Publications by authors named "Mohamed Faisal"

90 Publications

Comparing fixed and auto adjusting continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) amongst symptomatic Obstructive Sleep Apnoea patients - A randomised controlled trial.

Med J Malaysia 2021 Sep;76(5):611-616

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Department of Medicine, Respiratory Unit, Malaysia.

Introduction: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is required for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Thisstudy compares the efficacy between Fixed Pressure CPAP (Fixed CPAP) and Auto-adjusting Pressure (APAP) based on Apnoea Hypopnoea Index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) among patients with symptomatic OSA and to ascertain their CPAP preference.

Methods: This is a prospective, randomised, crossover, single-blinded study conducted from February 2018 to February 2019 among adult subjects attending respiratory clinic Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC).

Results: Forty-six subjects were recruited with 27 males (58.7%). The mean age was 54 (+11) year old. The baseline median Body Mass Index (BMI) was 34.2 kg/m (Interquartile Range IQR: 30.8 kg/m -41.7 kg/m2); baseline median AHI 28.8 /hour (IQR 21.2/hour-54.0/hour); andbaseline median ESS 15 (IQR 13-16). After intervention, the median AHI was 5.0 / hour (IQR 4.2/hour-6.0/hour) at fixed CPAP arm; APAP arm was 5.5/ hour (IQR 4.2/hour-6.3/hour); p<0.01. The median ESS at fixed CPAP arm was 2 (IQR 0-3); APAP arm was 2 (IQR 1-3); p < 0.01. Those who preferred APAP were 22 subjects (47.8%) and had median optimal CPAP pressure 13.0 cmH2O (IQR 12.0 cmH2O -13.5 cmH2O); 24 subjects (52.2%) who preferred Fixed CPAP had median optimal CPAP pressure 8.0 cmH2O (IQR 6.3 cmH2O -8.7 cmH2O); p<0.01. Median baseline BMI was 37.6 kg/m (IQR 30.8 kg/m -43.0 kg/m) for those who preferred APAP and 32.3 kg/m (IQR 30.8 kg/m - 38.4 kg/m) for subjects preferred Fixed CPAP; p=0.03.

Discussion: Fixed CPAP maybe considered as first line therapy for symptomatic moderate and severe OSA with titrated optimal CPAP pressure less than 8 cmH2O and BMI less than 32.3 kg/m; based on subjects' preference. Baseline AHI and average daily CPAP usage was not statisticallysignificant in affecting patient preference between fixed and auto adjusting CPAP. This is the first study of its kind conducted in Malaysia.
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September 2021

Effect of Cu doping on the photocatalytic activity of InVO for hazardous dye photodegradation under LED light and its mechanism.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Aug;84(3):576-595

Surfactant Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Cu doped InVO (xCu-InVO (x = 0.06-0.15 wt %) was synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method for the removal of methylene blue (MB) under LED light irradiation. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated the coexistence of V and V species due to the O-deficient nature of the xCu-InVO. The synthesized photocatalysts displayed a morphology of spherical and square shaped particles (20-40 nm) and micro-sized rectangle rods with a length range of 100-200 μm. The xCu-InVO exhibited superior adsorption and photodegradation efficiency compared to pristine InVO and TiO due to the presence of O vacancies, V/V species, and Cu dopant. The optimum reaction conditions were found to be 5 mg L (MB concentration), pH 6, and 100 mg of photocatalyst mass with a removal efficiency and mineralization degree of 100% and 96.67%, respectively. The main active species responsible for the degradation of MB were OH radicals and h. Reusability studies indicated that the 0.13Cu-InVO was deactivated after a single cycle of photocatalytic reaction due to significant leaching of V and Cu species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.244DOI Listing
August 2021

In Vivo Experiments Provide Evidence That Flavobacterium psychrophilum Strains Belonging to Multilocus Sequence Typing Clonal Complex ST191 Are Virulent to Rainbow Trout.

J Aquat Anim Health 2021 Sep 30;33(3):190-195. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA.

Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), causes significant economic losses worldwide, particularly in farmed Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Over the last decade, multilocus sequence typing has revealed >30 clonal complexes (CCs) globally, comprised of >320 F. psychrophilum sequence types (STs). Despite the large number of CCs worldwide, CC-ST10, which is currently the largest CC affecting Rainbow Trout, has been the primary focus of F. psychrophilum virulence studies, leaving the role of other CCs as primary causes of BCWD epizootics unclear. To this end, fingerling Rainbow Trout were experimentally challenged with F. psychrophilum strains belonging to the CC now recognized as the second largest in the world (CC-ST191) alongside CC-ST10 strains. Cumulative percent mortality was 100% in 7-month-old Rainbow Trout and between 27.8% and 61.1% in 8-month-old Rainbow Trout. All examined F. psychrophilum STs were virulent to Rainbow Trout, and no significant differences in virulence between CC-ST10 and CC-ST191 were detected. Due to their wide distribution and high pathogenic potential, both CC-ST191 and CC-ST10 F. psychrophilum strains are excellent candidates for further research aimed at preventing and controlling BCWD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aah.10140DOI Listing
September 2021

Experimental Evidence of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (Salmoid Herpesvirus-3, ) Transmission via Contaminated Fomites and Subsequent Prevention Using a Disinfectant.

