and chemokines by CD8+ T cells stimulated in vitro was assessed using a multiplex immunoassay. The impact of AAV B cells on CD8+ T cell response was assessed using autologous and heterologous cocultures.

Results: CD4+ and Treg cell subsets were comparable among RTX-treated and CI-treated patients. In contrast, within the CD8+ T cell compartment, RTX, but not CIS, reduced CD45RA+CCR7- (TEMRA) cell frequency (from a median of 39% before RTX treatment to 10% after RTX treatment [P < 0.01]) and efficiently dampened cytokine/chemokine production (e.g., the median macrophage inflammatory protein 1α level was 815 pg/ml in patients treated with RTX versus 985 pg/ml in patients treated with CIs versus 970 pg/ml in those with active untreated AAV [P < 0.01]). CD8+ T cell subsets cocultured with autologous B cells produced more proinflammatory cytokines in AAV patients than in controls (e.g., for tumor necrosis factor-producing effector memory CD8+ T cells: 14% in AAV patients versus 9.2% in controls [P < 0.05]). In vitro disruption of AAV B cell-CD8+ T cell cross-talk reduced CD8+ T cell cytokine production, mirroring the reduced CD8+ response observed ex vivo after RTX treatment.

Conclusion: The disruption of a pathogenic B cell/CD8+ T cell axis may contribute to the efficacy of RTX in AAV. Further studies are needed to determine the value of CD8+ T cell immunomonitoring in B cell-targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40766DOI Listing
April 2019