Pathogens 2021 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Comparative Medicine and Integrative Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 1129 Farm Lane, Room 340G, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV) has caused considerable mortality in hatchery-reared lake trout in the Great Lakes Basin, and yet the routes of transmission and efficacious means of prevention remain poorly understood. To determine whether EEDV can be transmitted via contaminated fomites and clarify whether such transmission could be prevented via fomite disinfection, juvenile lake trout (n = 20 per treatment) were handled in nets previously soaked in an EEDV suspension (7.29 × 10-2.25 × 10 virus copies/mL of water) that were further immersed in either 1% Virkon Aquatic ("disinfected" treatment, in triplicate) or in sample diluent ("EEDV-contaminated" treatment). Negative control nets were soaked in sterile sample diluent only. Characteristic gross signs of EED developed in the "EEDV-contaminated" treatment group, which was followed by 80% mortality, whereas no gross signs of disease and 0-5% mortality occurred in the negative control and "disinfected" treatment groups, respectively. EEDV was detected via qPCR in 90% of the "EEDV-contaminated" treatment fish, however, it was not detected in any fish within the negative control or "disinfected" treatment groups. Study findings not only demonstrate that EEDV can be readily transmitted via contaminated fomites, but importantly suggest that Virkon Aquatic is an efficacious option for preventing EEDV contagion via the disinfection of hatchery tools, thereby highlighting a promising tool for improving lake trout hatchery biosecurity and minimizing EEDV-linked losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227329PMC
June 2021

Facial Skin Biophysical Profile of Women in Malaysia: Significance of Facial Skincare Product Use.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Apr 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Discipline of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Introduction: At present, there is a lack of baseline data on the facial skin biophysical profile of women in Malaysia. The implications related to the daily habits and facial skincare product use on the skin biophysical condition are, thus, unknown. In this study, we aim to evaluate facial skin biophysical parameters of Malaysian women and examine the influence of demographic characteristics, daily habits, and facial skincare product use on these parameters.

Methods: Four skin biophysical parameters - transepidermal water loss (TEWL), melanin content, elasticity, and collagen intensity - were assessed on the cheek of the subjects (20-60 years). Demographic background, daily habits, and skincare product use were gauged through a survey. Only 197 from the 213 subjects recruited initially were used for analysis after the data were screened for normality.

Results: The biophysical parameters were similar in different races, except a higher melanin content in Indian female individuals. Elasticity and collagen intensity reduced with age, while melanin content increased in the older age-groups. But no difference was observed in TEWL at different ages. Evaluating the influence of daily habits, we observed that exercise significantly lowered TEWL and increased melanin content, which may be associated with UV radiation exposure. Facial skincare products are popular among the female subjects (>85% users). Products with moisturizing, sunscreening, and other skincare functions (astringent, antiaging, and anti-wrinkle) were preferred by subjects of all ages. These product functions significantly improve skin elasticity and reduce melanin content in the young adults. While aged women recognized the importance of having an additional skin-lightening function in their skincare routine. Although the influence of individual skincare function on skin biophysical parameters was mostly positive, the alteration of these parameters varied at different ages.

Conclusion: This is the first report of facial skin biophysical profile of Malaysian women. There is no difference among 3 major races saved for melanin content. This work demonstrated age-dependent influences on the biophysical parameters, except TEWL. The significance of skincare product use is well reflected in the improvement of these parameters at different age-groups based on individual skincare functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514995DOI Listing
April 2021

Henneguya michiganensis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from the gills of muskellunge Esox masquinongy Mitchill(Esociformes: Esocidae).

Syst Parasitol 2021 04 9;98(2):119-130. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS, 38776, USA.

Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 is the second most species rich genus of myxozoans, with reports from freshwater and marine fish worldwide. In the Great Lakes region of North America, muskellunge Esox masquinongy is an important game fish species that serves as an apex predator in the ecosystems of many inland lakes. The myxozoan fauna of esocid fish, especially muskellunge, remains largely understudied. During fish health assessments, muskellunge were examined for parasitic infections and myxozoan pseudocysts were observed on gill clip wet mounts. When ruptured under pressure, the intralamellar pseudocysts released thousands of myxospores consistent with those of the genus Henneguya. The myxospores were 67.3-96.6 (79.1 ± 5.9) µm in total length. The spore body was 18.6-22.6 (20.9 ± 1.0) µm × 5.4-6.9 (6.3 ± 0.4) µm in valvular view and 3.5-4.0 (3.8 ± 0.3) µm wide in sutural view. The two pyriform polar capsules positioned at the anterior of the spore body were 6.4-7.7 (7.0 ± 0.4) µm × 1.8-2.1 (2.0 ± 0.1) µm and each contained a tightly coiled polar filament with 9-10 turns. Two tapering caudal processes extended from the posterior of the spore body and were 47.3-75.6 (58.3 ± 5.8) µm in length. Histologically, large intralamellar polysporic plasmodia were surrounded by plump pillar cells and a distinct layer of plasma. Mild inflammation was present peripherally, with small numbers of necrotic germinative cells and intraplasmodial phagocytes internally. Ribosomal 18S rRNA gene sequence data were obtained from three gill pseudocysts. The three ~2000-bp sequences were identical, but shared no significant similarity with any publicly available sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated sequence data from this Henneguya fell within a well-supported clade of Henneguya spp. reported from northern pike Esox lucius in Europe. Based on the distinct morphological, histological and molecular data, this species is designated as Henneguya michiganensis n. sp. from muskellunge in Michigan, USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-021-09965-5DOI Listing
April 2021

HIGH PREVALENCE OF CIRCULATING ANTIBODIES TO RENIBACTERIUM SALMONINARUM IN SPAWNING ONCORHYNCHUS SPP. FROM LAKE MICHIGAN, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2021 01;57(1):19-26

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, 1129 Farm Lane, Room 342, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Bacterial kidney disease, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, threatens salmonids worldwide. Following devastating mortality episodes in Oncorhynchus spp. in Lake Michigan, US, in the 1980s and infection rates >90%, pathogen prevalence has steadily declined to <5% over three decades in the three state-managed stocks. In this study, we sought to determine if the declining infection rates were associated with heightened circulating antibodies in state-managed Oncorhynchus spp. residing in the Lake Michigan watershed. A single-dilution, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified to detect circulating antibodies against R. salmoninarum. Baseline values were delineated from naive chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The assay was first used to assess primary antibody production over a 4-wk period in chinook salmon experimentally infected with R. salmoninarum. Mean antibody response was detected as early as 2 wk postinfection and continued to increase to the end of the observation period. The modified ELISA was then used to detect antibodies in serum samples collected from feral adult chinook salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) returning to spawn at Lake Michigan weirs in 2009 and 2013. Results demonstrated that about 80% of feral Oncorhynchus spp. had measurable titers of circulating antibodies to R. salmoninarum. The relative ease and reasonable costs of this modified ELISA makes it a valuable serosurveillance tool for assessing the humoral immune status of feral salmonid populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2019-04-098DOI Listing
January 2021

Successful treatment of a complex malignant pleural effusion with 1 mg alteplase instilled through a non-draining indwelling pleural catheter.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 19;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Respiratory Unit, Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) is the treatment of choice in managing symptomatic recurrent malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Loculated effusions following insertion may occur due to infection, catheter malfunction or the inflammatory nature of MPE. Loculations may lead to ineffective drainage and make the IPC non-functional. We report a 56-year-old man with symptomatic loculated malignant pleural effusion with an IPC, successfully drained with a single dose of 1 mg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator alteplase. This is the lowest dose currently applied in our centre for efficient drainage and improvement of dyspnoea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-236116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898836PMC
February 2021

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and organising pneumonia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 6;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Respiratory Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Organising pneumonia (OP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be part of pulmonary manifestation (disease related) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) related. We report a case series of RA patients with DMARDs related OP. A 65-year-old woman developed OP 3 weeks after initiation of methotrexate (MTX). High-resolution CT (HRCT) scan of the thorax revealed bilateral consolidations in the lung bases. She had complete radiological resolution 6 months after corticosteroid therapy with cessation of MTX. The second case was of a 60-year-old woman on MTX with recent addition of leflunomide due to flare of RA. She developed worsening cough 4 months later and HRCT scan revealed consolidation in the left upper lobe with biopsy proven OP. She responded within 6 months of corticosteroid therapy with clinical and radiological resolution. This case series highlights that OP may developed with low-dose MTX (as early as 3 weeks) and leflunomide and the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-238173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789045PMC
January 2021

Silicone Y-stent insertion under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a patient with tracheal tear.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Dec 22;13(12). Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Pulmonology, Hospital Serdang, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Tracheal tear after endotracheal intubation is extremely rare. The role of silicone Y-stent in the management of tracheal injury has been documented in the previous studies. However, none of the studies have mentioned the deployment of silicone Y-stent via rigid bronchoscope with the patient solely supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) without general anaesthesia delivered via the side port of the rigid bronchoscope. We report a patient who had a tracheal tear due to endotracheal tube migration following a routine video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery sympathectomy, which was successfully managed with silicone Y-stent insertion. Procedure was done while she was undergoing ECMO; hence, no ventilator connection to the side port of the rigid scope was required. This was our first experience in performing Y-stent insertion fully under ECMO, and the patient had a successful recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-236414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757493PMC
December 2020

Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G Polymorphism and Susceptibility to SLE in Egyptian Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Study.

J Inflamm Res 2020 14;13:1103-1111. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt.

Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key molecule residing at the nexus between thrombosis and inflammatory processes. Recently, PAI-1 and its gene expression have emerged as a potential candidate for autoimmune disorders such as SLE.

Objective: To investigate whether the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism at position -675 could be a genetic marker for susceptibility to childhood-onset SLE and development of lupus nephritis among Egyptian children and adolescents.

Methods: Three hundred fifty patients diagnosed with childhood-onset SLE and 350 well-matched healthy controls were included in this multi-center study. All subjects were genotyped for the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism at position -675 using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Serum PAI-1 levels were measured by ELISA.

Results: The PAI-1 (- 675) 4G/4G genotype was more represented in c-SLE patients, as compared to the control group (38% vs 23%; OR =2.7; [95% CI: 1.47-2.9]; < 0.001). Patients carrying the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype or 4G allele were more likely to develop lupus nephritis (OR: 3.38; [95% CI: 1.9-5.9]; <0.001, for the 4G/4G genotype and OR: 2.6; [95% CI: 1.85-3.67]; for the 4G allele; < 0.01). The PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was associated with higher PAI-1 serum concentrations (mean; 86.6±22.7 ng/mL) as compared to those with a 4G/5G genotype (mean; 48.3±16.5 ng/mL) and the lowest for the 5G/5G genotype (mean; 34.7±11.4 ng/mL); = 0.004.

Conclusion: The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may confer susceptibility to childhood-onset SLE and development of lupus nephritis among Egyptian children and adolescents. Moreover, the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype and 4G allele were associated with higher PAI-1 serum levels and higher disease activity scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S277373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754263PMC
December 2020

An Investigation of Fibulin-2 in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 29;21(19). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Aswan Heart Center, Aswan 200, Egypt.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited heart muscle disease, with a prevalence of at least 1 in 500 in the general population. The disease is pleiotropic and is characterized by an increased stiffness of the myocardium, partly due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM), with elevated levels of interstitial fibrosis. Myocardial fibrosis is linked to impaired diastolic function and possibly phenotypic heterogeneity of HCM. The ECM consists of a very large number of proteins, which actively interact with each other as well as with myocardial cells. The role of other multiple components of the ECM in HCM has not been defined. Fibulin-2 is a glycoprotein component of the ECM, which plays an important role during embryogenesis of the heart; however, its role in adult myocardium has not been adequately studied. We here describe, for the first time, abnormal expression of fibulin-2 in the myocardium in patients with HCM as compared to normal controls. This abnormal expression was localized in the cytoplasm of myocardial cells and in the interstitial fibroblasts. In addition, fibulin-2 levels, measured by ELISA, were significantly elevated in the serum of patients with HCM as compared to normal controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583916PMC
September 2020

Cryodebulking of endobronchial hamartoma via fibreoptic bronchoscopy and literature review.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Aug 25;13(8). Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Respiratory Unit, Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Endobronchial hamartoma is a rare tumour. We report a 65-year-old woman with a history of recurrent pneumonia. Bronchoscopy revealed a 1 cm endobronchial mass obstructing the left upper lobe bronchus. Histopathological examination was consistent with a pulmonary hamartoma. This lesion was successfully debulked endoscopically with the use of a flexible cryoprobe without any complications. This case highlights both the importance of investigating recurrent pneumonia and the usefulness of endoscopic recanalisation in an obstructed segmental bronchus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-235316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449274PMC
August 2020

Re-establishing indwelling pleural catheter patency with alteplase after failure of streptokinase.

Respirol Case Rep 2020 Oct 6;8(7):e00639. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Respiratory Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

Indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) has revolutionized the management of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). IPC is relatively safe, although complications can occur. We report a 53-year-old woman with stage IVA lung adenocarcinoma and recurrent MPE. Two months post insertion, the IPC was blocked with residual effusion and presence of new loculations. Attempts to restore patency with six doses of intrapleural (IP) streptokinase failed. She was referred to our centre for further management. We used a single dose of 2.5 mg IP alteplase which was successful in establishing patency of the IPC and draining the effusion. This case highlights the safety and efficacy of IP alteplase via IPC following a failed instillation of streptokinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcr2.639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406907PMC
October 2020

Disease Progression in Lake Trout () Experimentally Infected With Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (Salmonid Herpesvirus-3).

Vet Pathol 2020 09 3;57(5):687-699. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine,3078Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (salmonid herpesvirus-3; EEDV) is responsible for the death of millions of hatchery-raised lake trout () in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin. However, little is known about its biology, pathology, tropism, and host interactions. In this study, the presence and disease progression of EEDV were evaluated following exposure of naïve juvenile lake trout to EEDV via bath immersion under controlled laboratory conditions ( = 84 infected; = 44 control). Individual tissues ( = 10 per fish), collected over 6 weeks, were analyzed for viral load by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, gross and histopathologic changes, and virus cellular targets using in situ hybridization. Skin, fin, and ocular tissues were the earliest viral targets and yielded the highest viral loads throughout the course of infection. Early gross lesions included exophthalmia, ocular hemorrhage, fin congestion, and hyperemia of visceral blood vessels. Advanced disease was characterized by multifocal to coalescing erosions and ulcerations of the skin, and congestion of visceral organs. Microscopically, there was cellular degeneration and necrosis in the epidermis and spleen, and lymphohistiocytic perivasculitis of the dermis, omentum, and the epicardium. EEDV DNA was first detected by in situ hybridization in epithelial cells of the epidermis, with subsequent labeling in the epithelial lining of primary and secondary gill lamellae. During advanced disease, EEDV was detected in endothelial and dendritic cells as well as blood monocytes. This study characterized EEDV tissue tropism and associated pathologic features, to guide research aimed at understanding EEDV disease ecology and improving strategies for disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985820941268DOI Listing
September 2020

Cross-protection of a live-attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum immersion vaccine against novel Flavobacterium spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. strains.

J Fish Dis 2020 Aug 18;43(8):915-928. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.

For salmonid producers, a common threat is Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Recent advancements in bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) management include the development of a live-attenuated immersion vaccine that cross-protects against an array of F. psychrophilum strains. Emerging family Flavobacteriaceae cases associated with clinical disease have been increasing, including pathogenic isolates of Flavobacterium spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. The cross-protective ability of a live-attenuated F. psychrophilum vaccine was determined against three virulent Flavobacteriaceae isolates. Juvenile rainbow trout were vaccinated, developed high F. psychrophilum-specific antibody titres and were challenged with Chryseobacterium spp. isolates (S25 and T28), a Flavobacterium sp. (S21) isolate, a mixed combination of S21:S25:T28, and a standard virulent F. psychrophilum CSF259-93 strain. Results demonstrated strong protection in the CSF259-93 vaccinated group (relative per cent survival (RPS)=94.44%) when compared to the relevant CSF259-93 controls (p < .001). Protection was also observed for vaccinated fish challenged with the S21:S25:T28 mix (RPS = 85.18%; p < .001). However, protection was not observed with the S21, S25 or T28 isolates alone. Analysis of whole-cell lysates revealed differences in protein banding by SDS-PAGE, but conserved antigenic regions by Western blot in S25 and T28. Results demonstrate that this live-attenuated vaccine provided protection against mixed flavobacterial infection and suggest further benefits against flavobacteriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13201DOI Listing
August 2020

Unfortunate distinction or corporate protectionism by design?

Lancet 2020 05;395(10235):1486

School of Health Policy and Management, York University, Toronto M38 1P3, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30160-4DOI Listing
May 2020

Association of interleukin-17A gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Egyptian children and adolescents: a multi-centre study.

Lupus 2020 Jun 7;29(7):767-775. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, October 6 University, Egypt.

Background: Recently, the interleukin-17A () gene has emerged as a potential candidate gene for autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether IL-17A polymorphisms at rs2275913 G/A, rs8193036 C/T and rs3748067 C/T could be susceptibility markers for juvenile-onset SLE (JSLE) and lupus nephritis (LN) in Egyptian children and adolescents.

Methods: In this multi-centre study, we genotyped 320 patients diagnosed with JSLE and 320 matched control children for three IL-17A polymorphisms at rs2275913 G/A, rs8193036 C/T and rs3748067 C/T using TaqMan probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. Meanwhile, IL-17A serum levels were assessed using ELISA.

Results: The IL-17 rs2275913 A/A genotype and A allele were more represented in JSLE patients compared to the control group (21% vs. 7%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78-5.5,  = 0.001, Bonf = 0.003 for the A/A genotype; 37% vs. 29%, OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.11-1.8,  = 0.003, Bonf = 0.009 for the A allele. No significant difference was found for IL-17 rs8193036 and rs3748067 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genotype distribution or allele frequencies (>0.05). Patients carrying the IL-17 rs2275913 A/A genotype and A allele were more likely to develop LN (OR = 5.64, 95% CI 2.39-13.77, Bonf = 0.001 for the A/A genotype; OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.84-4.07, Bonf = 0.02 for the A allele).

Conclusion: The IL-17 rs2275913 A allele and A/A genotype were associated with high IL-17 serum levels and may contribute to susceptibility to JSLE and the development of LN in Egyptian children and adolescents. However, no significant association was evident between the studied IL-17A SNPs and other clinical phenotypes, disease activity scores or laboratory profile of JSLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203320922305DOI Listing
June 2020

Effects of Hatchery Rearing Density, Handling, and Nutrition on Renibacterium salmoninarum Infection Prevalence in Juvenile Chinook Salmon.

J Aquat Anim Health 2020 09 26;32(3):116-126. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA.

Bacterial kidney disease, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS), is a chronic and often fatal disease of salmonid species, and can be particularly harmful to hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. A considerable amount of research has focused on the prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission; however, a comparatively little amount has investigated factors that increase the prevalence of RS infection in captive environments. We evaluated the effects of three common hatchery conditions (handling, nutrition level, and rearing density) on RS infection prevalence. Fish were sampled at 30-d and 60-d postexposure to RS. Of 577 juveniles examined, 65 (11.27%) had anterior kidneys infected with RS. Using a logistic mixed model analysis, we found effects of nutrition level (P = 0.018), handling (P = 0.010), and sampling period (P = 0.003) on the prevalence of RS. The interactions of nutrition and handling (P = 0.008) and nutrition and time (P < 0.001) were also significant. When fed a standard-nutrition diet, proportionately fewer fish were infected with RS when not handled (7.16% versus 0.04%; P = 0.003). Fish in the standard-nutrition group also had a lower prevalence of RS during the second sampling period (4.08% versus 0.08%, respectively; P < 0.001). When not handled, rearing with standard nutrition (11.50% versus 0.04%; P = 0.004) resulted in a reduction in prevalence of RS infection. Additionally, nonhandled fish had a much lower prevalence of RS infection during the second sampling period (2.66% versus 0.21%; P = 0.009). While density did not affect the prevalence of RS infection (P = 0.145), fish reared at a higher density had lower RS infection when not handled (16.48% versus 0.84%, P = 0.004). For fish at a higher density, the RS prevalence was lower during the second sampling period (10.57% versus 1.40%; P = 0.002). Our results suggest that hatchery managers can reduce RS infection prevalence by maintaining an adequate nutritional regime as recommended by the manufacturer. Additionally, the prevalence of RS may be reduced if managers decrease handling of hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon if exposed to RS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aah.10103DOI Listing
September 2020

Health Inequities and the Shifting Paradigms of Food Security, Food Insecurity, and Food Sovereignty.

Int J Health Serv 2020 07 22;50(3):299-313. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Global hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition are on the rise, partly resulting in furthering health inequities between classes and groups of peoples among and within countries. A systematic understanding of the links between inequities in food politics and health issues is a challenge, and it is partly complicated by the presence of 3 contending and shifting paradigms in food politics, namely, food security, food insecurity, and food sovereignty. These paradigms suggest competing views as to the causes of and solutions to hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition. We argue that food sovereignty offers a better alternative for understanding and responding to food issues in relation to the challenge of tackling health inequities. However, the ways in which and the degree to which the issues of health inequities are incorporated in the current narratives and practices of food sovereignty is rather thin, and vice versa. Our concluding argument is that an interactive dialogue in research and social actions between food sovereignty, on the one hand, and health inequity, on the other hand, can mutually enrich and strengthen both fields of research and spheres of social actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020731420913184DOI Listing
July 2020

Ficolin-1 gene (FCN1) -144 C/A polymorphism is associated with adverse outcome of severe pneumonia in the under-five Egyptian children: A multicenter study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 05 6;55(5):1175-1183. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Pneumonia is the foremost cause of child death worldwide. M-ficolin is encoded by the FCN1 gene and represents a novel link between innate and adaptive immunity.

Objectives: To investigate the FCN1 -144 C/A (rs10117466) polymorphism as a potential marker for pneumonia severity and adverse outcome namely complications or mortality in the under-five Egyptian children.

Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study that included 620 children hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe pneumonia and 620 matched healthy control children. Polymorphism rs10117466 of the FCN1 gene promoter was analyzed by PCR-SSP, while serum M-ficolin levels were assessed by ELISA.

Results: The FCN1 A/A genotype and A allele at the -144 position were more frequently observed in patients compared to the control children (43.4% vs 27.6%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.62; [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.18-2.2]; for the A/A genotype) and (60.8% vs 52.5%; OR: 1.4; [95% CI: 1.19-1.65]; for the A allele); P < .01. The FCN1 -144 A/A homozygous patients had significantly higher serum M-ficolin concentrations (mean: 1844 ± 396 ng/mL) compared with those carrying the C/C or C/A genotype (mean: 857 ± 278 and 1073 ± 323 ng/mL, respectively; P = .002). FCN1 -144 A/A genotype was an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in children with severe pneumonia (adjusted OR = 4.85, [95% CI: 2.96-10.25]; P = .01).

Conclusion: The FCN1 A/A genotype at the -144 position was associated with high M-ficolin serum levels and possibly contributes to enhanced inflammatory response resulting in the adverse outcome of pneumonia in the under-five Egyptian children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24719DOI Listing
May 2020

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Intellectual Property Rights Within NAFTA 1.0: Implications for NAFTA 2.0 and for Democratic (Health) Governance in Canada.

Int J Health Serv 2020 07 4;50(3):278-291. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

York University Faculty of Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

In 1993, the Canadian federal government ratified the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Prior to ratification, compulsory licensing was eliminated from Canada's Patent Act and intellectual property rights (IPRs) were strengthened. Compulsory licensing allows competitors to produce drugs under patent without the consent of the patent holder, challenging drug monopolies and lowering prices, whereas IPRs lengthen patent protections, shielding patent holders from competition and increasing prices. We perform a critical discourse analysis of key provisions in Chapter 17 of NAFTA in light of industry claims that pharmaceutical innovation requires important investments in research and development, justifying high drug prices. We note that since NAFTA, spending in research and development in Canada has decreased and drug prices have increased, becoming a major barrier to equitable access to critically necessary medications. We argue that by modifying the law, the federal government has wronged the Canadian people by discursively appropriating the language of protecting the public good while in practice legitimizing and consolidating private drug development and production, legalizing exorbitant profits, and excluding well-tested publicly financed alternatives. While NAFTA has now been superseded by the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement, our analysis offers important lessons moving forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020731420902600DOI Listing
July 2020

Multiple asymptomatic vascular air embolisms following contrast-enhanced CT scan.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Aug 28;12(8). Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Respiratory Unit, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Malaysia.

Vascular air embolism (VAE) is a known complication of contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scan occurring in venous or arterial circulation with a wide spectrum of presentations. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with endometrial adenocarcinoma stage IVB complicated with liver abscess and pulmonary embolism who developed VAE following a routine CECT scan after the sixth cycle of chemotherapy. This was an incidental finding and the patient remained asymptomatic throughout. As such, she was treated conservatively and gradually recovered. This case report serves as a reminder that VAE should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained symptoms following this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-229169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721200PMC
August 2019

Shedding of the Salmonid Herpesvirus-3 by Infected Lake Trout ().

Viruses 2019 06 26;11(7). Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Salmonid Herpesvirus-3, commonly known as the Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease virus (EEDV), causes a disease of lake trout () that has killed millions of fish over the past several decades. Currently, most aspects of EEDV disease ecology remain unknown. In this study, we investigated EEDV shedding in experimentally challenged (intracoelomic injection) lake trout that were individually microchipped. In order to assess viral shedding, each infected fish was placed in individual static, aerated aquaria for a period of 8 h, after which the water was assessed for the presence of EEDV DNA using quantitative PCR. Water sampling was conducted every seven days for 93 days post-infection (pi), followed by additional sampling after one year. Results demonstrated that lake trout began shedding EEDV into the water as early as 9 days pi. Shedding peaked approximately three weeks pi and ceased after nine weeks pi. In contrast, mortalities did not occur until 40 days pi. Although mortality reached 73.9%, surviving fish ceased shedding and continued to grow. However, additional shedding was detected 58 weeks after infection in 66% of surviving fish. Findings of this study demonstrate that EEDV is shed into the water by infected lake trout hosts for extended periods of time, a mechanism that favors virus dissemination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11070580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669692PMC
June 2019

Production of a monoclonal antibody against of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) IgM heavy chain and its use in development of an indirect ELISA for titrating circulating antibodies against VHSV-IVB.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 May 8;88:464-471. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Aquatic Health Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA.

This study reports the development of a monoclonal antibody (designated 3B10) against the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) IgM. The 3B10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) belongs to the IgG3 kappa isotype. Western blotting demonstrated that 3B10 mAb reacted primarily to muskellunge IgM heavy chain. 3B10 also reacted strongly with the IgM heavy chain of other esocids, including the northern pike (Esox lucius), tiger muskellunge (E. masquinongy x E. lucius), and, to a much lesser extent, the chain pickerel (E. niger). The 3B10 mAb did not bind to IgM from 10 other fish species resident in the Great Lakes basin. Using the 3B10 mAb, it was possible to determine the muskellunge Ig ability to bind to antigens. Using trinitrophenyl hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH) as the eliciting antigen, muskellunge Ig subclasses exhibited a range of affinities with log aK values 5.56-6.25 that is considered intermediate compared to other fish species. 3B10 mAb was used to develop and evaluate an indirect ELISA for the detection and quantitation of circulating antibodies against the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb). Using the newly optimized assay, anti-VHSV-IVb antibodies were detected in sera of VHSV-IVb vaccinated muskellunge as well as from those of wild muskellunge sampled from an endemic waterbody. In addition to its use in immunoassays, the developed 3B10 mAb will enable future investigation aiming at deciphering immune mechanism of this important fish species to pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.03.002DOI Listing
May 2019

Resurgence of Salmonid Herpesvirus-3 Infection (Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease) in Hatchery-Propagated Lake Trout in Michigan.

J Aquat Anim Health 2019 03 25;31(1):31-45. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries Division, Post Office Box 30446, Lansing, Michigan, 48909, USA.

Over the past century, populations of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush have declined throughout the Great Lakes basin due to overfishing, habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species, and associated recruitment issues from high thiaminase, as well as emerging infectious diseases. To combat these declines, state and federal fishery management agencies undertook substantial stock enhancement efforts, including more stringent regulation of sport and commercial catch limits and increasing hatchery propagation of Lake Trout stocked into Great Lakes basin waterways. One state fish hatchery involved in these rehabilitation efforts experienced mass mortality events in 2012 and 2017. In 2012, following a period of abnormally heavy rain, hatchery staff observed abnormal behavior followed by increased mortalities in two strains of Lake Trout fingerlings, reaching upwards of 20% mortality and totaling a loss of approximately 100,000 fish. In 2017, following another heavy-rain season, 6-8% of 2-year-old Lake Trout experienced morbidity and mortality similar to that observed in 2012. During the 2012 event, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and splake (Lake Trout × Brook Trout hybrid) reared in flow-through systems receiving water from diseased Lake Trout remained clinically unaffected. Molecular analyses revealed all lots of affected Lake Trout were infected with the salmonid herpesvirus-3 (epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus [EEDV]), a disease that caused complete depopulation of this hatchery in the late 1980s and until 2012 was never again detected in this hatchery or in Michigan. Further sampling detected EEDV in apparently healthy 5-year-old Lake Trout and in wild Mottled Sculpin Cottus bairdii collected in the hatchery source water. The ability of the virus to replicate in tissues of infected fish was verified by exposing naïve Lake Trout to the filtered tissue homogenates of infected fish resulting in similar disease signs. Despite the virus going undetected for many years, these two EEDV episodes clearly demonstrate the continued presence of this deadly herpesvirus in the Great Lakes basin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aah.10051DOI Listing
March 2019

Resolution of asthmatic symptoms following successful endoscopic resection of tracheal mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jan 17;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Pulmonology, Hospital Serdang, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare tumour of the trachea accounting for up to 0.2% of reported primary lung malignancy. We report a case of a 54-year-old man, ex-smoker, whose presentation mimicked adult onset asthma with cough and wheezing, which did not respond to conventional treatment. He had occasional haemoptysis and weight loss in which CT scan performed for malignancy screening showed a protruding mass in the distal trachea causing endobronchial obstruction. Bronchoscopic intervention was performed to relieve the obstruction that resulted in resolution of asthmatic symptoms. Histological diagnosis confirmed MEC. This case emphasised the importance of a high index of suspicion in an unusual presentation of a common disease and the pivotal role of bronchoscopic intervention in malignant central airway obstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340577PMC
January 2019

Large-Scale Analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Multilocus Sequence Typing Genotypes Recovered from North American Salmonids Indicates that both Newly Identified and Recurrent Clonal Complexes Are Associated with Disease.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 03 6;85(6). Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

, the etiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), causes significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture, particularly in rainbow trout (). Prior studies have used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to examine genetic heterogeneity within At present, however, its population structure in North America is incompletely understood, as only 107 isolates have been genotyped. Herein, MLST was used to investigate the genetic diversity of an additional 314 North American isolates that were recovered from ten fish host species from 20 U.S. states and 1 Canadian province over nearly four decades. These isolates were placed into 66 sequence types (STs), 47 of which were novel, increasing the number of clonal complexes (CCs) in North America from 7 to 12. Newly identified CCs were diverse in terms of host association, distribution, and association with disease. The largest CC identified was CC-ST10, within which 10 novel genotypes were discovered, most of which came from experiencing BCWD. This discovery, among others, provides evidence for the hypothesis that ST10 (i.e., the founding ST of CC-ST10) originated in North America. Furthermore, ST275 (in CC-ST10) was recovered from wild/feral adult steelhead and marks the first recovery of CC-ST10 from wild/feral fish in North America. Analyses also revealed that at the allele level, the diversification of in North America is driven three times more frequently by recombination than random nucleic acid mutation, possibly indicating how new phenotypes emerge within this species. is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), both of which cause substantial losses in farmed fish populations worldwide. To better prevent and control BCWD and RTFS outbreaks, we sought to characterize the genetic diversity of several hundred isolates that were recovered from diseased fish across North America. Results highlighted multiple genetic strains that appear to play an important role in disease events in North American aquaculture facilities and suggest that the practice of trading fish eggs has led to the continental and transcontinental spread of this bacterium. The knowledge generated herein will be invaluable toward guiding the development of future disease prevention techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02305-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414368PMC
March 2019

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection and quantification of epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (salmonid herpesvirus-3).

J Virol Methods 2019 02 13;264:44-50. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Comparative Medicine and Integrative Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources,Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Electronic address:

Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus-3) causes a serious disease hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), threatening restoration efforts of this species in North America. The current inability to replicate EEDV in vitro necessitates the search for a reproducible, sensitive, and specific assay that allows for its detection and quantitation in a time- and cost-effective manner. Herein, we describe a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that was developed for the quantitative detection of EEDV in infected fish tissues. The newly developed LAMP reaction was optimized in the presence of calcein, and the best results were produced using 2 mM MgCl, 1.8 mM dNTPs and at an incubation temperature of 67.1 °C. This method was highly specific to EEDV, as it showed no cross-reactivity with several fish viruses, including Salmonid Herpesvirus, -2, -4, and -5, Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus, Spring Viremia of Carp Virus, Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, Golden Shiner Reovirus, Fathead Minnow Nidovirus, and Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus. The analytical sensitivity of the EEDV-LAMP method was estimated to be as low as 16 copies of plasmid per reaction. When infected fish tissue was used, a positive reaction could be obtained when an infected gill tissue sample that contained 430 viral copies/μg was diluted up to five orders of magnitude. The sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed LAMP assay compared to the SYBR Green qPCR assay were 84.3% and 93.3%, respectively. The quantitative LAMP for EEDV had a correlation coefficient (R = 0.980), and did not differ significantly from the SYBR Green quantitative PCR assay (p > 0.05). Given its cost- and time-effectiveness, this quantitative LAMP assay is suitable for screening lake trout populations and for the initial diagnosis of clinical cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7119762PMC
February 2019

Assessment of cross-protection to heterologous strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum following vaccination with a live-attenuated coldwater disease immersion vaccine.

J Fish Dis 2019 Jan 28;42(1):75-84. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences and the Aquaculture Research Institute, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

Bacterial coldwater disease, caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, remains one of the most significant bacterial diseases of salmonids worldwide. A previously developed and reported live-attenuated immersion vaccine (F. psychrophilum; B.17-ILM) has been shown to confer significant protection to salmonids. To further characterize this vaccine, a series of experiments were carried out to determine the cross-protective efficacy of this B.17-ILM vaccine against 9 F. psychrophilum isolates (representing seven sequence types/three clonal complexes as determined by multilocus sequence typing) in comparison with a wild-type virulent strain, CSF-259-93. To assess protection, 28-day experimental challenges of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry were conducted following immersion vaccinations with the B.17-ILM vaccine. F. psychrophilum strains used in challenge trials were isolated from several fish species across the globe; however, all were found to be virulent in rainbow trout. The B.17-ILM vaccine provided significant protection against all strains, with relative percent survival values ranging from 51% to 72%. All vaccinated fish developed an adaptive immune response (as measured by F. psychrophilum-specific antibodies) that increased out to the time of challenge (8 weeks postimmunization). Previous studies have confirmed that antibody plays an important role in protection against F. psychrophilum challenge; therefore, specific antibodies to the B.17-ILM vaccine strain appear to contribute to the cross-protection observed to heterologous strain. The ability of such antibodies to bind to similar antigenic regions for all strains was confirmed by western blot analyses. Results presented here support the practical application of this live-attenuated vaccine, and suggest that it will be efficacious even in aquaculture operations affected by diverse strains of F. psychrophilum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12902DOI Listing
January 2019
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